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1.
Vet Sci ; 11(5)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787169

RESUMO

The usefulness of antibiotics in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) is controversial. It is also unclear what effect metronidazole has on potential enteropathogens such as Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole vs. a synbiotic on the clinical course and core intestinal bacteria of dogs with AD. Twenty-seven dogs with AD were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial and treated with either metronidazole (METg) or a synbiotic (SYNg; E. faecium DSM 10663; NCIMB 10415/4b170). The Canine Acute Diarrhea Severity (CADS) index was recorded daily for eleven days. Bacteria were quantified using qPCR. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. A higher concentration of E. coli was observed in the METg group vs. the SYNg group on Day 6 (p < 0.0001) and Day 30 (p = 0.01). Metronidazole had no effect on C. perfringens. C. hiranonis was significantly lower in the METg group than in the SYNg group on Days 6 and 30 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.0015). No significant differences were observed in CADS index, fecal consistency, or defecation frequency between treatment groups (except for the CADS index on one single day). In conclusion, metronidazole negatively impacts the microbiome without affecting clinical outcomes. Thus, synbiotics might be a preferred treatment option for dogs with AD.

2.
J Vet Intern Med ; 38(3): 1425-1436, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly used for gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases in veterinary medicine. However, its effects on immune responses and possible adverse events have not been systematically investigated. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Determine the short-term safety profile and changes in the peripheral immune system after a single FMT administration in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Ten client-owned, clinically healthy dogs as FMT recipients, and 2 client-owned clinically healthy dogs as FMT donors. METHODS: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial. A single rectal enema of 5 g/kg was given to clinically healthy canine recipients. During the 28 days after FMT administration, owners self-reported adverse events and fecal scores. On Days 0 (baseline), 1, 4, 10, and 28 after FMT, fecal and blood samples were collected. The canine fecal dysbiosis index (DI) was calculated using qPCR. RESULTS: No significant changes were found in the following variables: CBC, serum biochemistry, C-reactive protein, serum cytokines (interleukins [IL]-2, -6, -8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), peripheral leukocytes (B cells, T cells, cluster of differentiation [CD]4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, T regulatory cells), and the canine DI. Mild vomiting (n = 3), diarrhea (n = 4), decreased activity (n = 2), and inappetence (n = 1) were reported, and resolved without intervention. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Fecal microbiota transplantation did not significantly alter the evaluated variables and recipients experienced minimal adverse events associated with FMT administration. Fecal microbiota transplantation was not associated with serious adverse events, changes in peripheral immunologic variables, or the canine DI in the short-term.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Animais , Cães , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/veterinária , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Fezes/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Disbiose/veterinária , Disbiose/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6939, 2024 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521833

RESUMO

Chronic enteropathies (CE) are common disorders in cats and the differentiation between the two main underlying diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and low-grade intestinal T-cell lymphoma (LGITL), can be challenging. Characterization of the serum metabolome could provide further information on alterations of disease-associated metabolic pathways and may identify diagnostic or therapeutic targets. Unbiased metabolomics analysis of serum from 28 cats with CE (14 cats with IBD, 14 cats with LGITL) and 14 healthy controls identified 1,007 named metabolites, of which 129 were significantly different in cats with CE compared to healthy controls at baseline. Random Forest analysis revealed a predictive accuracy of 90% for differentiating controls from cats with chronic enteropathy. Metabolic pathways found to be significantly altered included phospholipids, amino acids, thiamine, and tryptophan metabolism. Several metabolites were found to be significantly different between cats with IBD versus LGITL, including several sphingolipids, phosphatidylcholine 40:7, uridine, pinitol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and glucuronic acid. However, random forest analysis revealed a poor group predictive accuracy of 60% for the differentiation of IBD from LGITL. Of 129 compounds found to be significantly different between healthy cats and cats with CE at baseline, 58 remained different following treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Gatos , Animais , Metabolômica , Metaboloma , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
4.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(6)2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540064

RESUMO

Histopathologic examination of intestinal biopsies from dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS) reveals necrotizing enteritis and epithelial integrity loss. Serum iohexol measurement has been utilized to assess intestinal permeability. Our hypothesis is that dogs with AHDS have increased intestinal permeability, which is associated with the severity of clinical signs. In this prospective case-control study, 53 client-owned dogs (28 AHDS, 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Clinical severity was assessed using the AHDS index and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Simultaneously, dogs received oral iohexol, and serum iohexol concentrations (SICs) were measured two hours later. Results indicated significantly higher (p = 0.002) SIC in AHDS dogs (median: 51 µg/mL; min-max: 9-246) than in healthy controls (30 µg/mL; 11-57). There was a significant positive correlation between AHDS index and SIC (rS = 0.4; p = 0.03) and a significant negative between SIC and serum albumin concentrations (Pearson r = -0.55; p = 0.01). Dogs with severe AHDS (mean 106 µg/mL; range: 17-246) demonstrated significantly higher (p = 0.002) SIC than those with mild to moderate disease (29 µg/mL; 9-54). These findings underscore the association between intestinal permeability and clinical severity in dogs with AHDS assessed by iohexol.

5.
Front Neurosci ; 18: 1281840, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356649

RESUMO

Introduction: Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiome have been reported in idiopathic epilepsy (IE), however, interactions of gut microbes with the enteric nervous system (ENS) in this context require further study. This pilot study examined how gastrointestinal microbiota (GIM), their metabolites, and nutrients contained in intestinal contents communicate with the ENS. Methods: Fecal supernatants (FS) from healthy dogs and dogs with IE, including drug-naïve, phenobarbital (PB) responsive, and PB non-responsive dogs, were applied to cultured myenteric neurons to test their activation using voltage-sensitive dye neuroimaging. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the FS were quantified. Results: Our findings indicate that FS from all examined groups elicited neuronal activation. Notably, FS from PB non-responsive dogs with IE induced action potential discharge in a higher proportion of enteric neurons compared to healthy controls, which exhibited the lowest burst frequency overall. Furthermore, the highest burst frequency in enteric neurons was observed upon exposure to FS from drug-naïve dogs with IE. This frequency was significantly higher compared to that observed in PB non-responsive dogs with IE and showed a tendency to surpass that of healthy controls. Discussion: Although observed disparities in SCFA concentrations across the various FS samples might be associated with the induced neuronal activity, a direct correlation remains elusive at this point. The obtained results hint at an involvement of the ENS in canine IE and set the basis for future studies.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(2)2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254385

RESUMO

Bile acid metabolism is a key pathway modulated by intestinal microbiota. Peptacetobacter (Clostridium) hiranonis has been described as the main species responsible for the conversion of primary into secondary fecal unconjugated bile acids (fUBA) in dogs. This multi-step biochemical pathway is encoded by the bile acid-inducible (bai) operon. We aimed to assess the correlation between P. hiranonis abundance, the abundance of one specific gene of the bai operon (baiCD), and secondary fUBA concentrations. In this retrospective study, 133 fecal samples were analyzed from 24 dogs. The abundances of P. hiranonis and baiCD were determined using qPCR. The concentration of fUBA was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The baiCD abundance exhibited a strong positive correlation with secondary fUBA (ρ = 0.7377, 95% CI (0.6461, 0.8084), p < 0.0001). Similarly, there was a strong correlation between P. hiranonis and secondary fUBA (ρ = 0.6658, 95% CI (0.5555, 0.7532), p < 0.0001). Animals displaying conversion of fUBA and lacking P. hiranonis were not observed. These results suggest P. hiranonis is the main converter of primary to secondary bile acids in dogs.

7.
Vet Sci ; 11(1)2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250937

RESUMO

While shifts in gut microbiota have been studied in diseased states, the temporal variability of the microbiome in cats has not been widely studied. This study investigated the temporal variability of the feline dysbiosis index (DI) and the abundance of core bacterial groups in healthy adult cats. The secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between the fecal abundance of Clostridium hiranonis and the fecal concentrations of unconjugated bile acids. A total of 142 fecal samples collected from 17 healthy cats were prospectively included: nine cats with weekly collection over 3 weeks (at least four time points), five cats with monthly collection over 2 months (three time points), and three cats with additional collections for up to 10 months. The DI remained stable within the reference intervals over two months for all cats (Friedman test, p > 0.2), and 100% of the DI values (n = 142) collected throughout the study period remained within the RI. While some temporal individual variation was observed for individual taxa, the magnitude was minimal compared to cats with chronic enteropathy and antibiotic exposure. Additionally, the abundance of Clostridium hiranonis was significantly correlated with the percentage of fecal primary bile acids, supporting its role as a bile acid converter in cats.

8.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(23)2023 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38066947

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to further describe the oral microbiota of healthy dogs by DNA shotgun sequencing and compare those to dogs with oral tumors. Oral swabs (representative of all niches of the oral cavity) were collected from healthy dogs (n = 24) and from dogs with different oral tumors (n = 7). DNA was extracted from the swabs and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed. Only minor differences in microbiota composition were observed between the two groups. At the phylum level, the Bacteroidota, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Desulfobacterota and Firmicutes were most abundant in both groups. Observed Operational Taxonomic Units-OTUs (species richness) was significantly higher in the healthy patients, but there was no significant difference in the Shannon diversity index between the groups. No significant difference was found in beta diversity between the groups. The core oral microbiota consisted of 67 bacterial species that were identified in all 24 healthy dogs. Our study provides further insight into the composition of the oral microbiota of healthy dogs and in dogs with oral tumors.

9.
Vet Sci ; 10(10)2023 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37888572

RESUMO

Measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum is a useful surrogate marker for assessing disease progression and treatment response in dogs with autoinflammatory diseases. Affected dogs often receive high-dose glucocorticoid treatment, but the effect of such treatment alone on serum CRP concentrations is unknown. We evaluated serum CRP concentrations via immunoassay (sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay) in 12 healthy beagle dogs administered high-dose hydrocortisone (8 mg/kg q12 h) per os vs. placebo over 28 days (days 0, 1, 5, and 28) in a randomized parallel study design. Serum CRP concentrations slightly decreased during treatment or placebo but without a significant association with hydrocortisone administration (p = 0.761). Compared to baseline, serum CRP concentrations were decreased by >2.7-fold (minimum critical difference) in three hydrocortisone-treated dogs and two dogs in the placebo group on day 28, whereas an increase to >2.7-fold was seen in one dog receiving placebo. These results suggest a lack of confounding effects of high-dose hydrocortisone administration on serum CRP concentrations in healthy dogs. This might also hold in dogs with autoinflammatory conditions and/or administration of other high-dose corticosteroids, suggesting that CRP presents a suitable biomarker to monitor inflammatory disease processes. However, this needs confirmation by further studies evaluating corticosteroid-induced cellular (e.g., hepatic) transcriptome and proteome changes.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(17)2023 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37685017

RESUMO

Chronic enteropathy (CE) in cats encompasses food-responsive enteropathy, chronic inflammatory enteropathy (or inflammatory bowel disease), and low-grade intestinal T-cell lymphoma. While alterations in the gut metabolome have been extensively studied in humans and dogs with gastrointestinal disorders, little is known about the specific metabolic profile of cats with CE. As lipids take part in energy storage, inflammation, and cellular structure, investigating the lipid profile in cats with CE is crucial. This study aimed to measure fecal concentrations of various fatty acids, sterols, and bile acids. Fecal samples from 56 cats with CE and 77 healthy control cats were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, targeting 12 fatty acids, 10 sterols, and 5 unconjugated bile acids. Fecal concentrations of nine targeted fatty acids and animal-derived sterols were significantly increased in cats with CE. However, fecal concentrations of plant-derived sterols were significantly decreased in cats with CE. Additionally, an increased percentage of primary bile acids was observed in a subset of cats with CE. These findings suggest the presence of lipid maldigestion, malabsorption, and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of cats with CE. Understanding the lipid alterations in cats with CE can provide insights into the disease mechanisms and potential future therapeutic strategies.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(17)2023 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37685068

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIEs) in dogs involve the infiltration of gastrointestinal tissue with inflammatory cells. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity of serum and fecal 3-bromotyrosine (3-BrY) concentrations in dogs with CIE. The difference in 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with different gastrointestinal (GI) pathological changes was also assessed. In total, 68 dogs with CIE were enrolled in the study. The median serum 3-BrY concentration was 3.3 µmol/L, while the median 3-day mean and maximum fecal 3-BrY concentrations were 38.9 and 63.2 mmol/g of feces, respectively. The median serum C-reactive protein concentration was 45.0 mg/L. The median 3-day mean and maximum fecal α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations were 6.1 and 9 µg/g of feces, respectively. Increased 3-BrY concentrations were observed in 90.9% of CIE dogs based on serum concentrations, 75.8% based on mean fecal concentrations, and 69.4% based on maximum fecal concentrations. A weak correlation (ρ = 0.31, p < 0.0118) was found between serum CRP and serum 3-BrY concentrations. There was no correlation between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum or fecal 3-BrY concentrations (p > 0.05). Additionally, no significant difference in serum or fecal 3-BrY concentrations was found among CIE dogs with different GI pathological changes (p > 0.05). In conclusion, dogs with CIE have increased 3-BrY concentrations in serum and fecal samples. However, 3-BrY concentrations may not accurately indicate the severity of gastrointestinal inflammation.

12.
Vet Sci ; 10(9)2023 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37756088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the use of Bacillus species as probiotics since their spore-forming ability favors their survival in the acidic gastric environment over other probiotic species. The subsequent germination of B. subtilis to their vegetative form allows for their growth in the small intestine and may increase their beneficial effect on the host. B. subtilis strains have also previously been shown to have beneficial effects in humans and production animals, however, no reports are available so far on their use in companion animals. STUDY DESIGN: The goal of this study was therefore to investigate the daily administration of 1 × 109 cfu DE-CA9TM orally per day versus placebo on health parameters, fecal scores, fecal microbiome, fecal metabolomics, as well as serum metabolomics and oxidative stress markers in ten healthy Beagle dogs in a parallel, randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled design over a period of 45 days. RESULTS: DE-CA9TM decreased the oxidative status compared to controls for advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMS), suggesting an antioxidant effect of the treatment. Fecal metabolomics revealed a significant reduction in metabolites associated with tryptophan metabolism in the DE-CA9TM-treated group. DE-CA9TM also significantly decreased phenylalanine and homocysteine and increased homoserine and threonine levels. Amino acid metabolism was also affected in the serum metabolome, with increased levels of urea and cadaverine, and reductions in N-acetylornithine in DE-CA9TM compared to controls. Similarly, changes in essential amino acids were observed, with a significant increase in tryptophan and lysine levels and a decrease in homocysteine. An increase in serum guanine and deoxyuridine was also detected, with a decrease in beta-alanine in the animals that ingested DE-CA9TM. CONCLUSIONS: Data generated throughout this study suggest that the daily administration of 1 × 109 cfu of DE-CA9TM in healthy Beagle dogs is safe and does not affect markers of general health and fecal scores. Furthermore, DE-CA9TM administration had a potential positive effect on some serum markers of oxidative stress, and protein and lipid metabolism in serum and feces.

13.
J Vet Intern Med ; 37(6): 2109-2118, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37776099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors can cause diarrhea and a transient increase in fecal dysbiosis index in dogs. It is unknown if concurrent probiotic administration mitigates these effects. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the fecal Canine Microbial Dysbiosis Index (CMDI), fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA), and fecal calprotectin concentrations in dogs administered esomeprazole with and without a probiotic. ANIMALS: Eleven healthy dogs. METHODS: Prospective, within-subjects before and after study. All dogs received 7-day courses of esomeprazole (1 mg/kg PO q 24h) alone followed by esomeprazole with a probiotic (15 billion CFU/kg), separated by a 4-week washout period. Data were compared between phases using mixed effects ANOVA or generalized estimating equations with post-hoc Holm adjustment for 2-way comparisons. RESULTS: Compared to baseline (mean CMDI -2.66, SD 3.04), fecal CMDI was not different with esomeprazole administration alone (mean CMDI -1.48, SD 3.32, P = .08), but there was a significant increase (Diff 3.05, 95% CI [1.37, 4.74], P < .001, Effect size 2.02) when esomeprazole and a probiotic were administered concurrently (mean CMDI 0.39, SD 2.83). CMDI was significantly higher when esomeprazole was administered with a probiotic than alone (Diff 1.87, 95% CI [0.19, 1.87], P = .02, Effect size 1.24). Fecal calprotectin and SCFA concentrations did not differ between phases. The occurrence of vomiting and diarrhea was not different from baseline when esomeprazole was administered alone (36%/27%) or with a probiotic (46%/9%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In healthy dogs, concurrent administration of a probiotic is unlikely to lessen adverse effects associated with esomeprazole administration.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Probióticos , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Esomeprazol/farmacologia , Esomeprazol/uso terapêutico , Disbiose/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Diarreia/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico
14.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291028, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37682941

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies in healthy equine eyes have shown a more diverse ocular surface microbiota compared to culture-based techniques. This study aimed to compare the bacterial ocular surface microbiota in both eyes of horses with unilateral ulcerative keratitis (UK) with controls free of ocular disease. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from both ulcerated eyes and unaffected eyes of 15 client-owned horses with unilateral UK following informed consent, as well as from one eye of 15 healthy horses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the swabs and sequenced on an Illumina platform using primers that target the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA. Data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Molecular Ecology (QIIME2). The ocular surface of ulcerated eyes had significantly decreased species richness compared with unaffected fellow eyes (Chao1 q = 0.045, Observed ASVs p = 0.045) with no differences in evenness of species (Shannon q = 0.135). Bacterial community structure was significantly different between either eye of horses with UK and controls (unweighted UniFrac: control vs. unaffected, p = 0.03; control vs. ulcerated, p = 0.003; unaffected vs. ulcerated, p = 0.016). Relative abundance of the gram-positive taxonomic class, Bacilli, was significantly increased in ulcerated eyes compared with controls (q = 0.004). Relative abundance of the taxonomic family Staphylococcaceae was significantly increased in ulcerated and unaffected eyes compared with controls (q = 0.030). The results suggest the occurrence of dysbiosis in infected eyes and reveal alterations in beta diversity and taxa of unaffected fellow eyes. Further investigations are necessary to better understand the role of the microbiome in the pathophysiology of ocular surface disease.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Ceratite , Cavalos , Animais , Úlcera da Córnea/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Olho , Face
15.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(16)2023 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37627387

RESUMO

DNA shotgun sequencing is an untargeted approach for identifying changes in relative abundances, while qPCR allows reproducible quantification of specific bacteria. The canine dysbiosis index (DI) assesses the canine fecal microbiota by using a mathematical algorithm based on qPCR results. We evaluated the correlation between qPCR and shotgun sequencing using fecal samples from 296 dogs with different clinical phenotypes. While significant correlations were found between qPCR and sequencing, certain taxa were only detectable by qPCR and not by sequencing. Based on sequencing, less than 2% of bacterial species (17/1190) were consistently present in all healthy dogs (n = 76). Dogs with an abnormal DI had lower alpha-diversity compared to dogs with normal DI. Increases in the DI correctly predicted the gradual shifts in microbiota observed by sequencing: minor changes (R = 0.19, DI < 0 with any targeted taxa outside the reference interval, RI), mild-moderate changes (R = 0.24, 0 < DI < 2), and significant dysbiosis (R = 0.54, 0.73, and 0.91 for DI > 2, DI > 5, and DI > 8, respectively), compared to dogs with a normal DI (DI < 0, all targets within the RI), as higher R-values indicated larger dissimilarities. In conclusion, the qPCR-based DI is an effective indicator of overall microbiota shifts observed by shotgun sequencing in dogs.

16.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(15)2023 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37570250

RESUMO

The role of Clostridioides (C.) difficile as an enteropathogen in dogs is controversial. In humans, intestinal bile acid-dysmetabolism is associated with C. difficile prevalence. The relationship between fecal qPCR-based dysbiosis index (DI) and especially the abundance of bile acid-converting Clostridium hiranonis with the presence of C. difficile in dogs was explored across the following 4 cohorts: 358 fecal samples submitted for routine diagnostic work-up, 33 dogs with chronic enteropathy, 14 dogs with acute diarrhea, and 116 healthy dogs. Dogs that tested positive for C. difficile had significantly higher DI (median, 4.4 (range from 0.4 to 8.6)) and lower C. hiranonis (median, 0.1 (range from 0.0 to 7.5) logDNA/g) than dogs that tested negative for C. difficile (median DI, -1 (range from -7.2 to 8.9); median C. hiranonis abundance, 6.2 (range from 0.1 to 7.5) logDNA/g; p < 0.0001, respectively). In 33 dogs with CE and 14 dogs with acute diarrhea, the treatment response did not differ between C. difficile-positive and -negative dogs. In the group of clinically healthy dogs, 9/116 tested positive for C. difficile, and 6/9 of these had also an abnormal DI. In conclusion, C. difficile is strongly linked to intestinal dysbiosis and lower C. hiranonis levels in dogs, but its presence does not necessitate targeted treatment.

17.
PLoS One ; 18(7): e0288801, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37463140

RESUMO

Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is considered the gold standard biomarker for myocardial injury and shows a high degree of homology between humans and dogs. The ADVIA Centaur XP High-Sensitivity Troponin I (AC-cTnI-HS) assay has been validated for use in humans but not dogs. The study objectives were to analytically validate the AC-cTnI-HS assay in dogs, to assess correlation between the AC-cTnI-HS and a previous ADVIA Centaur TnI-Ultra (AC-cTnI-U) assay, to assess cTnI sample storage stability, and to clinically evaluate the AC-cTnI-HS assay in healthy dogs and dogs with cardiac disease. Canine serum samples were used for analytical validation. Intra- and inter-assay variability, dilutional parallelism, and spiking recovery were assessed. Samples from 196 client-owned dogs were evaluated (healthy dogs (n = 39) or dogs with congenital heart disease (n = 54), myxomatous mitral valve disease (n = 68), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 15), or myocarditis (n = 20)). Inter- and intra-assay coefficient of variation (%CV) was between 2.8-41.4% and 3.8-30.2%, respectively, with pools with concentrations >20 pg/mL all having %CVs <10%. The observed to expected ratios for dilutional parallelism and spiking recovery experiments ranged between 92.3 and 266.7.0% and 84.3 and 108%, respectively. A strong correlation between the AC-cTnI-HS and AC-cTnI-U assays was observed (Spearman's ρ = 0.927), though a proportional bias existed, with AC-cTnI-HS assay concentrations being proportionally lower than AC-cTnI-U assay concentrations. Serum samples stored at -80°C had stable cTnI measurements for up to 2.7 years and after a single freeze-thaw cycle. Healthy dogs and dogs with congenital heart disease had significantly lower cTnI concentrations than dogs in the other three groups. The AC-cTnI-HS assay precisely, reproducibly, and accurately measures cTnI concentrations in dog serum with cTnI concentrations >20 pg/mL.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Cardiopatias , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Troponina I , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Imunoensaio , Biomarcadores
18.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37208000

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to measure the effects of a Lactobacillus fermentation product (LBFP) on fecal characteristics and microbiota, blood biomarkers, immune function, and serum oxidative stress markers of adult dogs. Thirty adult beagle dogs [23 M, 7 F; mean age = 8.47 ± 2.65 yr old; mean BW = 15.43 ± 4.17 kg] were used in a completely randomized design study. All dogs were fed a basal diet to maintain BW for 5 wk, followed by baseline blood and fecal sample collections. Dogs remained on the same diet, but then were randomly assigned to a placebo (dextrose) or LBFP supplement (Limosilactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii). Both treatments were dosed at 4 mg/kg BW via gelatin capsule for 5 wk (n = 15/treatment). Fecal and blood samples were collected at that time. Change from baseline data were analyzed using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS 9.4, with P < 0.05 being significant and P < 0.10 being trends. Most circulating metabolites and immunoglobulins (Ig) were unaltered by treatment, but LBFP-supplemented dogs had lower changes in serum corticosteroid isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05), alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.10), and IgM (P < 0.10) than controls. The change in fecal scores tended to be lower (P = 0.068) in LBFP-supplemented dogs than controls, signifying firmer feces in LBFP-supplemented dogs. Regarding the fecal microbiota, alpha diversity indicators tended to be higher (P = 0.087) in LBFP-supplemented dogs than controls. One fecal bacterial phylum (Actinobacteriota) was altered by treatments, with its relative abundance tending to have a greater (P < 0.10) increase in controls than LBFP-supplemented dogs. Fifteen bacterial genera were altered (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10) by treatments, including relative abundances of fecal Peptoclostridium, Sarcina, and Faecalitalea that had a greater (P < 0.05) increase in controls than LBFP-supplemented dogs. In contrast, relative abundances of fecal Faecalibaculum, Bifidobacterium, and uncultured Butyricicoccaceae had a greater (P ≤ 0.05) increase in LBFP-supplemented dogs than controls. After week 5, dogs underwent transport stress (45-min vehicle ride) to assess oxidative stress markers. The change in serum superoxide dismutase after transport had a greater (P < 0.0001) increase in LBFP-supplemented dogs than controls. Our data suggest that LBFP may provide benefits to dogs by stabilizing stool quality, beneficially shifting fecal microbiota, and protecting against oxidative damage when subjected to stress.


Our objective was to measure the effects of a Lactobacillus fermentation product (LBFP) on fecal characteristics and microbiota, immune function, and oxidative stress markers of dogs. Thirty adult dogs were used in a completely randomized design study. All dogs were fed a basal diet to maintain body weight for 5 wk and then randomly assigned to a placebo or LBFP supplement for five more weeks. Fecal and blood samples were collected after baseline and treatment phases. Change from baseline data were analyzed statistically. Most blood markers were unaltered by treatment, but LBFP-supplemented dogs had lower changes in liver enzymes and IgM than controls. Change in fecal scores tended to be lower in LBFP-supplemented dogs than controls, signifying firmer feces. Fecal bacterial alpha diversity tended to be higher in LBFP-supplemented dogs than controls. One fecal bacterial phylum and 15 bacterial genera were altered by treatments. After 5 wk, dogs underwent transport stress (45-min vehicle ride) to assess oxidative stress markers. The increase in serum superoxide dismutase after transport was greater in LBFP-supplemented dogs than controls. Our data suggest that LBFP may provide benefits to dogs by stabilizing stool quality, beneficially shifting fecal microbiota, and protecting against oxidative damage when undergoing stress.


Assuntos
Dieta , Lactobacillus , Cães , Animais , Fermentação , Fezes/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade , Ração Animal/análise
19.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1148849, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37051512

RESUMO

Objectives: While feline chronic bronchitis (CB) is known as neutrophilic bronchial inflammation (NI), feline asthma (FA) is defined as an eosinophilic airway inflammation (EI). Feline chronic bronchial disease refers to both syndromes, with similar clinical presentations and applied treatment strategies. Recent studies described alterations of the microbiota composition in cats with FA, but little is known about the comparison of the lung microbiota between different types of feline bronchial disease. The study aimed to describe the bacterial microbiota of the lower respiratory tracts of cats with FA and CB and to identify potential differences. Methods: Twenty-two client-owned cats with FA (n = 15) or CB (n = 7) confirmed via bronchoalveolar-lavage (BALF)-cytology were included. Next-generation sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was performed on bacterial DNA derived from BALF samples. QIIME was used to compare microbial composition and diversity between groups. Results: Evenness and alpha-diversity-indices did not significantly differ between cats with FA and CB (Shannon p = 0.084, Chao 1 p = 0.698, observed ASVs p = 0.944). Based on a PERMANOVA analysis, no significant differences were observed in microbial composition between animals of both groups (Bray-Curtis metric, R-value 0.086, p = 0.785; unweighted UniFrac metric, R-value -0.089, p = 0.799; weighted Unifrac metric, R-value -0.072, p = 0.823). Regarding taxonomic composition, significant differences were detected for Actinobacteria on the phylum level (p = 0.026), Mycoplasma spp. (p = 0.048), and Acinetobacteria (p = 0.049) on the genus level between cats with FA and CB, with generally strong interindividual differences seen. There was a significant difference in the duration of clinical signs before diagnosis in animals dominated by Bacteriodetes (median 12 months, range 2-58 months) compared to animals dominated by Proteobacteria (median 1 month, range 1 day to 18 months; p = 0.003). Conclusions and relevance: Lung microbiota composition is very similar in cat populations with spontaneous FA and CB besides small differences in some bacterial groups. However, with disease progression, the lung microbiome of cats with both diseases appears to shift away from dominantly Proteobacteria to a pattern more dominated by Bacteriodetes. A substantial proportion of cats tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. via sequencing, while none of them tested positive using classical PCR.

20.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(8)2023 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37106941

RESUMO

Cobalamin deficiency is a common sequela of chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. Studies comparing the intestinal microbiome of CE dogs with cobalamin deficiency to those that are normocobalaminemic are lacking. Therefore, our aim was to describe the fecal microbiome in a prospective, comparative study evaluating 29 dogs with CE and cobalamin deficiency, 18 dogs with CE and normocobalaminemia, and 10 healthy control dogs. Dogs with cobalamin deficiency were also analyzed after oral or parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Overall microbiome composition (beta diversity) at baseline was significantly different in CE dogs with cobalamin deficiency when compared to those with normocobalaminemia (p = 0.001, R = 0.257) and to healthy controls (p = 0.001, R = 0.363). Abundances of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were significantly increased (q = 0.010 and 0.049), while those of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were significantly decreased (q = 0.002 and 0.014) in CE dogs with cobalamin deficiency when compared to healthy controls. Overall microbiome composition in follow-up samples remained significantly different after 3 months in both dogs receiving parenteral (R = 0.420, p = 0.013) or oral cobalamin supplementation (R = 0.251, p = 0.007). Because cobalamin supplementation, in combination with appropriate therapy, failed to restore the microbiome composition in the dogs in our study, cobalamin is unlikely to be the cause of those microbiome changes but rather an indicator of differences in underlying pathophysiology that do not influence clinical severity but result in a significant aggravation of dysbiosis.

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