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1.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689070

RESUMO

Monounsaturated normal fatty acids (n-MUFA) and saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are structurally characterized by separate tandem mass spectrometry methods for double bond localization and for chain branching in their respective fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derivatives, however these methods have never been applied to branched monounsaturated FAME. Here we report application of electron ionization (EI)-MS/MS and solvent-mediated covalent adduct chemical ionization (CACI)-MS/MS of monounsaturated BCFA methyl esters (MUBCFAME) of chain length 15-20 carbons. A novel system was used to implement CI with low vapor pressure reagents in a tabletop triple quadrupole MS. Anteiso-MUBCFA EI-MS/MS of the molecular ion (M) yields a characteristic diagnostic ion [M-29]+. iso-MUBCFA can be distinguished from n-MUFA by an ion intensity ratio of [M-32]+/[M-43]+, with iso-MUBCFA yielding a ratio >1.7 while n-MUFA yield a ratio <1.0. Chain branching at the iso and anteiso positions, terminal isopropyl and sec-butyl, respectively, do not alter CACI-MS/MS diagnostic ions compared to normal BCFA, enabling double bond positions of MUBCFA to be determined with the analogous α and ω diagnostic ions from cleavage on both sides of the erstwhile double bond. Taken together, this straightforward FAME-based technique via combination of EI-MS/MS and CACI-MS/MS enables fundamental structural identification of MUBCFA without standards.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691077

RESUMO

The previous clinical trials found that the co-administration of irinotecan with sunitinib exhibited a synergistic antitumor effect. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether the synergistic effect is related to a potential pharmacokinetic interaction between sunitinib and irinotecan. The inhibitory effects of sunitinib on SN-38 glucuronidation were determined by measuring the formation rates for SN38 glucuronide using recombinant human UGT isoforms and human liver microsomes (HLMs) in the absence or presence of sunitinib. Our data indicated that sunitinib exhibited competitive inhibition against SN-38 glucuronidation by UGT1A1, but inhibitory effects of sunitinib were weak in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) (Ki = 119.00 µM) and recombinant UGT1A1 (Ki = 42.71 µM). Our further prediction study partly explains the possible mechanism of synergistic antitumor activity of sunitinib and irinotecan in the combined treatment and provides a basis for design of clinical studies for the development and optimization of this combination.

3.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the value of the right hemi-diaphragmatic excursion (DE) and its variation in predicting extubation outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with COPD. METHODS: All included patients with COPD received mechanical ventilation (MV) and were ready to wean from MV. After patients passed the 30 min spontaneous breathing trail (SBT), extubation was considered to be feasible, and the right DE measured by ultrasound at 0 min, 5 min, and 30 min of SBT were named as DE0, DE5, and DE30, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients succeeded extubation; 12 patients failed. The area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUCROC) of DE30 and ΔDE30-5 (the variation between 30 and 5 min) were 0.762 and 0.835; a cutoff value of DE30 > 1.72 cm and ΔDE30-5 > 0.16 cm were associated with a successful extubation with a sensitivity of 76% and 84%, a specificity of 75% and 83.3%, respectively. The predictive probability equation of the DE30 plus ∆DE30-5 was P = 1/[1 + e-(-5.625+17.689×∆DE30-5+1.802×DE30)], a cutoff value of P > 0.626 was associated with a successful extubation with the AUCROC of 0.867, a sensitivity of 92%, and a specificity of 83.3%. CONCLUSION: The combination of DE30 and ∆DE30-5 could improve the predictive value and could be used as the predictor of extubation outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with COPD.

4.
Appl Opt ; 58(30): 8148-8152, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674484

RESUMO

In this work, we report a large-active-area multispectral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector for free-space applications. The detector is realized by fabricating NbTiN nanowire with an active area of 35 µm diameter on two serially connected dielectric mirrors that can simultaneously and efficiently detect single photons at the three typical wavelengths employed in free-space applications, namely, 532, 850, and 1064 nm. Maximal system detection efficiencies (SDEs) of 80.0% at 532 nm and 850 nm and 75.8% at 1064 nm are achieved for polarized light obtained by coupling the detector with an SMF-28 fiber. Upon coupling with a 50 µm multimode fiber, SDEs of 68.6%, 59.6%, and 47.0%, are achieved for 532, 850, and 1064 nm wavelength unpolarized light, respectively. Moreover, the detector shows timing jitters of 37.1 and 41.0 ps when coupled with SMF-28 fiber and 50 µm multimode fiber. This type of detector with a large active area and multiwavelength detection capability is promising for both single and multiwavelength free-space applications.

5.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of free flap perfusion after complex reconstruction is critical for early recognition of flap compromise. Surgeons use a variety of subjective and objective measures to evaluate flap perfusion postoperatively. However, these measures have some limitations. We have developed a wireless, biodegradable, and flexible sensor that can be applied to real-time postoperative free flap monitoring. Here we assess the biocompatibility and function of our novel sensor. METHODS: Seven Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for biocompatibility studies. The sensor was implanted around the femoral artery near the inguinal ligament on one leg (implant side) and sham surgery was performed on the contralateral leg (control side). At 6 and 12 weeks, samples were harvested to assess the inflammation within and around the implant and artery. Two animals were used to assess sensor function. Sensor function was evaluated at implantation and 7 days after the implantation. Signal changes after venous occlusion were also assessed in an epigastric artery island flap model. RESULTS: In biocompatibility studies, the diameter of the arterial lumen and intima thickness in the implant group were not significantly different than the control group at the 12-week time point. The number of CD-68 positive cells that infiltrated into the soft tissue, surrounding the femoral artery, was also not significantly different between groups at the 12-week time point. For sensor function, accurate signaling could be recorded at implantation and 7 days later. A change in arterial signal was noted immediately after venous occlusion in a flap model. CONCLUSION: The novel wireless, biodegradable sensor presented here is biocompatible and capable of detecting arterial blood flow and venous occlusion with high sensitivity. This promising new technology could combat the complications of wired sensors, while improving the survival rate of flaps with vessel compromise due to its responsive nature.

6.
MAGMA ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Standardization is an important milestone in the validation of DWI-based parameters as imaging biomarkers for renal disease. Here, we propose technical recommendations on three variants of renal DWI, monoexponential DWI, IVIM and DTI, as well as associated MRI biomarkers (ADC, D, D*, f, FA and MD) to aid ongoing international efforts on methodological harmonization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reported DWI biomarkers from 194 prior renal DWI studies were extracted and Pearson correlations between diffusion biomarkers and protocol parameters were computed. Based on the literature review, surveys were designed for the consensus building. Survey data were collected via Delphi consensus process on renal DWI preparation, acquisition, analysis, and reporting. Consensus was defined as ≥ 75% agreement. RESULTS: Correlations were observed between reported diffusion biomarkers and protocol parameters. Out of 87 survey questions, 57 achieved consensus resolution, while many of the remaining questions were resolved by preference (65-74% agreement). Summary of the literature and survey data as well as recommendations for the preparation, acquisition, processing and reporting of renal DWI were provided. DISCUSSION: The consensus-based technical recommendations for renal DWI aim to facilitate inter-site harmonization and increase clinical impact of the technique on a larger scale by setting a framework for acquisition protocols for future renal DWI studies. We anticipate an iterative process with continuous updating of the recommendations according to progress in the field.

7.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(11S): S399-S416, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685108

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for most malignant renal tumors and is considered the most lethal of all urologic cancers. For follow-up of patients with treated or untreated RCC and those with neoplasms suspected to represent RCC, radiologic imaging is the most useful component of surveillance, as most relapses and cases of disease progression are identified when patients are asymptomatic. Understanding the strengths and limitations of the various imaging modalities for the detection of disease, recurrence, or progression is important when planning follow-up regimens. This publication addresses the appropriate imaging examinations for asymptomatic patients who have been treated for RCC with radical or partial nephrectomy, or ablative therapies. It also discusses the appropriate imaging examinations for asymptomatic patients with localized biopsy-proven or suspected RCC undergoing active surveillance. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

8.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3693-3704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695336

RESUMO

Purpose: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a relatively common, devastating traumatic condition resulting in permanent disability. In this study, the use of exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs-Exo) as a cell-free therapy for the treatment of SCI in rats was investigated to gain insights into their mechanisms of action. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into three groups, Sham (treated with PBS), SCI (SCI injury + PBS) and SCI + Exo (SCI injury + BMSCs-Exo). Changes in the complement system between the three groups were assessed with the use of proteomics. The proteomic data were verified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the distributions of BMSCs-Exo in rats with SCI were detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, SCI-activated NF-κB levels were determined using Western blot. Results: SCI insult increased complement levels, including C4, C5, C6, C4 binding protein alpha and complement factor H. In contrast, the SCI + BMSCs-Exo group exhibited attenuated SCI-induced complement levels. Immunofluorescence assay results revealed that BMSCs-Exo mainly accumulated at the spinal cord injury site and were bound to microglia cells. Western blot analysis of tissue lysates showed that BMSCs-Exo treatment also inhibited SCI-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Conclusion: BMSCs-Exo play a protective role in spinal cord injury by inhibiting complement mRNA synthesis and release and by inhibiting SCI-activated NF-κB by binding to microglia.

9.
Theranostics ; 9(24): 7140-7155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695758

RESUMO

Rationale: Peri-prosthetic osteolysis (PPO) is mainly induced by wear particles and represents the leading cause of implant failure and revision surgery. Previous studies have identified mitigation of wear particle-induced inflammation and bone resorption as the main approaches to treat PPO. Recently, wear particle-induced reduction of bone formation around the prosthesis was identified as a major factor in the development of PPO. Acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (AKBA), a derivative of frankincense, has been shown to play a potential role in bone metabolism. However, whether AKBA enhances bone formation in wear particle-induced osteolysis remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether AKBA attenuates titanium particle-induced osteogenic reduction. Methods: Titanium particles were used to induce osteolysis in murine calvaria, and micro-CT and histological analyses were used to evaluate the results. Mouse osteoblast cells, MC3T3-E1 were co-cultured with titanium particles to determine their effect on osteoblast formation in vitro. Results: We demonstrated that AKBA treatment significantly inhibited titanium particle-induced osteogenic inhibition by enhancing osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. AKBA treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3ß, decreased the degradation of ß-catenin, and increased the translocation of ß-catenin from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Taken together, these results showed that AKBA treatment attenuated titanium-induced osteogenic inhibition by activating the GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion: These findings suggest that AKBA is a promising new target in the prevention and treatment of PPO.

10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 825, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 5-Azacytidine (5-azaC) promotes the development of 'Kyoho' grape berry but the associated changes in gene expression have not been reported. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of grape berry at five developmental stages after 5-azaC treatment to elucidate the gene expression networks controlling berry ripening. RESULTS: The expression patterns of most genes across the time series were similar between the 5-azaC treatment and control groups. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at a given developmental stage ranged from 9 (A3_C3) to 690 (A5_C5). The results indicated that 5-azaC treatment had not very great influences on the expressions of most genes. Functional annotation of the DEGs revealed that they were mainly related to fruit softening, photosynthesis, protein phosphorylation, and heat stress. Eight modules showed high correlation with specific developmental stages and hub genes such as PEROXIDASE 4, CAFFEIC ACID 3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE 1, and HISTONE-LYSINE N-METHYLTRANSFERASE EZA1 were identified by weighted gene correlation network analysis. CONCLUSIONS: 5-AzaC treatment alters the transcriptional profile of grape berry at different stages of development, which may involve changes in DNA methylation.

11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710757

RESUMO

AIMS: Plant tissues are the reservoir of beneficial and harmful microbes that regulates plant growth. In the present study, we investigated the diversity, function, and colonization of sugarcane roots associated with Bacillus spp. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 20 Bacillus strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and their genetic diversity was examined by BOX, ERIC, REP, (GTG)5 PCR techniques. Among all Bacillus isolates, 65% showed indole acetic acid-like compounds production, 50% solubilized phosphorus, and 25% of the isolates were able to secrete siderophore. Moreover, all 20 Bacillus isolates showed antifungal activity against eight fungal pathogens and 11 of them (55%) antagonized tomato gray mold. Based on the plant growth-promoting traits and antifungal potential, isolate Y8 was selected for root and plant tissue colonization assays and a greenhouse-level sugarcane growth promotion study. Fluorescence microscopy results confirmed that isolate Y8 has a strong ability to colonize in the sugarcane root and leaves, and the root surface association of Y8 was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, greenhouse experimental results demonstrated that Y8 has a significant effect on enhancing sugarcane biomass and root length. CONCLUSIONS: Endophytic Bacillus strains have growth-promoting properties and anti-fungal ability that can enhance plant fitness in an eco-friendly manner. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: Endophytic Bacillus strains would be a potential alternative to chemical fertilizer as well as a biocontrol agent in the future.

12.
Environ Pollut ; : 113419, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706769

RESUMO

Ozone has become a major atmospheric pollutant in China as the pattern of urban energy usage has changed and the number of motor vehicles has grown rapidly. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, also known as the Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration (hereafter, JJJUA), with a precarious balance between protecting the ecological environment and sustaining economic development, is challenged by high levels of ozone pollution. Based on ozone observation data from 13 cities in the JJJUA from 2014 to 2017, the spatio-temporal trends in the evolution of ozone pollution and its associated influencing factors were analyzed using Moran's I Index, hot-spot analysis, and Geodetector using ArcGIS and SPSS software. Five key results were obtained. 1) There was an increase in the annual average ozone concentration, for the period 2014-2017. Comparing the 13 prefecture-level cities, ozone pollution in Chengde and Hengshui decreased, while it worsened in the remaining 11 cities. 2) Ozone pollution was worse in spring and summer than in autumn and winter; the peak ozone pollution season was from May to September; the average ozone concentration on workdays was higher than that on non-workdays, showing a counter-weekend effect. 3) Annual average concentrations were high in the central and southern parts of the study region but low in the north. 4) Prominent positive spatial correlations were observed in ozone concentration, with the best correlations shown in summer and autumn; concentrations were high in Baoding and Xingtai but low in Beijing and Chengde. 5) Concentrations of PM10, NO2, CO, SO2, and PM2.5, as well as average wind speed, sunshine duration, evaporation, precipitation, and temperature, all had significant effects on ozone pollution, and interactions between these influencing factors increased it.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702970

RESUMO

There is still lack of a simple, accurate and noninvasive method for rat aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement, especially the transit distance cannot be accurately measured. Thus we aimed to derive an equation for aortic transit distance as a function of the nose-to-rump length (L), and to test the hypothesis that aortic PWV measured by new equation combined with Doppler ultrasound (the "equation method") may have stronger correlation with invasive measurements than traditional "body surface method". Two hundred male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (age ranged 5-24 weeks) were included in Protocol 1 and the aortic transit distances were measured post mortem. In Protocol 2, heart-femoral PWV and carotid-femoral PWV were measured by "equation method" (hfPWVE, cfPWVE), and also by traditional "body surface method" (hfPWVS, cfPWVS) in another 30 young and 28 old rats. Then these measurements were validated against invasively measured hfPWVI, cfPWVI from the same animal. Protocol 1 showed that the heart-femoral transit distance could be calculated by 0.6086×L-1.6523, the carotid-femoral transit distance by 0.4614×L+1.8335. In Protocol 2, in young rats, the Pearson r between hfPWVE, cfPWVE, hfPWVS, cfPWVS and their corresponding invasive measurement were 0.8962, 0.8509, 0.8387, 0.7828, respectively (all P<0.0001). In old group, the results were 0.8718, 0.7999, 0.8330, 0.7112, respectively (all P<0.0001). The hfPWVE and cfPWVE showed better agreement with hfPWVI and cfPWVI, and lower intra- and inter-observer variability compared with hfPWVS and cfPWVS in both groups. These findings demonstrate that this novel methodology provides a simple and reliable method for rat noninvasive aortic PWV measurement.

14.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; : 100802, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704338

RESUMO

The ocular lens is a unique tissue that contains an age gradient of cells and proteins ranging from newly differentiated cells containing newly synthesized proteins to cells and proteins that are as old as the organism. Thus, the ocular lens is an excellent model for studying long-lived proteins (LLPs) and the effects of aging and post-translational modifications on protein structure and function. Given the architecture of the lens, with young fiber cells in the outer cortex and the oldest cells in the lens nucleus, spatially-resolved studies provide information on age-specific protein changes. In this review, experimental strategies and proteomic methods that have been used to examine age-related and cataract-specific changes to the human lens proteome are described. Measured spatio-temporal changes in the human lens proteome are summarized and reveal a highly consistent, time-dependent set of modifications observed in transparent human lenses. Such measurements have led to the discovery of cataract-specific modifications and the realization that many animal systems are unsuitable to study many of these modifications. Mechanisms of protein modifications such as deamidation, racemization, truncation, and protein-protein crosslinking are presented and the implications of such mechanisms for other long-lived proteins in other tissues are discussed in the context of age-related neurological diseases. A comprehensive understanding of LLP modifications will enhance our ability to develop new therapies for the delay, prevention or reversal of age-related diseases.

15.
Electrophoresis ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705760

RESUMO

A new method for measurement of aprotinin potency by capillary zone electrophoresis-ultraviolet detector was established for the first time. The on-line mixing of substrate, trypsin and aprotinin using at-inlet technology was realized by the established method. Enzymatic reaction, separation and detection of substrate and product can be performed simultaneously online. The aprotinin potency can be measured within 4.00 min. The response surface methodology was used to optimize the incubation conditions of trypsin and substrate, and the optimized conditions were obtained under 17.39 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.6, 1.40 min of incubation time. The repeatability of proposed method was evaluated in three different systems of capillary zone electrophoresis: (i) only substrate; (ii) trypsin and substrate; (iii) aprotinin, trypsin and substrate, and the relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas of substrate were less than 2.7% and 3.1%, respectively. The relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas of product were less than 2.1% and 3.0%, respectively. A formula was also developed to calculate the aprotinin potency in this method. In a word, the established capillary zone electrophoresis-ultraviolet method was convenient, fast and environmentally friendly for the measurement of aprotinin potency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 161, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wound-related complications are an inevitable issue faced by spinal surgeons. Negative pressure drainage remains the most commonly used method to prevent postoperative hematoma and related complications. This prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of compression therapy following posterior lumbar interbody fusion, with emphasis on pain, anemia, and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients who have undergone posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the age range 43-78 years, with an average age of 59 years, were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. Factors, such as drainage volume, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score for back pain, white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels assessed on the 1st, 3rd, and 10th days postoperatively, were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 6 months, ranging from 3 to 11 months. Drainage volume, VAS score, and CRP levels on the 10th day after the surgery were found to be significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. RBC count and Hb levels on the 3rd and 10th postoperative days were observed to be significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). During discharge, the wounds of the patients of the both groups had healed and neither showed any symptoms of infection, hematoma, or necrosis. CONCLUSION: Compression therapy relieves pain, alleviates anemia, and the inflammatory response following posterior lumbar interbody fusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800015825 on chictr.org.cn, April 23, 2018, the trial registry is Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.

17.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134616, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705923

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Synaptosomal associated proteins of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), as a member of stable soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex, is critical for membrane fusion and required for the release of neurotransmitters. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is implicated in pathologic pain. This study aimed to investigate whether and how SNAP-25 regulated AMPA receptors in neuropathic pain. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent L4 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) or the sham procedure. After assessing mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity, the ipsilateral portion of the L4-5 spinal cord was harvested. The expression level of SNAP-25 was analyzed by Western blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. SNAP-25 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor membrane trafficking levels were evaluated with Western blot analysis. An association between SNAP-25 and AMPA membrane trafficking was confirmed by SNAP-25 expression or phosphorylation inhibition. RESULTS: The SNL procedure induced and maintained mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. SNL increased the expression and phosphorylation of SNAP-25 and the membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors in the spinal cord. SNAP-25 expression or phosphorylation inhibition alleviated neuropathic pain and downregulated membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors after SNL. GluA1-containing AMPA receptor inhibition relieved mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after SNL. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of SNAP-25-dependent membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors via SNAP-25 phosphorylation at Ser187 contributed to SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, the inhibition of SNAP-25 expression or phosphorylation might serve as a treatment for neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of GluA1-containing AMPA receptor membrane trafficking mediated by SNAP-25 phosphorylation in neuropathic pain deserves further exploration.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712149

RESUMO

A novel polysaccharide (PNP80b-2) was obtained from Pinus koraiensis pine nut, which has been proved to possess good hepatoprotective effects in vitro. This study comprehensively investigated its hepatoprotective activities against different types of chemical-induced liver injury in vivo. Carbon tetrachloride, alcohol and acetaminophen were used as hepatic toxicants to establish chemical pollutant-induced liver injury (CILI) model, alcohol induced-liver injury (AILI) model and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) model, respectively. The results showed that PNP80b-2 prevented elevation of biomarkers for liver injury in each model, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL). The expression of cytochrome P450 in damaged hepatocytes was also downregulated. Additionally, PNP80b-2 enhanced hepatic antioxidant capacity through upregulating the expression of NRF2 and HO-1, thereby increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities and decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The uncontrolled production of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in CILI, AILI and DILI models was also suppressed by PNP80b-2. By contrast, PNP80b-2 exerted the strongest hepatoprotection against AILI model, through improving hepatic antioxidant capacity via NRF2/ARE pathway and regulating inflammation response. Thus, PNP80b-2 is a promising functional food to prevent AILI.

19.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699400

RESUMO

This paper investigates the synchronization issue of the memristive neural networks (MNNs) with inertial terms and reaction-diffusion items. In order to smoothly derive the controller gains and obtain an excellent control effect, the desired controller that contains a discontinuous function is proposed. Moreover, by constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and combining the inequality techniques, several sufficient conditions in terms of algebraic inequalities are obtained to guarantee the synchronization of the proposed drive and response systems. Finally, three numerical simulations are exploited to support the acquired theoretical results.

20.
Virol J ; 16(1): 135, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: H9N2 influenza viruses continuously circulate in multiple avian species and are repeatedly transmitted to humans, posing a significant threat to public health. To investigate the adaptation ability of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to mammals and the mutations related to the host switch events, we serially passaged in mice two H9N2 viruses of different HA lineages - A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (G1) of the G1-like lineage and A/chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (ZB) of the BJ/94-like lineage -and generated two mouse-adapted H9N2 viruses (G1-MA and ZB-MA) that possessed significantly higher virulence than the wide-type viruses. FINDING: ZB-MA replicated systemically in mice. Genomic sequence alignment revealed 10 amino acid mutations coded by 4 different gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, and M) in G1-MA compared with the G1 virus and 23 amino acid mutations in 5 gene segments (PB1, PA, HA, M, and NS) in ZB-MA compared to ZB virus, indicating that the mutations in the polymerase, HA, M, and NS genes play critical roles in the adaptation of H9N2 AIVs to mammals, especially, the mutations of M1-Q198H and M1-A239T were shared in G1-MA and ZB-MA viruses. Additionally, several substitutions showed a higher frequency in human influenza viruses compared with avian viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Different lineages of H9N2 could adapt well in mice and some viruses could gain the ability to replicate systemically and become neurovirulent. Thus, it is essential to pay attention to the mammalian adaptive evolution of the H9N2 virus.

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