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1.
Microbes Environ ; 39(1)2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538313

RESUMO

A more detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of microbial communities is essential for the efficient management of microbial ecosystems. The stable states of microbial communities are commonly perceived as static and, thus, have not been extensively examined. The present study investigated stabilizing mechanisms, minority functions, and the reliability of quantitative ana-lyses, emphasizing a metabolic network perspective. A bacterial community, formed by batch transferred cultures supplied with phenol as the sole carbon and energy source and paddy soil as the inoculum, was analyzed using a principal coordinate ana-lysis (PCoA), mathematical models, and quantitative parameters defined as growth activity, community-changing activity, community-forming activity, vulnerable force, and resilience force depending on changes in the abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences. PCoA showed succession states until the 3rd transferred cultures and stable states from the 5th to 10th transferred cultures. Quantitative parameters indicated that the bacterial community was dynamic irrespective of the succession and stable states. Three activities fluctuated under stable states. Vulnerable and resilience forces were detected under the succession and stable states, respectively. Mathematical models indicated the construction of metabolic networks, suggesting the stabilizing mechanism of the community structure. Thirteen OTUs coexisted during stable states, and were recognized as core OTUs consisting of majorities, middle-class, and minorities. The abundance of the middle-class changed, whereas that of the others did not, which indicated that core OTUs maintained metabolic networks. Some extremely low abundance OTUs were consistently exchanged, suggesting a role for scavengers. These results indicate that stable states were formed by dynamic metabolic networks with members functioning to achieve robustness and plasticity.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microbiota/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética
2.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 13(4): e0128023, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426728

RESUMO

We report the complete genome sequences of six bacterial strains isolated from a floating macrophyte, duckweed. These six strains, representing the six dominant families of the natural duckweed microbiome, establish a simple model ecosystem when inoculated onto sterilized duckweed. Their genomes would provide insights into community assembly in plant microbiome.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2312396121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315845

RESUMO

Understanding the assembly of multispecies microbial communities represents a significant challenge in ecology and has wide applications in agriculture, wastewater treatment, and human healthcare domains. Traditionally, studies on the microbial community assembly focused on analyzing pairwise relationships among species; however, neglecting higher-order interactions, i.e., the change of pairwise relationships in the community context, may lead to substantial deviation from reality. Herein, we have proposed a simple framework that incorporates higher-order interactions into a bottom-up prediction of the microbial community assembly and examined its accuracy using a seven-member synthetic bacterial community on a host plant, duckweed. Although the synthetic community exhibited emergent properties that cannot be predicted from pairwise coculturing results, our results demonstrated that incorporating information from three-member combinations allows the acceptable prediction of the community structure and actual interaction forces within it. This reflects that the occurrence of higher-order effects follows consistent patterns, which can be predicted even from trio combinations, the smallest unit of higher-order interactions. These results highlight the possibility of predicting, explaining, and understanding the microbial community structure from the bottom-up by learning interspecies interactions from simple beyond-pairwise combinations.


Assuntos
Interações Microbianas , Microbiota , Humanos , Ecologia , Bactérias
4.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1252155, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107868

RESUMO

Membrane vesicles (MVs) are small spherical structures (20-400 nm) produced by most bacteria and have important biological functions including toxin delivery, signal transfer, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation of the host. Although MV formation is enhanced in biofilms of a wide range of bacterial species, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. An opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causes chronic infections that can be difficult to treat due to biofilm formation. Since MVs are abundant in biofilms, can transport virulence factors to the host, and have inflammation-inducing functions, the mechanisms of enhanced MV formation in biofilms needs to be elucidated to effectively treat infections. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of MVs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms, and identified factors that contribute to enhanced MV formation. Vesiculation was significantly enhanced in the static culture; MVs were connected to filamentous substances in the biofilm, and separation between the outer and inner membranes and curvature of the membrane were observed in biofilm cells. By screening a transposon mutant library (8,023 mutants) for alterations in MV formation in biofilms, 66 mutants were identified as low-vesiculation strains (2/3 decrease relative to wild type), whereas no mutant was obtained that produced more MVs (twofold increase). Some transposons were inserted into genes related to biofilm formation, including flagellar motility (flg, fli, and mot) and extracellular polysaccharide synthesis (psl). ΔpelAΔpslA, which does not synthesize the extracellular polysaccharides Pel and Psl, showed reduced MV production in biofilms but not in planktonic conditions, suggesting that enhanced vesiculation is closely related to the synthesis of biofilm matrices in P. aeruginosa. Additionally, we found that blebbing occurred during bacterial attachment. Our findings indicate that biofilm-related factors are closely involved in enhanced MV formation in biofilms and that surface sensing facilitates vesiculation. Furthermore, this work expands the understanding of the infection strategy in P. aeruginosa biofilms.

5.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 86(8): 967-973, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544280

RESUMO

Bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are spherical nanoparticles that are mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides, phospholipids, and outer membrane proteins. OMVs play critical biological roles in stress responses, microbial communication, and bacteria-host interactions. Additionally, they hold great potential for biotechnological applications because of their versatile function in molecular transport while protecting the endogenous substances. While OMVs have been considered lipid monolamellar vesicles for several decades, recent studies have shown that membrane vesicles (MVs) with multiple lipid bilayers, including outer-inner membrane vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and multivesicular vesicles, are also produced by Gram-negative bacteria. Some internal vesicles contain cytoplasmic components such as DNA and thus function as organelle-like structures within MVs. This review provides recent findings regarding the biogenesis and properties of MVs with complex structures.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Bactérias , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Organelas
6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 747606, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912309

RESUMO

Membrane vesicles (MVs) are released by various prokaryotes and play a role in the delivery of various cell-cell interaction factors. Recent studies have determined that these vesicles are capable of functioning as mediators of horizontal gene transfer. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are a type of MV that is released by Gram-negative bacteria and primarily composed of outer membrane and periplasm components; however, it remains largely unknown why DNA is contained within OMVs. Our study aimed to understand the mechanism by which DNA that is localized in the cytoplasm is incorporated into OMVs in Gram-negative bacteria. We compared DNA associated with OMVs using Escherichia coli BW25113 cells harboring the non-conjugative, non-mobilized, and high-copy plasmid pUC19 and its hypervesiculating mutants that included ΔnlpI, ΔrseA, and ΔtolA. Plasmid copy per vesicle was increased in OMVs derived from ΔnlpI, in which peptidoglycan (PG) breakdown and synthesis are altered. When supplemented with 1% glycine to inhibit PG synthesis, both OMV formation and plasmid copy per vesicle were increased in the wild type. The bacterial membrane condition test indicated that membrane permeability was increased in the presence of glycine at the late exponential phase, in which cell lysis did not occur. Additionally, quick-freeze deep-etch and replica electron microscopy observations revealed that outer-inner membrane vesicles (O-IMVs) are formed in the presence of glycine. Thus, two proposed routes for DNA incorporation into OMVs under PG-damaged conditions are suggested. These routes include DNA leakage due to increased membrane permeation and O-IMV formation. Additionally, our findings contribute to a greater understanding of the vesicle-mediated horizontal gene transfer that occurs in nature and the utilization of MVs for DNA cargo.

7.
Microbes Environ ; 36(4)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645730

RESUMO

The collapse of Comamonas testosteroni R2 under chemostat conditions and the aerobic growth of strain R2 under batch conditions with phenol as the sole carbon source were investigated using physiological and transcriptomic techniques. Phenol-/catechol-degrading activities under chemostat conditions gradually decreased, suggesting that metabolites produced from strain R2 accumulated in the culture, which caused negative feedback. The competitive inhibition of phenol hydroxylase and catechol dioxygenase was observed in a crude extract of the supernatant collected from the collapsed culture. Transcriptomic analyses showed that genes related to nitrogen transport were up-regulated; the ammonium transporter amtB was up-regulated approximately 190-fold in the collapsed status, suggesting an increase in the concentration of ammonium in cells. The transcriptional levels of most of the genes related to gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA and urea cycles decreased by ~0.7-fold in the stable status, whereas the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase increased by ~2-fold. These results suggest that ammonium was assimilated into glutamate and glutamine via 2-oxoglutarate under the limited supply of carbon skeletons, whereas the synthesis of other amino acids and nucleotides was repressed by 0.6-fold. Furthermore, negative feedback appeared to cause an imbalance between carbon and nitrogen metabolism, resulting in collapse. The effects of amino acids on negative feedback were investigated. L-arginine allowed strain R2 to grow normally, even under growth-inhibiting conditions, suggesting that the imbalance was corrected by the stimulation of the urea cycle, resulting in the rescue of strain R2.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Arginina , Carbono/metabolismo , Comamonas testosteroni , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Catecóis/metabolismo , Comamonas testosteroni/metabolismo , Retroalimentação , Fenol , Fenóis/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo
8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(19)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986092

RESUMO

We report here the complete genome sequence of Buttiauxella agrestis DSM 9389, which harbors eight 16S rRNA genes classified into three types. The genome sequence of this strain showed a high average nucleotide identity (97.3%) with that of the highly membrane vesicle-producing strain B. agrestis ATCC 33320T.

9.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 131(1): 77-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268319

RESUMO

The coexisting mechanism of a synthetic bacterial community (SBC) was investigated to better understand how to manage microbial communities. The SBC was constructed with three kinds of phenol-utilizing bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08, Comamonas testosteroni R2, and Cupriavidus sp. P-10, under chemostat conditions supplied with phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. Population densities of all strains were monitored by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the gene encoding the large subunit of phenol hydroxylase. Although the supply of phenol was stopped to allow perturbation in the SBC, all of the strains coexisted and the degradation of phenol was maintained for more than 800 days. The qPCR analyses showed that strains LAB-08 and R2 became dominant simultaneously, whereas strain P-10 was a minor population. This phenomenon was observed before and after the phenol-supply stoppage. The kinetic parameters for phenol of the SBC changed before and after the phenol-supply stoppage, which suggests a change in functional roles of strains in the SBC. Transcriptional levels of phenol hydroxylase and catechol dioxygenases of three strains were monitored by reverse-transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR). The RT-qPCR analyses revealed that all strains shared phenol and survived independently before the phenol-supply stoppage. After the stoppage, strain P-10 would incur the cost for degradation of phenol and catechol, whereas strains LAB-08 and R2 seemed to be cheaters using metabolites, indicating the development of the metabolic network. These results indicated that it is important for the management and redesign of microbial communities to understand the metabolism of bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
10.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(37)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912906

RESUMO

We report the draft genome sequence of Variovorax boronicumulans strain c24, which was isolated from a soil-inoculated chemostat culture amended with phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. The genome data will provide insights into phenol and other xenobiotic compound degradation mechanisms for bioremediation applications.

11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801184

RESUMO

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally released from Gram-negative bacteria and play important roles in various biological functions. Released vesicles are not uniform in shape, size, or characteristics, and little is known about this diversity of OMVs. Here, we show that deletion of tolB, which encodes a part of the Tol-Pal system, leads to the production of multiple types of vesicles and increases overall vesicle production in the high-vesicle-forming Buttiauxella agrestis type strain JCM 1090. The ΔtolB mutant produced small OMVs and multilamellar/multivesicular OMVs (M-OMVs) as well as vesicles with a striking similarity to the wild type. M-OMVs, previously undescribed, contained triple-lamellar membrane vesicles and multiple vesicle-incorporating vesicles. Ultracentrifugation enabled the separation and purification of each type of OMV released from the ΔtolB mutant, and visualization by quick-freeze deep-etch and replica electron microscopy indicated that M-OMVs are composed of several lamellar membranes. Visualization of intracellular compartments of ΔtolB mutant cells showed that vesicles were accumulated in the broad periplasm, which is probably due to the low linkage between the outer and inner membranes attributed to the Tol-Pal defect. The outer membrane was invaginating inward by wrapping a vesicle, and the precursor of M-OMVs existed in the cell. Thus, we demonstrated a novel type of bacterial OMV and showed that unconventional processes enable the B. agrestis ΔtolB mutant to form unique vesicles.IMPORTANCE Membrane vesicle (MV) formation has been recognized as a common mechanism in prokaryotes, and MVs play critical roles in intercellular interaction. However, a broad range of MV types and their multiple production processes make it difficult to gain a comprehensive understanding of MVs. In this work, using vesicle separation and electron microscopic analyses, we demonstrated that diverse types of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were released from an engineered strain, Buttiauxella agrestis JCM 1090T ΔtolB mutant. We also discovered a previously undiscovered type of vesicle, multilamellar/multivesicular outer membrane vesicles (M-OMVs), which were released by this mutant using unconventional processes. These findings have facilitated considerable progress in understanding MV diversity and expanding the utility of MVs in biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Proteínas Periplásmicas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Periplásmicas/metabolismo
12.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(7)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054711

RESUMO

We report the draft genome sequence of Variovorax boronicumulans strain HAB-30, which was isolated from a phenol-degrading chemostat culture. This strain contains genes encoding a multicomponent type of phenol hydroxylase, with degradation pathways for catechol and other aromatic compounds. The genome sequence will be useful for understanding the metabolic pathways involved in phenol degradation.

13.
Genes Cells ; 25(1): 6-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957229

RESUMO

Motility often plays a decisive role in the survival of species. Five systems of motility have been studied in depth: those propelled by bacterial flagella, eukaryotic actin polymerization and the eukaryotic motor proteins myosin, kinesin and dynein. However, many organisms exhibit surprisingly diverse motilities, and advances in genomics, molecular biology and imaging have showed that those motilities have inherently independent mechanisms. This makes defining the breadth of motility nontrivial, because novel motilities may be driven by unknown mechanisms. Here, we classify the known motilities based on the unique classes of movement-producing protein architectures. Based on this criterion, the current total of independent motility systems stands at 18 types. In this perspective, we discuss these modes of motility relative to the latest phylogenetic Tree of Life and propose a history of motility. During the ~4 billion years since the emergence of life, motility arose in Bacteria with flagella and pili, and in Archaea with archaella. Newer modes of motility became possible in Eukarya with changes to the cell envelope. Presence or absence of a peptidoglycan layer, the acquisition of robust membrane dynamics, the enlargement of cells and environmental opportunities likely provided the context for the (co)evolution of novel types of motility.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Flagelos/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias , Evolução Biológica , Dineínas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Flagelos/genética , Humanos , Cinesinas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Filogenia
14.
Biophys Physicobiol ; 16: 114-120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131182

RESUMO

Membrane vesicles (MVs) are lumen-containing spheres of lipid bilayers secreted by all prokaryotes into the extracellular milieu. They have multifunctional roles in stress response, virulence transfer, biofilm formation, and microbial interactions. Remarkably, MVs contain various components, including lytic enzymes, genetic materials, and hydrophobic signals, at high concentrations and transfer them effectively to the target microbial cells. Therefore, MVs act as carriers for bactericidal effects, horizontal gene transfer, and quorum sensing. Although the purpose of secreted MVs remains unclear, recent reports have provided evidence that MVs selectively interact with microbial cells in order to transfer their content to the target species. Herein, we review microbial interactions using MVs and discuss MV-mediated selective delivery of their content to target microbial cells.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533775

RESUMO

A batch culture was enriched on phenol with trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer soil as an inoculum. Cupriavidus sp. strain P-10 was isolated from the culture using a diluted plating method. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of strain P-10, which provides insights into the metabolic processes of phenol degradation.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(66): 9127-9130, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882948

RESUMO

We report a simple and promising synthetic method to oxidize peptide hydrazides containing N-terminal thiazolidine as a protected cysteine. This yields the corresponding thioester via a peptide azide without decomposition of the thiazolidine ring. The newly developed protocol was validated by the synthesis of the bioactive peptide LacZα.


Assuntos
Ésteres/síntese química , Hidrazinas/química , Peptídeos/síntese química , Tiazolidinas/síntese química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cisteína/química , Ésteres/química , Peptídeos/química , Nitrito de Sódio/química , Tiazolidinas/química , Ácido Trifluoracético/química
17.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 125(5): 565-571, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373307

RESUMO

We investigated how bacterial communities adapted to external resistances and exhibited the performance of electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with external resistance of 10 Ω (LR-MFC) and 1000 Ω (HR-MFC). The HR-MFC exhibited better performance than the LR-MFC. The power densities of the LR-MFC and the HR-MFC were 5.2 ± 1.6 mW m-2 and 28 ± 9.6 mW m-2 after day 197, respectively. Low-scan cyclic voltammetry analyses indicated that the onset potential of the HR-MFC was more negative than that of the LR-MFC, suggesting that the higher external resistance led to enrichment of the highly current producing bacteria on the anode surface. All clones of Geobacter retrieved from the LR-MFC and the HR-MFC were members of the Geobacter metallireducens clade. Although the population density of Geobacter decreased from days 366-427 in the HR-MFC, the current density was almost maintained. Multidimensional scaling analyses based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that the dynamics of the biofilm and anolytic communities changed synchronously in the two MFCs, but the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the LR-MFC and the HR-MFC were different from each other, reflecting different processes in adaptation to the different external resistances. The results suggest that the microbial community structure was formed by adapting to higher external resistance, exhibiting more negative onset potential and higher performance of the HR-MFC through collaborating with anode-respiring bacteria and fermenters.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Biofilmes , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Fermentação , Geobacter
18.
Genome Announc ; 5(36)2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883136

RESUMO

Comamonas testosteroni strain R2 was isolated from a continuous culture enriched by a low concentration of phenol-oxygenating activities with low Ks values (below 1 µM). The draft genome sequence of C. testosteroni strain R2 reported here may contribute to determining the phenol degradation gene cluster.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 571, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439261

RESUMO

Membrane vesicles (MVs) are secreted from a wide range of microbial species and transfer their content to other cells. Although MVs play critical roles in bacterial communication, whether MVs selectively interact with bacterial cells in microbial communities is unclear. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the MV-cell interactions and evaluated the potential of MVs to target bacterial cells for delivery. MV association with bacterial cells was examined using a fluorescent membrane dye to label MVs. MVs derived from the enterobacterium Buttiauxella agrestis specifically interacted with cells of the parent strain but interacted less specifically with those of other genera tested in this study. Electron microscopic analyses showed that MVs were not only attached on B. agrestis cells but also fused to them. The interaction energy, which was characterized by hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential based on the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, was significant low between MVs and cells in B. agrestis, compared to those between B. agrestis MVs and cells of other genera. Similar specific interaction was also occurred between B. agrestis MVs and cells of six other species belonging to Buttiauxella spp. B. agrestis harboring plasmid pBBR1MCS-1 secreted plasmid-containing MVs (p-MVs), and plasmid DNA in p-MVs was transferred to the same species. Moreover, antibiotic-associated MVs enabled effective killing of target species; the survival rate of B. agrestis was lower than those of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of gentamicin-associated MVs derived from B. agrestis. Altogether, we provide the evidence that MVs selectively interact with target bacterial cells and offer a new avenue for controlling specific bacterial species using bacterial MVs in microbial communities.

20.
Microbes Environ ; 32(1): 40-46, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28302951

RESUMO

A conjugative F plasmid induces mature biofilm formation by Escherichia coli by promoting F-pili-mediated cell-cell interactions and increasing the expression of biofilm-related genes. We herein demonstrated another function for the F plasmid in E. coli biofilms; it contributes to the emergence of genetic and phenotypic variations by spontaneous mutations. Small colony variants (SCVs) were more frequently generated in a continuous flow-cell biofilm than in the planktonic state of E. coli harboring the F plasmid. E. coli SCVs represented typical phenotypic changes such as slower growth, less biofilm formation, and greater resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics than the parent strain. Genomic and complementation analyses indicated that the small colony phenotype was caused by the insertion of Tn1000, which was originally localized in the F plasmid, into the hemB gene. Furthermore, the Tn1000 insertion was removed from hemB in the revertant, which showed a normal colony phenotype. This study revealed that the F plasmid has the potential to increase genetic variations not only by horizontal gene transfer via F pili, but also by site-specific recombination within a single cell.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fator F , Fenótipo , Aminoglicosídeos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Teste de Complementação Genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Mutagênese Insercional
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