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1.
J Med Econ ; 27(1): 126-133, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105744

RESUMO

AIM: Albumin role as fluid resuscitation in sepsis remains understudied in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intravenous (IV) Albumin compared to Crystalloids in sepsis patients using patient-level data in Jordan. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of sepsis patients aged 18 or older admitted to intensive care units (ICU) at two major tertiary hospitals during the period 2018-2019. Patients information, type of IV fluid, and clinical outcomes were retrieved from medical records, and charges were retrieved from the billing system. A 90-day partitioned survival model with two health states (alive and dead) was constructed to estimate the survival of sepsis patients receiving either Albumin or Crystalloids as IV fluids for resuscitation. Overall survival was predicted by fitting a Weibull model on the patient-level data from the current study. To further validate the results, and to support the assessment of uncertainty, time-dependent transition probabilities of death at each cycle were estimated and used to construct a state-transition patient-level simulation model with 10,000 microsimulation trials. Adopting the healthcare system perspective, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios(ICERs) of Albumin versus Crystalloids were calculated in terms of the probability to be discharged alive from the ICU. Uncertainty was explored using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: In the partitioned survival model, Albumin was associated with an incremental cost of $1,007 per incremental1% in the probability of being discharged alive from the ICU. In the state-transition patient-level simulation model, ICER was $1,268 per incremental 1% in the probability of being discharged alive. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that Albumin was favored at thresholds >$800 per incremental 1%in the probability of being discharged alive from the ICU. CONCLUSION: IV Albumin use in sepsis patients might not be cost-effective from the healthcare perspective of Jordan. This has important implications for policymakers to readdress Albumin prescribing practice in sepsis patients.


Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of infection, which usually requires resuscitation with intravenous fluids. Still, no conclusive evidence is available about the best fluid resuscitation to be used in sepsis patients especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study compared the costs and effectiveness of intravenous Albumin versus Crystalloids in sepsis patients. Findings from this study showed that resuscitation with Albumin is much more expensive compared to resuscitation with Crystalloids with no significant difference in mortality but with prolonged length of stay in the hospital and the intensive care unit. Decision makers are advised to change Albumin prescribing practices in a way that mitigates the associated clinical and financial burdens without compromising quality of care or resuscitate with Crystalloids.


Assuntos
Sepse , Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Retrospectivos , Jordânia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Albuminas/uso terapêutico
2.
Saudi Pharm J ; 31(11): 101789, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37799574

RESUMO

Background: Medication errors (MEs) are a significant healthcare problem that can harm patients and increase healthcare expenses. Being immunocompromised, liver-transplant patients are at high risk for complications if MEs inflict harmful or damaging effects. The present study reviewed and analyzed all MEs reported in Liver Transplant Patients. Methods: All MEs in the Liver Transplant Patients admitted between January 2016 to August 2022 were retrieved through the computerized physician order entry system, which two expert pharmacists classified according to the type and severity risk index. Results: A total of 314 records containing 407 MEs were committed by at least 71 physicians. Most of these errors involved drugs unrelated to managing liver-transplant-related issues. Antibiotic prescriptions had the highest mistake rate (17.0%), whereas immunosuppressants, routinely used in liver transplant patients, rank second with fewer than 14% of the identified MEs. The most often reported MEs (43.2%) are type-C errors, which, despite reaching patients, did not cause patient harm. Subgroup analysis revealed several factors associated with a statistically significant great incidence of MEs among physicians treating liver transplant patients. Conclusion: Although a substantial number of MEs occurred with liver transplant patients, the majority are not related to liver-transplant medications, which mainly belonged to type-C errors. This could be attributed to polypharmacy of transplant patients or the heavy workload on health care practitioners. Improving patient safety requires adopting regulations and strategies to promptly identify MEs and address potential errors.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1237903, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37692775

RESUMO

Background: Despite insufficient evidence, vitamin D has been used as adjunctive therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This study evaluates the effectiveness and safety of vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study that included all adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) between March 2020 and July 2021. Patients were categorized into two groups based on their vitamin D use throughout their ICU stay (control vs. vitamin D). The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the length of stay (LOS), mechanical ventilation (MV) duration, and ICU-acquired complications. Propensity score (PS) matching (1:1) was used based on the predefined criteria. Multivariable logistic, Cox proportional hazards, and negative binomial regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results: A total of 1,435 patients were included in the study. Vitamin D was initiated in 177 patients (12.3%), whereas 1,258 patients did not receive it. A total of 288 patients were matched (1:1) using PS. The in-hospital mortality showed no difference between patients who received vitamin D and the control group (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.87-1.71; p = 0.26). However, MV duration and ICU LOS were longer in the vitamin D group (beta coefficient 0.24 (95% CI 0.00-0.47), p = 0.05 and beta coefficient 0.16 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.33), p = 0.07, respectively). As an exploratory outcome, patients who received vitamin D were more likely to develop major bleeding than those who did not [OR 3.48 (95% CI 1.10, 10.94), p = 0.03]. Conclusion: The use of vitamin D as adjunctive therapy in COVID-19 critically ill patients was not associated with survival benefits but was linked with longer MV duration, ICU LOS, and higher odds of major bleeding.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37191454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prescribing practice of albumin in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to compare the clinical and economic outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) albumin compared to crystalloids in the ICU. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of ICU adult patients admitted to King Abdullah University Hospital during 2018-2019. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and admission charges were retrieved from medical records and billing system. Survival analysis, multivariable regression models, and propensity score matching estimator were performed to evaluate the impact of IV resuscitation fluid types on the clinical and economic outcomes. RESULTS: Albumin administration in the ICU was associated with significantly lower hazards of ICU death (HR = 0.57; P value <0.001), but without improving overall death probability compared to crystalloids. Albumin was associated with significant prolongation in the ICU length of stay (5.86 days; P value <0.001). Only 88 patients (24.3%) were prescribed albumin for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications. Admission charges were significantly higher for patients treated with albumin (p value <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IV Albumin use in the ICU was not associated with significant improvement in clinical outcomes, but with a remarkable increase in economic burden. The majority of patients received albumin for non-FDA-approved indications.


Assuntos
Albuminas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soluções Cristaloides , Administração Intravenosa , Tempo de Internação
5.
Andrologia ; 54(9): e14501, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725245

RESUMO

Sex selection is becoming a more common practice in the society and worldwide. The current study aimed to examine the perceptions about sex selection options and possible association with sociodemographic factors and relevant characteristics. The study was a cross-sectional survey of adults in Jordan in January and February 2020 using a self-administered questionnaire. Results showed that 40.1% of respondents preferred male gender when having a child, 22.4% of respondents preferred the male gender when having a child, even if they have had children of both genders, and 71.3% preferred having children from both genders. On the other hand, 58.8% of participants preferred a male gender when there is one chance to conceive via assisted reproduction technologies. Also, among participants, 66% thought that sex selection is religiously acceptable, yet 78.0% did not support of the sex selection idea. The above factors were significantly associated with several sociodemographic variables such as gender, marital status, education, career, and place of residence, but not income. In conclusion, the current study shed a light on preferences towards sex selection in a large cohort to better understand the perception and attitude of the population towards this practice.


Assuntos
Atitude , Pré-Seleção do Sexo , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
SAGE Open Med ; 10: 20503121221095333, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509952

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the adherence to the guidelines in patients presenting with hyponatremia defined as a sodium (Na) level ⩽120 mEq/L, treated with 3% hypertonic saline or normal saline. The comparison included 3% hypertonic saline use, safe serum sodium increases within 24 and 48 h, frequency of hyponatremia-related complications, and length of stay. Methods: This retrospective observational study enrolled 122 patients with serum sodium ⩽120 mEq/L admitted to the Internal Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard-Health Affairs (NGHA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January 2016 to December 2017. The patients were treated with either 3% hypertonic saline or normal saline. Results: Of the 122 patients, 105 (83.3%) received normal saline, and 17 (13.5%) received hypertonic saline. In the normal saline group, the mean serum sodium increase at 24 h was lower (6.60 ± 4.75) compared to the hypertonic saline group (9.24 ± 5.04). The length of stay was longer in the normal saline group (10.35 ± 13.90) compared to the hypertonic saline group (4.35 ± 3.39). A small proportion (8.7%) of the normal saline group had a serum sodium increase >12 mg/dL at 24 h compared to 29.4% for the hypertonic saline group, and the difference was statistically significant (p value = 0.013). Almost one-third of the sample (36%) presented with complications, the majority (77.3%, n = 34) had a serum sodium of ⩽115 mg/dL, and 22.7% (n = 10) with a serum sodium of 116-120 mg/dL (p value = 0.041). Conclusion: Despite the strong recommendation for 3% hypertonic saline use in severe hyponatremia, many practitioners still use normal saline, even in patients with serum sodium ⩽120 mEq/L. Normal saline showed some efficacy in managing hyponatremia in asymptomatic cases; however, severe cases may have a delayed correction, hyponatremia-related complications, and an extended length of stay.

7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(7): e14209, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the telepharmacy model, the pharmacist can play a pivotal role in delivering pharmaceutical services for patients. However, evidence of pharmacists' impact on improving patient outcomes through disease outbreak through telepharmacy is sparse. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine pharmacists' attitudes towards clinical benefits and identify challenges regarding the use of telepharmacy during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used to recruit eligible participants from both hospital and community pharmacies. RESULTS: A total of 364 pharmacists agreed to participate in the study. The majority of the participants (70.6%) expressed favourable attitudes towards telepharmacy to accurately capture and report signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Almost 91% agreed that patients can receive immediate medical feedback while using telepharmacy services. Pharmacists (87%) emphasised their role in the monitoring of physiological parameters when entered by patients using telepharmacy technology. However, more than half of the participants reported that lack of reimbursement and evidence-based studies might hinder the use of telemedicine technology to deliver remote clinical services. CONCLUSION: The need for implementing telepharmacy technology has been further boosted because of its noticeable benefits in promoting convenient healthcare services remotely in emergency situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Jordânia , Pandemias , Percepção , Farmacêuticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnologia
8.
J Med Educ Curric Dev ; 7: 2382120520963039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic imposed dramatic changes on educational practices worldwide. Many universities and schools have moved into the delivery of their courses and educational programs utilizing fully electronic online modes. This study aims to evaluate the pharmacy student distance online learning experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was utilized where a 3-domain survey questionnaire focused on preparedness, attitude and barriers was distributed to students at the time of conclusion of the semester. Each domain consists of multiple questions that made up a score that reflects their preparedness, attitude as well as barriers relevant to distance online learning experience. The survey was voluntarily, and all data were collected and recorded via google forms with maintaining anonymity. RESULTS: The response rate was about 75% (n = 309). The results' analysis revealed no gender differences in any of these domains. However, there were some variable responses among different educational levels. The average preparedness score was 32.8 ± 7.2 (Max 45), the average attitude score was 66.8 ± 16.6 (Max 105), and the average barrier score was 43.6 ± 12.0 (Max 75). There was statistical significance difference in both preparedness score and attitude scores between different professional years (P-value <.05). However, there was no difference in barrier scores among all professional years. The results indicated that about 61.4% of the students agreed on that college of pharmacy was well-prepared and ready for the online education during the emerging COVID-19 pandemic with complete transition into online education. The results also indicated that 49.2% of the students showed positive attitude toward the provided online learning. The results indicated that about 34% of the students identify some barriers toward the provided online learning. Finally, there were strong association between the need for training on how to receive online courses and preparedness and barriers scores. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: E-learning experience pose challenges and presents opportunities during emergency situations. The need for training for students and faculty was highly associated with the preparedness and barriers domains rather than the infrastructure or computer literacy, so the school can improve their experience by addressing these needs.

9.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 22(1): 19-24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385382

RESUMO

There are limited resources available for pharmacists and doctors to reference proper compounded formulas for pain medications. The systematic review discussed within this article provides the foundation for a searchable database, allowing users to find various compounded formulations. It also provides data about the safety and efficacy of the preparations. Compounding information about several drug classes was reviewed. Those drug classes included, but were not limited to, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, central nervous system agents, and anesthetics, with evidence that of the various drugs that could be compounded for pain, anesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids ranked highest within the articles researched.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Humanos
10.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 49(6): 797-800, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19926562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To (1) investigate physicians' expectations about community pharmacist's roles and physician attitudes toward collaborative agreements with community pharmacists in West Virginia and (2) determine physicians' perceptions of pharmacists providing medication therapy management (MTM) services. METHODS: A mail survey was conducted for a random sample of 500 physicians practicing in West Virginia. Survey items measured the physicians' perceptions about the roles of pharmacists, their level of comfort with pharmacists providing certain MTM services, and their attitudes toward a collaborative agreement with pharmacists. RESULTS: 102 responses were received, yielding a response rate of 22.1%; 60% of the physicians had a favorable attitude toward supporting collaborative agreement with pharmacists. Physicians were more comfortable with certain areas of MTM services, such as general drug education and the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit, and they expected pharmacists to identify medication errors and educate the patients about the safe and appropriate use of medications. CONCLUSION: Of the physician respondents, 60% reported a favorable attitude toward collaborative practice agreements, but their attitude toward pharmacists' role in collaborative drug therapy management and pharmacists providing MTM services were not that favorable. Participating physicians may not have consistent expectations regarding pharmacists providing patient care.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Farmacêuticos , Médicos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , West Virginia
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