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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 16(1): 63, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decitabine (DAC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, has shown efficacy combined with chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults, but less is known about its efficacy in children. Accordingly, we conducted a study which involved a priming regimen consisting of DAC with cladribine, cytarabine, and granulocyte-stimulating factor (DAC-CLAG) and compared the efficacy and safety of this regimen with CLAG alone. METHODS: A total of 39 R/R AML children who received the CLAG or DAC-CLAG regimen in Shanghai Children's Hospital were retrospectively enrolled in this non-randomized study. These regimens were studied sequentially over time. Twenty-two patients received CLAG from 2015, while 17 patients were administered epigenetic priming with DAC before CLAG from 2020. Patients were subsequently bridged to stem cell transplantation (SCT) or consolidation chemotherapy. Complete remission (CR) and adverse effects were analyzed by Fisher's exact test, and survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: DAC-CLAG conferred a numerically higher CR compared to CLAG (70.59% vs 63.64%; P = 0.740). High CR rates occurred in patients with good cytogenetics (P = 0.029) and prior induction without cladribine (P = 0.099). The 1-year event-free survival (EFS) was 64.71% ± 11.59% and 63.31% ± 10.35% in the DAC-CLAG and CLAG group (P = 0.595), and 1-year overall survival (OS) was 81.45% ± 9.72% and 77.01% ± 9.04%, respectively (P = 0.265). The 1-year OS and EFS after SCT were higher in the DAC-CLAG than in the CLAG cohort (100% vs 92.31% ± 7.39%, P = 0.072; 92.31% ± 7.39% vs 85.71% ± 9.35%, P = 0.158). Univariate analysis revealed that a good prognosis included good cytogenetics (P = 0.002), non-complex karyotype (P = 0.056), CR on reinduction (P < 0.0001), and bridging to SCT (P = 0.0007). Use of a hypomethylating agent (P = 0.049) and bridging to SCT (P = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors. Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity and infection were the main adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: DAC prior to the CLAG regimen improved remission in pediatric R/R AML, and was feasible and well tolerated. CLAG ± DAC as a salvage therapy prior to SCT induced improved survival.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Cladribina , Citarabina , Decitabina , Epigênese Genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cladribina/uso terapêutico , Cladribina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Resultado do Tratamento , Indução de Remissão/métodos
2.
Behav Brain Res ; 468: 115028, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723677

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk of depression later in life. Programmed cell death factor 4 (PDCD4), an apoptosis-related molecule, extensively participates in tumorigenesis and inflammatory diseases. However, its involvement in a person's susceptibility to ELS-related depression is unknown. To examine the effects and underlying mechanisms of PDCD4 on ELS vulnerability, we used a "two-hit" stress mouse model: an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into neonatal mice was performed on postnatal days 7-9 (P7-P9) and inescapable foot shock (IFS) administration in adolescent was used as a later-life challenge. Our study shows that compared with mice that were only exposed to the LPS or IFS, the "two-hit" stress mice developed more severe depression/anxiety-like behaviors and social disability. We detected the levels of PDCD4 in the hippocampus of adolescent mice and found that they were significantly increased in "two-hit" stress mice. The results of immunohistochemical staining and Sholl analysis showed that the number of microglia in the hippocampus of "two-hit" stress mice significantly increased, with morphological changes, shortened branches, and decreased numbers. However, knocking down PDCD4 can prevent the number and morphological changes of microglia induced by ELS. In addition, we confirmed through the Golgi staining and immunohistochemical staining results that knocking down PDCD4 can ameliorate ELS-induced synaptic plasticity damage. Mechanically, the knockdown of PDCD4 exerts neuroprotective effects, possibly via the mediation of BDNF/AKT/CREB signaling. Combined, these results suggest that PDCD4 may play an important role in the ELS-induced susceptibility to depression and, thus, may become a therapeutic target for depressive disorders.

3.
J Med Chem ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730324

RESUMO

Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a potential target for cancer drug discovery. Although several DDR1 kinase inhibitors have been developed, recent studies have revealed the critical roles of the noncatalytic functions of DDR1 in tumor progression, metastasis, and immune exclusion. Degradation of DDR1 presents an opportunity to block its noncatalytic functions. Here, we report the discovery of the DDR1 degrader LLC355 by employing autophagosome-tethering compound technology. Compound LLC355 efficiently degraded DDR1 protein with a DC50 value of 150.8 nM in non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H23 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed compound LLC355 to induce DDR1 degradation via lysosome-mediated autophagy. Importantly, compound LLC355 potently suppressed cancer cell tumorigenicity, migration, and invasion and significantly outperformed the corresponding inhibitor 1. These results underline the therapeutic advantage of targeting the noncatalytic function of DDR1 over inhibition of its kinase activity.

4.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 4): 119064, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710427

RESUMO

Soil cadmium (Cd) pollution has emerged as a pressing concern due to its deleterious impacts on both plant physiology and human well-being. Silicon (Si) is renowned for its ability to mitigate excessive Cd accumulation within plant cells and reduce the mobility of Cd in soil, whereas Selenium (Se) augments plant antioxidant capabilities and promotes rhizosphere microbial activity. However, research focusing on the simultaneous utilization of Si and Se to ameliorate plant Cd toxicity through multiple mechanisms within the plant-rhizosphere remains comparatively limited. This study combined hydroponic and pot experiments to investigate the effects of the combined application of Si and Se on Cd absorption and accumulation, as well as the growth and rhizosphere of A. selengensis Turcz under Cd stress. The results revealed that a strong synergistic effect was observed between both Si and Se. The combination of Si and Se significantly increased the activity and content of enzymes and non-enzyme antioxidants within A. selengensis Turcz, reduced Cd accumulation and inhibiting its translocation from roots to shoots. Moreover, Si and Se application improved the levels of reducing sugar, soluble protein, and vitamin C, while reducing nitrite content and Cd bioavailability. Furthermore, the experimental results showed that the combination of Si and Se not only increased the abundance of core rhizosphere microorganisms, but also stimulated the activity of soil enzymes, which effectively limited the migration of Cd in the soil. These findings provided valuable insights into the effective mitigation of soil Cd toxicity to plants and also the potential applications in improving plant quality and safety.

5.
Natl Sci Rev ; 11(6): nwae143, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741715

RESUMO

The near-room temperature resistance transition in the Lu-H-N compound is repeatedly reproduced, which is clarified to originate from a metal-to-semiconductor/insulator transition rather than superconductivity.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1370657, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741765

RESUMO

Introduction: Multiple targets are considered as the causes of ambient fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameters of < 2.5 µm (PM2.5)] induced lung function injury. Qiju granules are derived from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula known as Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan (Lycium, Chrysanthemum, and Rehmannia Formula, QJDHW), which has been traditionally used to treat symptoms such as cough with phlegm, dry mouth and throat, and liver heat. This treatment approach involves attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis response. This study investigated the effects of Qiju granules on protecting lung function against PM2.5 exposure in a clinical trial. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial was performed among 47 healthy college students in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province in China. The participants were randomly assigned to the Qiju granules group or the control group based on gender. Clinical follow-ups were conducted once every 2 weeks during a total of 4 weeks of intervention. Real-time monitoring of PM2.5 concentrations in the individually exposed participants was carried out. Data on individual characteristics, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and lung function at baseline and during the follow-ups were collected. The effects of PM2.5 exposure on lung function were assessed within each group using linear mixed-effect models. Results: In total, 40 eligible participants completed the scheduled follow-ups. The average PM2.5 level was found to be 64.72 µg/m3 during the study period. A significant negative correlation of lung function with PM2.5 exposure concentrations was observed, and a 1-week lag effect was observed. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEF75), forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50), and forced expiratory flow at 25% of FVC (FEF25) were significantly decreased due to PM2.5 exposure in the control group. Small airway function was impaired more seriously than large airway function when PM2.5 exposure concentrations were increased. In the Qiju granules group, the associations between lung function and PM2.5 exposure were much weaker, and no statistical significance was observed. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that PM2.5 exposure was associated with reduced lung function. Qiju granules could potentially be effective in protecting lung functions from the adverse effects of PM2.5 exposure. Clinical Trial Registration: identifier: ChiCTR1900021235.

7.
Curr Biol ; 34(9): R452-R472, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714177

RESUMO

Forest restoration is being scaled up globally, carrying major expectations of environmental and societal benefits. Current discussions on ensuring the effectiveness of forest restoration are predominantly focused on the land under restoration per se. But this focus neglects the critical issue that land use and its drivers at larger spatial scales have strong implications for forest restoration outcomes, through the influence of landscape context and, importantly, potential off-site impacts of forest restoration that must be accounted for in measuring its effectiveness. To ensure intended restoration outcomes, it is crucial to integrate forest restoration into land-use planning at spatial scales large enough to account for - and address - these larger-scale influences, including the protection of existing native ecosystems. In this review, we highlight this thus-far neglected issue in conceptualizing forest restoration for the delivery of multiple desirable benefits regarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We first make the case for the need to integrate forest restoration into large-scale land-use planning, by reviewing current evidence on the landscape-level influences and off-site impacts pertaining to forest restoration. We then discuss how science can guide the integration of forest restoration into large-scale land-use planning, by laying out key features of methodological frameworks required, reviewing the extent to which existing frameworks carry these features, and identifying methodological innovations needed to bridge the potential shortfall. Finally, we critically review the status of existing methods and data to identify future research efforts needed to advance these methodological innovations and, more broadly, the effective integration of forest restoration design into large-scale land-use planning.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos
8.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30214, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707310

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating small unruptured intracranial aneurysms are detected due to the improved quality and higher frequency of cranial imaging, but treatment remains controversial. While surgery or endovascular treatment is effective for small aneurysms with a high risk of rupture, such interventions are unnecessary for aneurysms with a low risk of rupture. Consequently, it is imperative to accurately identify small aneurysms with a low risk of rupture. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically practical model to predict small aneurysm ruptures based on a radiomics signature and clinical risk factors. Methods: A total of 293 patients having an aneurysm with a diameter of less than 5 mm, including 199 patients (67.9 %) with a ruptured aneurysm and 94 patients (32.1 %) without a ruptured aneurysm, were included in this study. Digital subtraction angiography or surgical treatment was required in all cases. Data on the clinical risk factors and the features on computed tomography angiography images associated with the aneurysm rupture status were collected simultaneously. We developed a clinical-radiomics model to predict aneurysm rupture status using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The combined clinical-radiomics model was constructed by nomogram analysis. The diagnostic performance, clinical utility, and model calibration were evaluated by operating characteristic curve analysis, decision curve analysis, and calibration analysis. Results: A combined clinical-radiomics model (Area Under Curve [AUC], 0.85; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.757-0.947) showed effective performance in the operating characteristic curve analysis. In the validation cohort, the performance of the combined model was better than that of the radiomics model (AUC, 0.75; 95 % CI, 0.645-0.865; Delong's test p-value = 0.01) and the clinical model (AUC, 0.74; 95 % CI, 0.625-0.851; Delong's test p-value <0.01) alone. The results of the decision curve, nomogram, and calibration analyses demonstrated the clinical utility and good fitness of the combined model. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of a clinical-radiomics model for predicting rupture status in small aneurysms.

9.
Transplantation ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of complications in clinical liver surgery. AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) is a member of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family (TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK). Our previous study has shown that AXL expression was markedly upregulated in liver transplantation patients. However, the underlying mechanism of AXL in hepatic I/R injury remains unclear. METHODS: A mouse liver warm I/R model and a primary hepatocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation model were established to investigate the role of AXL activation and ferroptosis in hepatic I/R injury by pretreating with recombinant mouse growth arrest-specific protein 6 (AXL activator) or R428 (AXL inhibitor). Moreover, we used LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) to evaluate the relationship between the PI3K/AKT (the Ser and Thr kinase AKT) pathway and ferroptosis in hepatic I/R injury. RESULTS: Hepatic I/R injury decreased phosphorylation AXL expression and enhanced ferroptosis in liver transplantation patients and hepatic I/R-subjected mice. AXL activation attenuated lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis in hepatic I/R injury in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of AXL activation exacerbated liver pathological damage and liver dysfunction, as well as iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation in hepatic I/R injury. Mechanistically, activated growth arrest-specific protein 6/AXL and its downstream PI3K/AKT signaling pathway inhibited ferroptosis during hepatic I/R injury. CONCLUSIONS: AXL activation protects against hepatic I/R injury by preventing ferroptosis through the PI3K/AKT pathway. This study is the first investigation on the AXL receptor and ferroptosis, and activating AXL to mitigate ferroptosis may be an innovative therapeutic strategy to combat hepatic I/R injury.

10.
J Med Chem ; 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690856

RESUMO

The mediator kinases CDK8 and CDK19 control the dynamic transcription of selected genes in response to various signals and have been shown to be hijacked to sustain hyperproliferation by various solid and liquid tumors. CDK8/19 is emerging as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. Here, we report the discovery of compound 12, a novel small molecule CDK8/19 inhibitor. This molecule demonstrated not only decent enzymatic and cellular activities but also remarkable selectivity in CDK and kinome panels. Besides, compound 12 also displayed favorable ADME profiles including low CYP1A2 inhibition, acceptable clearance, and high oral bioavailability in multiple preclinical species. Robust in vivo PD and efficacy studies in mice models further demonstrated its potential use as mono- and combination therapy for the treatment of cancers.

11.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 267, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia is an uncommon precipitant of acute respiratory distress syndrome and is associated with high mortality. Prone positioning ventilation has been proven to reduce mortality in patients with moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. We investigated the effect of prone positioning on oxygenation and mortality in intubated patients with pneumocystis pneumonia comorbid with moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study, eligible patients were enrolled at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2021. Data on demographics, clinical features, ventilation parameters, arterial blood gas, and outcomes were collected. Patients were assigned to the prone cohort or supine cohort according to whether they received prone positioning ventilation. The main outcome was 28-day mortality. FINDINGS: A total of 79 patients were included in the study. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in the prone cohort, and 16 patients were enrolled in the supine cohort. The 28-day mortality was 61.9% in the prone cohort and 68.8% in the supine cohort (P = 0.26), and 90-day mortality was 66.7% in the prone cohort and 68.8% in the supine cohort (P = 0.55). Patients in the supine cohort had fewer invasive mechanical ventilation days and more ventilator-free days. The incidence of complications was higher in the prone cohort than in the supine cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with pneumocystis pneumonia and moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, prone positioning did not decrease 28-day or 90-day mortality. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, ChiCTR2200063889. Registered on 20 September 2022, https://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.html?proj=174886 .


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/mortalidade , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/terapia , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Decúbito Ventral , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , China/epidemiologia
12.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732451

RESUMO

DREB has been reported to be involved in plant growth and response to environmental factors. However, the function of DREB in growth and development has not been elucidated in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial tetraploid forage cultivated worldwide. In this study, an ortholog of MtDREB1C was characterized from alfalfa and named MsDREB1C accordingly. MsDREB1C was significantly induced by abiotic stress. The transcription factor MsDREB1C resided in the nucleus and had self-transactivation activity. The MsDREB1C overexpression (OE) alfalfa displayed growth retardation under both long-day and short-day conditions, which was supported by decreased MsGA20ox and upregulated MsGA2ox in the OE lines. Consistently, a decrease in active gibberellin (GA) was detected, suggesting a negative effect of MsDREB1C on GA accumulation in alfalfa. Interestingly, the forage quality of the OE lines was better than that of WT lines, with higher crude protein and lower lignin content, which was supported by an increase in the leaf-stem ratio (LSR) and repression of several lignin-synthesis genes (MsNST, MsPAL1, MsC4H, and Ms4CL). Therefore, this study revealed the effects of MsDREB1C overexpression on growth and forage quality via modifying GA accumulation and lignin synthesis, respectively. Our findings provide a valuable candidate for improving the critical agronomic traits of alfalfa, such as overwintering and feeding value of the forage.

13.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(9)2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732667

RESUMO

This work aims to expand the structure-property relationships of bromo-containing polyimides and the influence of bromine atoms on the gas separation properties of such materials. A series of intrinsically microporous polyimides were synthesized from 2,2'-dibromo-4,4',5,5'-bipohenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (Br-BPDA) and five bulky diamines, (7,7'-(mesitylmethylene)bis(8-methyldibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin-2-amine) (MMBMA), 7,7'-(Mesitylmethylene)bis(1,8-dimethyldibenzo[b,e][1,4] dioxin-2-amine) (MMBDA), 4,10-dimethyl-6H,12H-5,11-methanodibenzo[b,f][1,5]diazocine-2,8-diamine (TBDA1), 4,10-dimethyl-6H,12H-5,11-methanodibenzo[b,f][1,5]diazocine-3,9-diamine (TBDA2), and (9R,10R)-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-2,6-diamine (DAT). The Br-BPDA-derived polyimides exhibited excellent solubility, high thermal stability, and good mechanical properties, with their tensile strength and modulus being 59.2-109.3 MPa and 1.8-2.2 GPa, respectively. The fractional free volumes (FFVs) and surface areas (SBET) of the Br-BPDA-derived polyimides were in the range of 0.169-0.216 and 211-342 m2 g-1, following the order of MMBDA > MMBMA > TBDA2 > DAT > TBDA1, wherein the Br-BPDA-MMBDA exhibited the highest SBET and FFV and thus highest CO2 permeability of 724.5 Barrer. Moreover, Br-BPDA-DAT displayed the best gas separation performance, with CO2, H2, O2, N2, and CH4 permeabilities of 349.8, 384.4, 69.8, 16.3, and 19.7 Barrer, and H2/N2 selectivity of 21.4. This can be ascribed to the ultra-micropores (<0.7 nm) caused by the high rigidity of Br-BPDA-DAT. In addition, all the bromo-containing polymers of intrinsic microporosity membranes exhibited excellent resistance to physical ageing.

14.
Opt Lett ; 49(10): 2785-2788, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748161

RESUMO

Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) enables three-dimensional (3D) super-resolution imaging of nanoscale structures within biological samples. However, prolonged acquisition introduces a drift between the sample and the imaging system, resulting in artifacts in the reconstructed super-resolution image. Here, we present a novel, to our knowledge, 3D drift correction method that utilizes both the reflected and scattered light from the sample. Our method employs the reflected light of a near-infrared (NIR) laser for focus stabilization while synchronously capturing speckle images to estimate the lateral drift. This approach combines high-precision active compensation in the axial direction with lateral post-processing compensation, achieving the abilities of 3D drift correction with a single laser light. Compared to the popular localization events-based cross correlation method, our approach is much more robust, especially for datasets with sparse localization points.

15.
J Infect ; : 106181, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates. The blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines presents a promising therapeutic strategy. METHODS: We conducted a randomized clinical trial at the 154th hospital, Xinyang, Henan Province. Eligible patients with severe SFTS disease were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either a single intravenous infusion of tocilizumab plus usual care; or usual care only. The primary outcome was the clinical status of death/survival at day 14, while secondary outcomes included improvement from baseline in liver and kidney damage and time required for hospital discharge. The efficacy of tocilizumab plus corticosteroid was compared to those receiving corticosteroid alone. The trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry website (ChiCTR2300076317). RESULTS: 63 eligible patients were assigned to the tocilizumab group and 126 to the control group. The addition of tocilizumab to usual care was associated with a reduced death rate (9.5%) compared to those received only usual care (23.0%), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.91, P=0.029). Combination therapy of tocilizumab and corticosteroids was associated with a significantly reduced fatality (aHR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.56; P =0.002) compared to those receiving corticosteroid alone. CONCLUSIONS: A significant benefit of reducing fatality in severe SFTS patients was observed by using tocilizumab. A combined therapy of tocilizumab plus corticosteroids was recommended for the therapy of severe SFTS.

16.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202400494, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genus Buxus plants, commonly known as "boxwood", are widely distributed in China. The stems, branches, and leaves of the plant are traditionally used for rheumatism, toothache, chest pain, abdominal gas, and other diseases. However, an overview of the genus Buxus remains to be provided. PURPOSE: To provide a scientific basis for the appropriate use and further research the recent advancements in the traditional usage, phytochemistry, and, pharmacology of Buxus. STUDY DESIGN: Chemical composition and pharmacological correlation studies through a literature review. METHODS: Between 1970 and 2023, the available data concerning Buxus was compiled from online scientific sources, such as Sci-Finder, PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Plant names were verified from "The Plant List'. Results: To date, 266 structurally diverse chemicals have been extracted and identified from the genus Buxus. Alkaloids constitute one of its primary bioactive phytochemicals. A summary of the channels of action of Cyclovirobuxine D on the cytotoxicity of a variety of cancers has been provided. CONCLUSION: Numerous findings from contemporary phytochemical and pharmacological studies support the traditional use, facilitating its application. Further research is necessary to address various shortcomings, including the identification of the active ingredients and quality control of the genus Buxus.

17.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a combined model based on radiomics features of Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during the Kupffer phase and to evaluate its value in differentiating well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (w-HCC) from atypical benign focal liver lesions (FLLs). METHODS: A total of 116 patients with preoperatively Sonazoid-CEUS confirmed w-HCC or benign FLL were selected from a prospective multiple study on the clinical application of Sonazoid in FLLs conducted from August 2020 to March 2021. According to the randomization principle, the patients were divided into a training cohort and a test cohort in a 7:3 ratio. Seventy-nine patients were used for establishing and training the radiomics model and combined model. In comparison, 37 patients were used for validating and comparing the performance of the models. The diagnostic efficacy of the models for w-HCC and atypical benign FLLs was evaluated using ROCs curves and decision curves. A combined model nomogram was created to assess its value in reducing unnecessary biopsies. RESULTS: Among the patients, there were 55 cases of w-HCC and 61 cases of atypical benign FLLs, including 28 cases of early liver abscess, 16 cases of atypical hepatic hemangioma, 8 cases of hepatocellular dysplastic nodules (DN), and 9 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). The radiomics model and combined model we established had AUCs of 0.905 and 0.951, respectively, in the training cohort, and the AUCs of the two models in the test cohort were 0.826 and 0.912, respectively. The combined model outperformed the radiomics feature model significantly. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the combined model achieved a higher net benefit within a specific threshold probability range (0.25 to 1.00). A nomogram of the combined model was developed. CONCLUSION: The combined model based on the radiomics features of Sonazoid-CEUS in the Kupffer phase showed satisfactory performance in diagnosing w-HCC and atypical benign FLLs. It can assist clinicians in timely detecting malignant FLLs and reducing unnecessary biopsies for benign diseases.

18.
J Adv Res ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the sex determination mechanisms in birds has great significance for the biological sciences and production in the poultry industry. Sex determination in chickens is a complex process that involves fate decisions of supporting cells such as granulosa or Sertoli cells. However, a systematic understanding of the genetic regulation and cell commitment process underlying sex determination in chickens is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to dissect the molecular characteristics associated with sex determination in the gonads of chicken embryos. METHODS: Single-nucleus RNA-seq (snRNA-seq) and ATAC-seq (snATAC-seq) analysis were conducted on the gonads of female and male chickens at embryonic day 3.5 (E3.5), E4.5, and E5.5. RESULTS: Here, we provided a time-course transcriptional and chromatin accessible profiling of gonads during chicken sex determination at single-cell resolution. We uncovered differences in cell composition and developmental trajectories between female and male gonads and found that the divergence of transcription and accessibility in gonadal cells first emerged at E5.5. Furthermore, we revealed key cell-type-specific transcription factors (TFs) and regulatory networks that drive lineage commitment. Sex determination signaling pathways, dominated by BMP signaling, are preferentially activated in males during gonadal development. Further pseudotime analysis of the supporting cells indicated that granulosa cells were regulated mainly by the TEAD gene family and that Sertoli cells were driven by the DMRT1 regulons. Cross-species analysis suggested high conservation of both cell types and cell-lineage-specific TFs across the six vertebrates. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study will contribute to accelerating the development of sex manipulation technology in the poultry industry and the application of chickens as a unique model for studying cell fate decisions.

19.
Poult Sci ; 103(7): 103794, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718539

RESUMO

Avian feather color is a fascinating trait, and the genetic mechanism of duck plumage formation is still in the preliminary stage. In this study, feather color of Liancheng White ducks was analyzed by determination of melanin content and RNA-seq analysis. In this research, 9 ducks from Mallards (n = 3), Liancheng White (n = 3) and Pekin ducks (n = 3) were used by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Masson-Fontana staining to reveal the difference of feather melanin content. RNA-seq from 11 hair follicle tissues (1- and 8-wk-old) of Liancheng White ducks (n = 5) and Pekin ducks (n = 7) was used to analyze the candidate genes for the feather melanin synthesis, and Immunofluorescence experiment was used to show the protein expression in 6 black- and white-feathered ducks. Pectorale, skin, liver, fat, brain, heart, kidney, lung, spleen of an 8-wk-old black-feathered Mallard were collected for candidate gene expression. The results showed that the contents of feathers, beak, web melanin in Liancheng White ducks were higher than in Pekin ducks (p < 0.05). Melanin within hair follicles was located in the barb ridge and hair matrix of black feather duck, also we found that TYRP1, TYR, SOX10 genes were differentially expressed between Liancheng White and Pekin ducks (p < 0.05), and these genes were mainly expressed showed in duck skin tissues. This study revealed the unique feather color phenotype of Liancheng White duck shedding light on the transcriptome that underlies it.

20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 272: 116473, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718625

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) represents an appealing therapeutic target for multiple cancers, yet no selective FGFR2 inhibitors have been approved for clinical use to date. Here, we report the discovery of a series of new selective, irreversible FGFR2 inhibitors. The representative compound LHQ490 potently inhibited FGFR2 kinase activity with an IC50 of 5.2 nM, and was >61-, >34-, and >293-fold selective against FGFR1, FGFR3, and FGFR4, respectively. LHQ490 also exhibited high selectivity in a panel of 416 kinases. Cell-based studies revealed that LHQ490 efficiently suppressed the proliferation of BaF3-FGFR2 cells with an IC50 value of 1.4 nM, and displayed >70- and >714-fold selectivity against BaF3-FGFR1 and the parental BaF3 cells, respectively. More importantly, LHQ490 potently suppressed the FGFR2 signaling pathways, selectively inhibited FGFR2-driven cancer cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis of FGFR2-driven cancer cells. Taken together, this study provides a potent and highly selective FGFR2 inhibitor for further development of FGFR2-targeted therapeutic agents.

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