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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1429, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365899

RESUMO

Senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to aging-related cardiovascular diseases by promoting arterial remodelling and stiffness. Ferroptosis is a novel type of regulated cell death associated with lipid oxidation. Here, we show that pro-ferroptosis signaling drives VSMCs senescence to accelerate vascular NAD+ loss, remodelling and aging. Pro-ferroptotic signaling is triggered in senescent VSMCs and arteries of aged mice. Furthermore, the activation of pro-ferroptotic signaling in VSMCs not only induces NAD+ loss and senescence but also promotes the release of a pro-senescent secretome. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of pro-ferroptosis signaling, ameliorates VSMCs senescence, reduces vascular stiffness and retards the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice. Mechanistically, we revealed that inhibition of pro-ferroptotic signaling facilitates the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of proliferator-activated receptor-γ and, thereby impeding nuclear receptor coactivator 4-ferrtin complex-centric ferritinophagy. Finally, the activated pro-ferroptotic signaling correlates with arterial stiffness in a human proof-of-concept study. These findings have significant implications for future therapeutic strategies aiming to eliminate vascular ferroptosis in senescence- or aging-associated cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Músculo Liso Vascular , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Senescência Celular/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Artérias , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo
2.
JMIR Form Res ; 8: e50561, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor immunotherapy is an innovative treatment today, but there are limited data on the quality of immunotherapy information on social networks. Dissemination of misinformation through the internet is a major social issue. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the quality of information and presence of misinformation about tumor immunotherapy on internet-based videos commonly used by the Chinese population. METHODS: Using the keyword "tumor immunotherapy" in Chinese, we searched TikTok, Tencent, iQIYI, and BiliBili on March 5, 2022. We reviewed the 118 screened videos using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool-a validated instrument to collect consumer health information. DISCERN quality criteria and the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) Benchmark Criteria were used for assessing the quality and reliability of the health information. The videos' content was also evaluated. RESULTS: The 118 videos about tumor immunotherapy were mostly uploaded by channels dedicated to lectures, health-related animations, and interviews; their median length was 5 minutes, and 79% of them were published in and after 2018. The median understandability and actionability of the videos were 71% and 71%, respectively. However, the quality of information was moderate to poor on the validated DISCERN and JAMA assessments. Only 12 videos contained misinformation (score of >1 out of 5). Videos with a doctor (lectures and interviews) not only were significantly less likely to contain misinformation but also had better quality and a greater forwarding number. Moreover, the results showed that more than half of the videos contain little or no content on the risk factors and management of tumor immunotherapy. Overall, over half of the videos had some or more information on the definition, symptoms, evaluation, and outcomes of tumor immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although the quality of immunotherapy information on internet-based videos commonly used by Chinese people is moderate, these videos have less misinformation and better content. Caution must be exercised when using these videos as a source of tumor immunotherapy-related information.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2305715, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417117

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant global health issue that poses high mortality and morbidity risks. One commonly observed cause of DILI is acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. GSDME is an effector protein that induces non-canonical pyroptosis. In this study, the activation of GSDME, but not GSDMD, in the liver tissue of mice and patients with APAP-DILI is reported. Knockout of GSDME, rather than GSDMD, in mice protected them from APAP-DILI. Mice with hepatocyte-specific rescue of GSDME reproduced APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, alterations in the immune cell pools observed in APAP-induced DILI, such as the replacement of TIM4+ resident Kupffer cells (KCs) by monocyte-derived KCs, Ly6C+ monocyte infiltration, MerTk+ macrophages depletion, and neutrophil increase, reappeared in mice with hepatocyte-specific rescue of GSDME. Mechanistically, APAP exposure led to a substantial loss of interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), resulting in deISGylation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 (CPS1), promoted its degradation via K48-linked ubiquitination, causing ammonia clearance dysfunction. GSDME deletion prevented these effects. Delayed administration of dimethyl-fumarate inhibited GSDME cleavage and alleviated ammonia accumulation, mitigating liver injury. This findings demonstrated a previously uncharacterized role of GSDME in APAP-DILI by promoting pyroptosis and CPS1 deISGylation, suggesting that inhibiting GSDME can be a promising therapeutic option for APAP-DILI.

4.
JMIR Form Res ; 8: e50528, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication adherence and the management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are crucial to the efficacy of antitumor drugs. A WeChat applet, also known as a "Mini Program," is similar to the app but has marked advantages. The development and use of a WeChat applet makes follow-up convenient for patients with cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the usability and utility of a newly developed WeChat applet, "DolphinCare," among patients with cancer in Shanghai. METHODS: A qualitative methodology was used to obtain an in-depth understanding of the experiences of patients with cancer when using DolphinCare from the usability and utility aspects. The development phase consisted of 2 parts: alpha and beta testing. Alpha testing combined the theory of the Fogg Behavior Model and the usability model. Alpha testing also involved testing the design of DolphinCare using a conceptual framework, which included factors that could affect medication adherence and ADRs. Beta testing was conducted using in-depth interviews. In-depth interviews allowed us to assist the patients in using DolphinCare and understand whether they liked or disliked DolphinCare and found it useful. RESULTS: We included participants who had an eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) score of ≥50%, and a total of 20 participants were interviewed consecutively. The key positive motivators described by interviewers were to be reminded to take their medications and to alleviate their ADRs. The majority of the patients were able to activate and use DolphinCare by themselves. Most patients indicated that their trigger to follow-up DolphinCare was the recommendation of their known and trusted health care professionals. All participants found that labels containing the generic names of their medication and the medication reminders were useful, including timed pop-up push notifications and text alerts. The applet presented the corresponding information collection forms of ADRs to the patient to fill out. The web-based consultation system enables patients to consult pharmacists or physicians in time when they have doubts about medications or have ADRs. The applet had usabilities and utilities that could improve medication adherence and the management of ADRs among patients with cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence regarding the usability and utility of this type of WeChat applet among patients with cancer, which is expected to be promoted for managing follow-up among other patients with other chronic disease.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 125(Pt A): 111133, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149573

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP), a widely used effective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, leads to acute liver injury at overdose worldwide. Evidence showed that the severity of liver injury associated with the subsequent involvement of inflammatory mediators and immune cells. The innate immune stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING) pathway was critical in modulating inflammation. Here, we show that STING was activated and inflammation was enhanced in the liver in APAP-overdosed C57BL/6J mice, and Sting mutation (Stinggt/gt) mice exhibited less liver damage. Multiplexing flow cytometry displayed that Sting mutation changed hepatic recruitment and replacement of macrophages/monocytes in APAP-overdosed mice, which was inclined to anti-inflammation. In addition, Sting mutation limited NLRP3 activation in the liver in APAP-overdosed mice, and inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Finally, MCC950, a potent and selective NLRP3 inhibitor, significantly ameliorated APAP-induced liver injury and inflammation. Besides, pretreatment of MCC950 in C57 mice resulted in changes of immune cells infiltration in the liver similar to Stinggt/gt mice. Our study revealed that STING played a crucial role in APAP-induced acute liver injury, possibly by maintaining liver immune cells homeostasis and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting that inhibiting STING-NLRP3 pathway might be a potential therapeutic strategy for acute liver injury.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Animais , Camundongos , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Inflamação , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 137(19): 1533-1545, 2023 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748024

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by at least 1.5-fold enlargement of the infrarenal aorta, a ruptured AAA is life-threatening. Colchicine is a medicine used to treat gout and familial Mediterranean fever, and recently, it was approved to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in adult patients with established atherosclerotic disease. With an AAA mice model created by treatment with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), this work was designed to explore whether colchicine could protect against the development of AAA. Here, we showed that colchicine could limit AAA formation, as evidenced by the decreased total aortic weight per body weight, AAA incidence, maximal abdominal aortic diameter and collagen deposition. We also found that colchicine could prevent the phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile to synthetic state during AAA. In addition, it was demonstrated that colchicine was able to reduce vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, cell pyroptosis and immune cells infiltration to the aortic wall in the AAA mice model. Finally, it was proved that the protective action of colchicine against AAA formation was mainly mediated by preventing immune cells infiltration to the aortic wall. In summary, our findings demonstrated that colchicine could protect against the development of experimental AAA, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for AAA intervention in the clinic.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Colchicina , Humanos , Camundongos , Suínos , Animais , Colchicina/farmacologia , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Aorta Abdominal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse Oxidativo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
7.
JMIR Cancer ; 9: e44612, 2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37651170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is crucial for improving clinical outcomes in the treatment of patients with cancer. The lack of adherence and adverse drug reactions can reduce the effectiveness of cancer therapy including the quality of life. The commonly used intervention methods for medication adherence continue to evolve, and the age of fifth-generation (5G) messaging has arrived. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we conducted a prospective, pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of 5G messaging on medication adherence and clinical outcomes among patients with cancer in China. METHODS: The research population was patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer undergoing pemetrexed chemotherapy who require regular folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 supplements. The intervention and control groups were assigned to 5G messaging and second-generation (2G) messaging, respectively. The patients' medication adherence and quality of life were assessed at baseline and 1-month and 3-month time points. Moreover, the chemotherapy-related hematologic or nonhematologic toxicities, as well as the serum levels of FA and vitamin B12, were measured. RESULTS: Of the 567 patients assessed for eligibility between January and May 2021, a total of 154 (27.2%) patients were included. Overall, 80 were randomized to the control group and 74 to the intervention group. The odds of adherence in the 5G messaging intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at the 1-month (62/69, 90% vs 56/74, 76%; adjusted odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI 1.02-7.71) and 3-month (50/60, 83% vs 48/64, 75%; adjusted odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.00-5.23) time points. Correspondingly, the FA and vitamin B12 serum levels of patients in the 5G messaging group were higher than those of the control group. Regarding hematologic toxicities, only the incidence of leukopenia in the intervention group was lower than that in the control group (25/80, 31% in the control group vs 12/74, 16% in the intervention group; P=.04). There were no differences in nonhematologic toxicities and quality of life between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we conclude that compared with conventional 2G text-based messaging, a 5G messaging intervention can better improve medication adherence and clinical outcome among patients with cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2200058188; https://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.html?proj=164489.

8.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(6): 620-623, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36933829

RESUMO

The present report firstly described a critically ill patient receiving a dosing regimen of ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) (1.875g q24h) to eliminate multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and a scheduled time for prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) every 48h (6h-session beginning 12h after the previous dosage on hemodialysis day). This dosing regimen for CAZ-AVI and a scheduled time for PIRRT allowed pharmacodynamic parameters of ceftazidime and avibactam to have little difference on hemodialysis and non-hemodialysis days so that we can maintain a relatively stable drug concentration. Our report highlighted not only the importance of dosing regimens in patients with PIRRT but also the significance of hemodialysis time points during the dosing interval. The innovative therapeutic plan proved to be suitable for patients infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae when on PIRRT according to the trough plasma concentrations of ceftazidime and avibactam which were maintained above the minimum inhibitory concentration during the dosing interval.


Assuntos
Ceftazidima , Terapia de Substituição Renal Intermitente , Humanos , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Azabicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 14: 1121122, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36744247

RESUMO

Pancreatic carcinoma is the leading cause of death among digestive malignancies in China. In particular, there is no breakthrough in prolonging the survival of pancreatic cancer patients with chemical and targeted therapies. Tumor immunotherapy brings opportunities and progress for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Sintilimab is an innovative PD-1 inhibitor which was reported certain clinical benefits in multi-line treatments of advanced pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine. The combination therapy of PD-1 with gemcitabine plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in pancreatic cancer has not been reported. Here we report a case of a Chinese old patient diagnosed with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Two months after sintilimab treatment, the patient occurred severe immune colitis. The patient was diagnosed with immune ureteritis after 8 months of treatment. The immue-related adverse events (irAEs) refined after timely recognition and correct intervention by the clinician and clinical pharmacist. After first-line treatment of sintilimab plus gemcitabine combined with pancreatic HIFU, the patient achieved a remarkable benefit of 11-month progression-free survival (PFS) and 20-month overall survival (OS). The first-line treatment of sintilimab plus gemcitabine combined with HIFU demonstrates a potential therapeutic effect on metastatic pancreatic carcinoma with tolerable adverse reactions.

10.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 201(1): 324-337, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129807

RESUMO

Sorafenib, a multiple kinase inhibitor, is widely used in cancer patients. Recently, clinical studies highlighted the relationship between cognitive deficits and sorafenib exposure. Zinc abundant in the body has been reported to exert neuroprotective activities. However, the effects of zinc supplementation on sorafenib-induced cognitive impairment are still unknown. In the current study, we verified that mice challenged with sorafenib displayed characteristic features of cognitive impairment. However, zinc treatment effectively improved these changes. Histopathological staining also showed that zinc significantly alleviated hippocampal microstructural and ultrastructural damages induced by sorafenib. Meanwhile, zinc significantly reduced sorafenib-induced ROS production and neuronal cells apoptosis in vivo and vitro. Additionally, we also investigated whether zinc protected against sorafenib-induced neuronal cells apoptosis via ROS/JNK pathway through treating SH-SY5Y cells with the NAC or the specific JNK activator anisomycin. The results indicated that NAC performed the same protective effects as zinc in sorafenib-challenged SH-SY5Y cells and activation of JNK by anisomycin partly abolished the protective effects of zinc. Collectively, the present study suggested that inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK pathway might contribute to the protective effects of zinc against sorafenib-caused cognitive impairment in vivo and vitro.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Neuroblastoma , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia , Anisomicina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Apoptose , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
11.
Cell Death Differ ; 30(2): 457-474, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477078

RESUMO

Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic switch from a quiescent 'contractile' phenotype to a dedifferentiated and proliferative state underlies the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); however, our understanding of the mechanism is still incomplete. In the present study, we explored the potential role of ferroptosis, a novel nonapoptotic form of cell death, in SMC phenotypic switch and related neointimal formation. We found that ferroptotic stress was triggered in cultured dedifferentiated SMCs and arterial neointimal tissue of wire-injured mice. Moreover, pro-ferroptosis stress was activated in arterial neointimal tissue of clinical patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. Blockade of ferroptotic stress via administration of a pharmacological inhibitor or by global genetic overexpression of glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), a well-established anti-ferroptosis molecule, delayed SMC phenotype switch and arterial remodelling. Conditional SMC-specific gene delivery of GPX4 using adreno-associated virus in the carotid artery inhibited ferroptosis and prevented neointimal formation. Conversely, ferroptosis stress directly triggered dedifferentiation of SMCs. Transcriptomics analysis demonstrated that inhibition of ferroptotic stress mainly targets the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Mechanistically, ferroptosis inhibition corrected the disrupted mitochondrial homeostasis in dedifferentiated SMCs, including enhanced mitochondrial ROS production, dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial hyperpolarization, and ultimately inhibited SMC phenotypic switch and growth. Copper-diacetyl-bisN4-methylthiosemicarbazone (CuATSM), an agent used for clinical molecular imaging and that potently inhibits ferroptosis, prevented SMC phenotypic switch, neointimal formation and arterial inflammation in mice. These results indicate that pro-ferroptosis stress is likely to promote SMC phenotypic switch during neointimal formation and imply that inhibition of ferroptotic stress may be a promising translational approach to treat CVDs with SMC phenotype switch.


Assuntos
Desdiferenciação Celular , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Camundongos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Homeostase , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso , Proliferação de Células
12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 44(5): 1014-1028, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323829

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death characterized by excessive iron accumulation and uncontrollable lipid peroxidation. The role of ferroptosis in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is not fully elucidated. In this study we compared the therapeutic effects of ferroptosis inhibitor liproxstatin-1 (LPT1) and iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) in MAFLD mouse models. This model was established in mice by feeding a high-fat diet with 30% fructose in water (HFHF) for 16 weeks. The mice then received LPT1 (10 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) or DFP (100 mg·kg-1·d-1, ig) for another 2 weeks. We showed that both LPT1 and DFP treatment blocked the ferroptosis markers ACSL4 and ALOX15 in MAFLD mice. Furthermore, LPT1 treatment significantly reduced the liver levels of triglycerides and cholesterol, lipid peroxidation markers 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and ameliorated the expression of lipid synthesis/oxidation genes (Pparα, Scd1, Fasn, Hmgcr and Cpt1a), insulin resistance, mitochondrial ROS content and liver fibrosis. Importantly, LPT1 treatment potently inhibited hepatic apoptosis (Bax/Bcl-xL ratio and TUNEL+ cell number), pyroptosis (cleavages of Caspase-1 and GSDMD) and necroptosis (phosphorylation of MLKL). Moreover, LPT1 treatment markedly inhibited cleavages of PANoptosis-related caspase-8 and caspase-6 in MAFLD mouse liver. In an in vitro MAFLD model, treatment with LPT1 (100 nM) prevented cultured hepatocyte against cell death induced by pro-PANoptosis molecules (TNF-α, LPS and nigericin) upon lipid stress. On the contrary, DFP treatment only mildly attenuated hepatic inflammation but failed to alleviate lipid deposition, insulin resistance, apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis in MAFLD mice. We conclude that ferroptosis inhibitor LPT1 protects against steatosis and steatohepatitis in MAFLD mice, which may involve regulation of PANoptosis, a coordinated cell death pathway that involves apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis. These results suggest a potential link between ferroptosis and PANoptosis.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Camundongos , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo
13.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18693, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189484

RESUMO

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of proteins involved in protein folding and maturation that are expressed by cells in response to stressors including heat shock. Recent studies have demonstrated that HSPs play major roles in carcinogenesis by regulating angiogenesis, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, as well as therapy resistance to certain anticancer drugs. Despite being the largest and most diverse subgroup of the HSP family, HSP40 (DNAJ) is an understudied family of co-chaperones. HSP40 family members are also known to be involved in various types of cancers. In this article, we review the involvement of human HSP40 family members in various aspects of cancer biology. In addition, we highlight the possible potential of HSP40 as a tumor biomarker or drug target for improving the prognosis and treatment of cancer patients in the future.

14.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1320340, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38249419

RESUMO

Background: Although the decreasing rate of hospital admission in the omicron wave has led countries to loosen control, still the patients requires ICU admission. It is common for viral respiratory infections to be co-infected with bacteria. However, the difference between co-infection and ICU-acquired infection on their clinical characteristics and outcomes during the Omicron wave was little reported. Methods: Clinical and microbiological data were collected from ICU patients with omicron infection between April 1st, 2022, and May 31th, 2022 and a comprehensive comparative study of the clinical characteristics and endpoint were conducted. Results: The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants-infected patients requiring intensive care had high rates of co-infection (42.55%). Additionally, the ICU COVID-19 patients with co-infection showed more severe clinical features compared to those with ICU-acquired infection. Furthermore, Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that co-infection (hazard ratio: 4.670, p = 0.018) was a significant risk factor for poor outcomes in ICU patients with COVID-19. Besides, Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis revealed that COVID-19 patients with co-infection had a significantly shorter 28-Day survival time compared to those with ICU-acquired infection (p < 0.001). Finally, our investigation identified a significant association between the presence of Candida app. in the broncho-alveolar lavage and an elevated risk of mortality (OR: 13.80, p = 0.002) and invasive ventilation (OR: 5.63, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Co-infection is prevalent among patients requiring intensive care and is linked to unfavorable outcomes in the Omicron wave. Consequently, more attention may be needed for the empirical antibacterial treatment in ICU patients within the COVID-19 Omicron variant, especially anti-fungi.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Humanos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
15.
Eur Heart J ; 43(43): 4579-4595, 2022 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929617

RESUMO

AIMS: Exercise confers protection against cardiovascular ageing, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study sought to investigate the role of fibronectin type-III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin, an exercise-associated hormone, in vascular ageing. Moreover, the existence of FNDC5/irisin in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their biological functions was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: FNDC5/irisin was reduced in natural ageing, senescence, and angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated conditions. The deletion of FNDC5 shortened lifespan in mice. Additionally, FNDC5 deficiency aggravated vascular stiffness, senescence, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in 24-month-old naturally aged and Ang II-treated mice. Conversely, treatment of recombinant irisin alleviated Ang II-induced vascular stiffness and senescence in mice and vascular smooth muscle cells. FNDC5 was triggered by exercise, while FNDC5 knockout abrogated exercise-induced protection against Ang II-induced vascular stiffness and senescence. Intriguingly, FNDC5 was detected in human and mouse blood-derived EVs, and exercise-induced FNDC5/irisin-enriched EVs showed potent anti-stiffness and anti-senescence effects in vivo and in vitro. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of FNDC5 specifically in muscle but not liver in FNDC5 knockout mice, promoted the release of FNDC5/irisin-enriched EVs into circulation in response to exercise, which ameliorated vascular stiffness, senescence, and inflammation. Mechanistically, irisin activated DnaJb3/Hsp40 chaperone system to stabilize SIRT6 protein in an Hsp70-dependent manner. Finally, plasma irisin concentrations were positively associated with exercise time but negatively associated with arterial stiffness in a proof-of-concept human study. CONCLUSION: FNDC5/irisin-enriched EVs contribute to exercise-induced protection against vascular ageing. These findings indicate that the exerkine FNDC5/irisin may be a potential target for ageing-related vascular comorbidities.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Sirtuínas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Envelhecimento , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo
16.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(3): 516-520, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791953

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is defined as a dilated aorta with a diameter at least 1.5 times of the normal aorta.There is no effective drug for AAA.We summarized the high-risk factors,pathologic features,current therapies,and animal models in the pre-clinical study to gain comprehensive understanding of AAA.With this review,we aim to provide scientific support for the mining of therapeutic targets for AAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Animais , Aorta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Risco
17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(10): 2585-2595, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217818

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a dilated aorta in diameter at least 1.5 times of a normal aorta. Our previous studies found that activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) had a protective effect on vascular injury. This work was to investigate whether activating α7nAChR could influence AAA formation and explore its mechanisms. AAA models were established by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in ApoE-/- mice or in wild type and α7nAChR-/- mice. In vitro mouse aortic smooth muscle (MOVAS) cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). PNU-282987 was chosen to activate α7nAChR. We found that cell pyroptosis effector GSDMD and NLRP3 inflammasome were activated in abdominal aorta, and inflammatory cytokines in serum were elevated in AAA models of ApoE-/- mice. Activating α7nAChR reduced maximal aortic diameters, preserved elastin integrity and decreased inflammatory responses in ApoE-/- mice with Ang II infusion. While α7nAChR-/- mice led to aggravated aortic injury and increased inflammatory cytokines with Ang II infusion when compared with wild type. Moreover, activating α7nAChR inhibited NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pathway in AAA model of ApoE-/- mice, while α7nAChR deficiency promoted this pathway. In vitro, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NLRP3 knockdown reduced GSDMD expression, in MOVAS cells treated with TNF-α. Furthermore, activating α7nAChR inhibited oxidative stress, reduced NLRP3/GSDMD expression, and decreased cell pyroptosis in MOVAS cells with TNF-α. In conclusion, our study found that activating α7nAChR retarded AAA through inhibiting pyroptosis mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome. These suggested that α7nAChR would be a potential pharmacological target for AAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Inflamassomos , Acetilcisteína , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Elastina , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Piroptose , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(8): 3702-3711, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787833

RESUMO

Environmental lead exposure is closely related to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study has shown that exposure to lead could result in the cholesterol unbalance and increase amyloid-beta (Aß) generation in the brain. However, the potential effect of lead exposure on Aß transportation is poorly reported. In this study, we sought to explore whether lead exposure in developmental ages impaired the integrity of BCSFB and BBB, two highly vascularized structures in the brain in a rat model. The Aß clearance in the liver was also assessed. Our results showed that lead treatment in developmental ages increased the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in rat choroid plexus and microvessels. Moreover, lead exposure markedly increased pro-inflammatory factors expression including TNF-α and IL-1ß in rat choroid plexus and microvessels. Interestingly, lead treatment increased the expression of AQP-1 and reduced the expression of TTR, two key proteins associated with the functions of choroid plexus and microvessels. Additionally, the expressions of ABCB1, LRP-1, and RAGE, three major receptors responsible for Aß transportation, were disturbed by developmental lead exposure. All these pathologies resulted in Aß1-40 deposition within BCSFB and BBB and malfunctions of these two vascularized structures. Finally, we found that lead treatment remarkably inhibited the gene expression of LRP-1, which is responsible for Aß endocytosis, in the liver tissue of the rat model. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence that developmental lead exposure induces Aß deposition in BCSFB and BBB and impairs Aß clearance in the liver, which would ultimately disturb Aß transportation via choroid plexus/brain microvessels and facilitate Aß deposition in the brain.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Chumbo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos
19.
Theranostics ; 11(9): 4381-4402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754067

RESUMO

Rationale: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ (NAD+)-boosting therapy has emerged as a promising strategy to treat various health disorders, while the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (Fndc5) or irisin, which is a novel exercise-linked hormone, in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: NAD+-boosting therapy was achieved by administrating of nicotinamide riboside (NR) in human and mice. The Fndc5/irisin levels in tissues and blood were measured in NR-treated mice or human volunteers. The therapeutic action of NR against NAFLD pathologies induced by high-fat diet (HFD) or methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) were compared between wild-type (WT) and Fndc5-/- mice. Recombinant Fndc5/irisin was infused to NALFD mice via osmotic minipump to test the therapeutic action of Fndc5/irisin. Various biomedical experiments were conducted in vivo and in vitro to know the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulation of Fndc5/irisin by NR treatment. Results: NR treatment elevated plasma level of Fndc5/irisin in mice and human volunteers. NR treatment also increased Fndc5 expression in skeletal muscle, adipose and liver tissues in mice. In HFD-induced NAFLD mice model, NR displayed remarkable therapeutic effects on body weight gain, hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and fibrosis; however, these actions of NR were compromised in Fndc5-/- mice. Chronic infusion of recombinant Fndc5/irisin alleviated the NAFLD pathological phenotypes in MCD-induced NAFLD mice model. Mechanistically, NR reduced the lipid stress-triggered ubiquitination of Fndc5, which increased Fndc5 protein stability and thus enhanced Fndc5 protein level. Using shRNA-mediated knockdown screening, we found that NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT2, rather than other sirtuins, interacts with Fndc5 to decrease Fndc5 acetylation, which reduces Fndc5 ubiquitination and stabilize it. Treatment of AGK2, a selective inhibitor of SIRT2, blocked the therapeutic action of NR against NAFLD pathologies and NR-induced Fndc5 deubiquitination/deacetylation. At last, we identified that the lysine sites K127/131 and K185/187/189 of Fndc5 may contribute to the SIRT2-dependent deacetylation and deubiquitination of Fndc5. Conclusions: The findings from this research for the first time demonstrate that NAD+-boosting therapy reverses NAFLD by regulating SIRT2-deppendent Fndc5 deacetylation and deubiquitination, which results in a stimulation of Fndc5/irisin, a novel exerkine. These results suggest that Fndc5/irisin may be a potential nexus between physical exercise and NAD+-boosting therapy in metabolic pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia
20.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(3): 106281, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465459

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of colistin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after intraventricular (IVT) administration of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) for central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Ten patients with CNS infection were treated with CMS (active substance colistin equivalent to 100 000 units, every 24 h) by IVT administration. After 3 days of treatment, the concentration of colistin in the CSF was determined by selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after CMS administration. A pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using Phoenix WinNonlin. Following IVT administration of CMS, the estimated colistin apparent CSF half-life (t1/2) was 10.46 ± 6.98 h, the average peak colistin concentration (Cmax) was 16.95 ± 7.39 µg/mL and the average time to peak concentration (Tmax) was 4.6 ± 0.97 h. The measured trough concentration (Cmin; colistin concentration in CSF at 24 h after administration of CMS) was 1.12-8.33 µg/mL and the average Cmin was 2.91 ± 2.11 µg/mL. CSF concentrations of colistin were above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 µg/mL at 24 h after IVT administration in all patients. Microbiological cure was observed in all patients. In conclusion, this is the first study of colistin pharmacokinetics in CSF after IVT administration alone in patients with CNS infection. It provides essential data for designing relatively safe and effective CMS dosing regimens.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Colistina/administração & dosagem , Colistina/farmacocinética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Injeções Intraventriculares , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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