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1.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006128

RESUMO

In fish breeding practices, gamete maturity of females is vital to reproductive success. For some species, it is possible to estimate the female maturation status based on abdomen observation, but quite difficult for some species which mature at big size. To screen out the potential biomarker in fish blood relating to female maturation, we employed the approach integrating the UPLC-MS/MS and RNA-seq techniques to investigate the metabolites and genes reflecting the sexual maturation and spawning of female blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. The study included four groups, 1-year-old immature female individuals, 2-year-old immature female individuals, 2-year-old sexually mature female individuals, and 2-year-old sexually mature female individuals after 24 h of successful spawning. The upregulated metabolites in mature females were involved in "steroid hormone biosynthesis," "metabolic pathways," "glycerophospholipid metabolism," etc. compared with those of immature individuals. As the key intermediate of steroid hormone biosynthesis, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone exhibited the highest level in 2-year-old mature females than in the immature females. Meanwhile, the metabolites (i.e., dodecanoic acid and myristic acid) participating in fatty acid synthesis exhibited much lower levels in the females after spawning than those before spawning. In addition to the metabolites, the genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis were significantly upregulated in the 2-year-old immature females compared to the 1-year-old immature females, indicating that the ovarian steroidogenesis plays important roles in ovarian development of M. amblycephala at the early stages. The significant upregulation of genes (i.e., itpr1, camk2, and mekk2) involved in the "GnRH signaling pathway" was observed in the mature females compared with the immature females, which indicated that the estrogen levels increased after female maturation in M. amblycephala. Moreover, many genes (e.g., gck, creb1, tf2-9, ryr2, asgr1, and creb1) regulating insulin secretion and thyroid hormone synthesis were significantly downregulated after female spawning. The dynamics of gene expression and metabolites observed in this study provide novel cues for guiding fish practical artificial reproduction.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exenatide promotes insulin secretion and inhibits postprandial glucagon secretion. Polyethylene glycolated exenatide injection (PB-119), a derivative obtained by modification of exenatide, is more stable in metabolic behavior than exenatide in vivo. Our study aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of polyethylene glycolated exenatide as a single subcutaneous injection in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Seventy subjects were randomly assigned to 8 incremental dosage groups (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 µg). The 2- to 50-µg groups had 8 subjects in each group (the ratio of test preparation to placebo was 3:1), and the 100- to 400-µg groups had 10 subjects in each group (the ratio of test preparation to placebo was 4:1). All the subjects received a single subcutaneous injection of polyethylene glycolated exenatide and placebo according to the dosage groups. The tolerability test was conducted in the 2- to 10-µg groups. The pharmacokinetic test was carried out in the 25- to 400-µg groups, and plasma samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycolated exenatide. After medication, the vital signs of the subjects were monitored, and laboratory tests and electrocardiogram tests were carried out regularly in all the subjects. RESULTS: All 70 subjects completed the experiment. Except for the 5-µg and 10-µg groups, the safety and tolerability tests showed no adverse reactions in the 2-µg to 50-µg groups. Several subjects in the 100-µg and 200-µg groups had tolerable gastrointestinal tract reactions, and all subjects in the 400-µg group experienced adverse reactions, mainly gastrointestinal tract reactions and liver dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycolated exenatide was studied in 36 subjects, which showed slow absorption, a mean peak time of 20-40 h, and a mean elimination half-life of 51-64 h. CONCLUSION: The administration of polyethylene glycolated exenatide injection at a single dose of 2-200 µg is safe and tolerable for healthy volunteers. Once-weekly polyethylene glycolated exenatide injection can be recommended. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (No. NCT02084251).

3.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 192: 105706, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Incidence rate of basal ganglia infarction (BGI) after mild head trauma was reported higher in children with basal ganglia calcification (BGC). We would like to review patients with BGC showed in head CT scan to see the incidence rate of stroke in these patients and the correlation of variables in these cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CT imaging data of cases with diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in a large tertiary pediatric center between Mar. 2014 and Mar. 2019 was retrospectively reviewed. Cases with findings of punctate calcification in the region of basal ganglion in CT scan were included. Correlation of variables of these cases (age, side and volume of basal ganglion calcification) with the diagnosis of BGI was the focus of this study. RESULTS: 37 patients (26 males, 9 females, median age: 3.88±3.54) were included in this study. 17 cases (45.9 %) were diagnosed of BGI and were admitted into the department of neurosurgery. Altogether 63 sides of BGC were categorized into two groups based on whether BGI happened and ROC curve was drawn. ROC curve showed when the cut-off point was 6.55 mm3, the sensitivity was 88.9 % and the specificity was 87.5 %; the area under curve was 0.849 (p<0.01). All the cases were divided into two groups according to whether basal ganglia infarction occurred or not. Mann-Whitney U test showed significant difference between these two groups in age (p=0.01). ROC curve of how age affect BGI after mTBI were drawn. The cut-off point was 3.25 years, and the sensitivity was 65.0 % and the specificity was 88.2 %; the area under curve was 0.746 (p=0.01). All patients received conservative treatment and recovered. CONCLUSION: Incidence rate is higher in children with BGC after mild head injury than that of other children. Larger BGC volume indicates higher risk of developing infarction after minor head injury. Older children with BGC are less-likely getting BGI after mTBI.

4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049907

RESUMO

This paper mainly introduces the current situation of Chinese medical education, and reviews the development and transformation of Chinese clinical medical education. Overall, Chinese clinical medical education is gradually towards standardization and internationalization. At the same time, scientific research is playing an increasingly important role in Chinese clinical medical education.

6.
Dermatol Surg ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Picosecond lasers have become very popular in the treatment of hyperpigmentation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the efficacy and safety of picosecond 755-nm laser in treatment of nevi of Ota (NO) and Hori's nevi (HN) in Asians with Fitzpatrick skin Types III/IV. METHODS: A retrospective review of patient records at the National Skin Center, Singapore, from 2015 to 2017. Three independent blinded dermatologists assessed pre-and-post treatment photographs using the physician's global assessment (PGA) score (0-clear, 1-almost clear, 2-mild, 3-moderate, and 4-severe). RESULTS: There were 18 cases of NO and 11 cases of HN. Mean treatment sessions were 2.22 (NO; range 1-6) and 3.82 (HN; range 1-6). In the NO group, mean pre-and-post treatment PGA scores were 3.1 and 1.3, respectively (1.8 point change, p-value 0.0002), and average fluence used was 2.02 J/cm (range: 1.02-2.38). In the HN group, mean pre-and-post treatment PGA scores were 2.6 and 1.1, respectively (1.5 point change, p-value 0.004), and average fluence was 2.08 J/cm (range: 1.98-3.40). Eleven patients (37.9%) experienced postlaser erythema, and 1 (3.4%) patient developed transient postlaser hypopigmentation. No permanent hyper/hypopigmentation was seen. CONCLUSION: The picosecond 755-nm laser is effective in the treatment of dermal pigmentary conditions in Asians with Fitzpatrick skin Types III/IV, with minimal risk of postlaser complications, and compared with the center's past experience with the Q-switched nanosecond 1064-nm laser, results in faster and more effective pigment clearance.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078559

RESUMO

This study aims to design and implement a very large scale integration (VLSI) chip of the extend InfoMax independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm which can separate the super-Gaussian source signals. In order to substantially reduce the circuit area, the proposed circuit utilizes the time sharing matrix multiplication array (MMA) to realize a series of matrix multiplication operations and employs the coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm to calculate the hyperbolic functions sinh(θ) and cosh(θ) with the rotation of the hyperbolic coordinate system. Also, the rotation of the linear coordinate system of the CORDIC is adopted for the design of a divider used for obtaining the required function value of tanh(θ) simply by evaluating sinh(θ)/cosh(θ). Implemented in a TSMC 90-nm CMOS technology, the proposed ICA has an operation frequency of 100 MHz with 90.8K gate counts. Furthermore, the measurement results show the ICA core can be successfully applied to separating mixed medical signals into independent sources.

8.
Sci Adv ; 6(6): eaay5247, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083182

RESUMO

Retinal organoids (ROs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide potential opportunities for studying human retinal development and disorders; however, to what extent ROs recapitulate the epigenetic features of human retinal development is unknown. In this study, we systematically profiled chromatin accessibility and transcriptional dynamics over long-term human retinal and RO development. Our results showed that ROs recapitulated the human retinogenesis to a great extent, but divergent chromatin features were also discovered. We further reconstructed the transcriptional regulatory network governing human and RO retinogenesis in vivo. Notably, NFIB and THRA were identified as regulators in human retinal development. The chromatin modifications between developing human and mouse retina were also cross-analyzed. Notably, we revealed an enriched bivalent modification of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in human but not in murine retinogenesis, suggesting a more dedicated epigenetic regulation on human genome.

9.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091518

RESUMO

In situ monitoring of electrocatalytic processes at solid-liquid interfaces is essential for the fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms, yet quite challenging. Herein, Pt-on-Au nanocatalysts with a Au-core Pt-satellite superstructure have been fabricated. In such Pt-on-Au nanocatalysts, the Au cores can greatly amplify the Raman signals of the species adsorbed on Pt, allowing the in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) study of the electrocatalytic reactions on Pt. Using the combination of an electrochemical method and in situ SERS, size effects of Pt on the catalytic performance of the core-satellite nanocomposites towards CO and methanol electrooxidation are revealed. It is found that such Pt-on-Au nanocomposites show improved activity and long-term stability for the electrooxidation of CO and methanol with a decrease in the Pt size. This work demonstrates an effective strategy to achieve the in situ monitoring of electrocatalytic processes and to simultaneously boost their catalytic performance towards electrooxidation.

10.
Thorac Cancer ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anastomosis is one of the important factors affecting anastomotic complications after esophagectomy, and multiple reports have compared anastomotic complications among various techniques. However, there is insufficient evidence in the literature to definitively recommend one anastomotic technique over another. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated 34 consecutive patients who underwent an improved totally mechanical side-to-side: posterior-to-posterior linear stapled (TM-STS) technique for minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagogastric anastomosis, performed by a single surgeon between February 2015 to November 2017. The operative techniques and short-term outcomes are analyzed in this study. RESULTS: There were no conversions to an open approach and a complete resection was achieved in all patients undergoing this improved procedure. During the first half of the series, the median operation time was 355 minutes, ranging from 257 to 480 minutes. Over the second half of this series, the median operation time was reduced to 256 minutes. There were no mortalities or serious postoperative complications. Only one patient (2.9%) had an anastomotic leak, which resolved without intervention. Another patient (2.9%) experienced transient, delayed conduit emptying which upper gastrointestinal radiography determined was due to a mechanical obstruction caused by an abnormally long gastric tube in the chest cavity. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that this improved TM-STS technique is safe and effective for minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, and can be considered as one of the alternative procedure for patients with lower esophageal as well as Siewert types I/II gastroesophageal junction carcinoma.

11.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 23, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection have provided inconsistent results, partly due to the choice of the control group. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the risk factors for CRKP infection by comparing CRKP-infected patients with two types of controls: patients infected with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (comparison 1) or patients not infected with CRKP (comparison 2). METHODS: Data on potentially relevant risk factors for CRKP infection were extracted from studies indexed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science or EBSCO databases from January 1996 to April 2019, and meta-analyzed based on the outcomes for each type of comparison. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 18 studies for comparison 1 and 14 studies for comparison 2. The following eight risk factors were common to both comparisons: admission to intensive care unit (ICU; odds ratio, ORcomparison 1 = 3.20, ORcomparison 2 = 4.44), central venous catheter use (2.62, 3.85), mechanical ventilation (2.70, 4.78), tracheostomy (2.11, 8.48), urinary catheter use (1.99, 0.27), prior use of antibiotic (6.07, 1.61), exposure to carbapenems (4.16, 3.84) and exposure to aminoglycosides (1.85, 1.80). Another 10 risk factors were unique to comparison 1: longer length of hospital stay (OR = 15.28); prior hospitalization (within the previous 6 months) (OR = 1.91); renal dysfunction (OR = 2.17); neurological disorders (OR = 1.52); nasogastric tube use (OR = 2.62); dialysis (OR = 3.56); and exposure to quinolones (OR = 2.11), fluoroquinolones (OR = 2.03), glycopeptides (OR = 3.70) and vancomycin (OR = 2.82). CONCLUSIONS: Eighteen factors may increase the risk of carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae infection; eight factors may be associated with both K. pneumoniae infections in general and CRKP in particular. The eight shared factors are likely to be 'true' risk factors for CRKP infection. Evaluation of risk factors in different situations may be helpful for empirical treatment and prevention of CRKP infections.

12.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053129

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are harmful to people's health and d-amino acids (d-AAs) in the human body are closely related to various diseases. So, detection of OPs in foods and d-AAs in serum is important for food safety and clinical diagnosis. Herein, a long-lasting chemiluminescence (CL) imaging sensor was constructed for the detection of OPs and d-AAs. The method was based on N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol/Co2+/chitosan (ABEI/Co2+/CS) hydrogels, where metal organic framework materials (MOF-Pt) were selected as catalysts to improve the sensitivity greatly. Under the catalysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (CHO), H2O2 was produced by using acetylcholine chloride (ACh) as a substrate, which was sensitive to the proposed CL system. OPs inhibited the activity of AChE and decreased the production of H2O2, reducing CL intensity. The linear range of the method for chlorpyrifos was 0.5 ng mL-1-1.0 µg mL-1, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.21 ng mL-1. Seventeen kinds of OPs can be visually and simultaneously discerned by the CL imager. On the other hand, d-AAs were catalyzed and oxidized by d-α-amino oxidase (DAAO) to produce H2O2. Thus, d-Ala in serum was used as a model to be detected by the proposed method. The linear range for d-Ala was 1.0 µM-10 mM, with an LOD of 0.12 µM.

13.
J Dairy Sci ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059859

RESUMO

Enterococcus hirae WEHI01 is a potential probiotic strain isolated from a healthy Chinese infant. This strain has previously been characterized as having cholesterol-lowering potential and good dairy fermentation performance. In this study, we used rat models with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by a high fat and sucrose diet and low-dose streptozotocin, respectively, and we evaluated the effect of E. hirae WEHI01 on glycolipid metabolism, glycolipid-related gene expression, organ histopathology, and intestinal flora changes in the 2 models. Our results showed that administration of 5.0 × 109 cfu of E. hirae WEHI01 for 4 wk decreased serum lipid levels and regulated glycolipid metabolism in the liver of obese rats. Following continuous administration of the same concentration of E. hirae WEHI01 to a T2DM rat model for another 5 wk, E. hirae WEHI01 improved glucose tolerance, recovered body weight loss, and led to significant decreases in tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-10, and total bile acid in serum. We also found that E. hirae WEHI01 restored the morphology of the pancreas, kidney, and liver, and changed the composition of the gut microbiota (i.e., decreased the Shannon index, increased the Simpson index, and substantially increased the abundance of Lactobacillales). Combining the results for the obese model and the T2DM model, we speculated that beneficial effects of E. hirae WEHI01 on T2DM could be due to (1) a significant increase in PPAR-α expression and a tendency for increased CYP7A1 expression in the liver of obese rats, promoting the conversion of cholesterol into bile acid and reducing serum total bile acid levels in T2DM model rats; or (2) a change in gut microbial diversity, especially elevated Lactobacillales abundance, which reduced the total bile acid in T2DM model rats. These results demonstrated that E. hirae WEHI01 has the potential to ameliorate type 2 diabetes in rats and provide a promising rationale for further research into the prevention and treatment of T2DM.

14.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(1): 12-17, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the gene mutational spectrum between elderly and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia(AML) based on next generation sequencing(NGS). METHODS: The specimens of 250 AML patients in first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2018 to November 2018 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The mutation of 22 related genes were detected by using AML NGS chips. Then, the differences between elderly (≥60 years old) and young adults (<60 years old) were compared. RESULTS: The most frequent mutations of 250 patients were as follows: NPM1(22.4%), FLT3-ITD(18.8%), NRAS(17.2%), DNMT3A(14.4%), TET2(11.6%), IDH2(9.6%), Biallelic CEBPA(8.8%), Moallelic CEBPA(8.4%), KIT(8.4%), RUNX1(7.6%), IDH1(7.6%), ASXL1(6.0%), U2AF1(5.2%), SRSF2 (3.2%), SF3B1(3.2%), TP53(2.4%), KRAS(2.0%). The NPM1, CEBPA, DNMT3A mutation significantly increased in intermediate prognosis group while KIT significantly increased in favourable prognosis group. The TET2 and IDH2 mutation rate in elderly patients were significantly higher than that in young patients (21.8% vs 8.7%) (χ2=7.180, P=0.007) and (20.0% vs 6.7%) ( χ2=8.788, P=0.003) respectively. Compared with young patients, the frequencies of DNA methylation and demethylation mutations (including DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1, IDH2) and RNA splicing enzyme mutations (inc-luding SRSF2, SF3B1, U2AF1, ZRSR2) in elderly patients significantly increased(67.3% vs 36.4%) (χ2=16.653, P=0.000) and (23.6% vs 8.7%)(χ2=9.041, P=0.003) respectively. CONCLUSION: The gene mutational spectrum in elderly and young adult AML shows heterogeneity. Compared with young adults, the frequencies of DNA methylation and demethylation mutations and RNA splicing enzyme mutations in elderly patients significantly increase.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(1): 68-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy of patient with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL). METHODS: Seventy-seven ALL patients diagnosed in the first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2018 to 2019 were selected. The immunotyping, fusion gene and gene mutation were detected by flow cytometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and next generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Among 77 patients with ALL, 66 were B-ALL, 9 were T-ALL. CD7 and cCD3 were the most valuable for the diagnosis of T-ALL, CD19 and cCD79a were the most valuable for the diagnosis of B-ALL, and CD58, CD123 were highly expressed in B-ALL. Three fusion genes: BCR-ABL (20.8%), MLL-AF4 (5.19%) and E2A-PBX1 (2.60%) were detected by RT-PCR and 10 mutant genes were detected by NGS (the total detection rate was 33.47%). The highest mutation rates were IL-7R (6 cases), NOTCH1 (6 cases), TP53 (5 cases) and FLT-3 (4 cases). Patients with IL-7R, NOTCH1 and TP53 mutations showed poor response to induction chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The CD123, IL-7R, NOTCH1 and TP53 may be risk factors for prognosis, however, the increase of case number and prolonging of follow-up time are needed to further confirm.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl , Humanos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Prognóstico
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 123: 109716, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896067

RESUMO

Exosomes are endosome-derived extracellular vesicles that are released upon the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. These vesicles contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids and are found in various human body fluids. Exosomes can transfer bioactive molecules to nearby or distant recipient cells, thereby affecting their function. Recently, exosomes have gained importance as a medium of communication between tumor cells. An increasing number of studies have found that non-coding RNAs in tumor cell-derived exosomes can regulate tumor microenvironments, inhibit immune cell function, promote the growth and invasion of tumor cells, and impart resistance to chemicals in tumor cells. In this review, we focus on the effects of exosomal long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on tumors. As exosomes and their parent cells have similar biological characteristics and coated lncRNAs can exist stably in vivo without being degraded by RNases, exosomal lncRNAs have emerged as novel non-invasive tumor biomarkers for use in the early diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis of tumors. Advancements in the field have led to the development of a variety of techniques in exosomal non-coding RNA research. Currently, most methods include the separation and purification of exosomes, followed by RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and subsequent analyses; thus, these processes are very tedious and vulnerable to contamination and could lead to inaccurate and inconsistent results. Thus, there has been an increase in the development of detection methods for exosomal RNAs. Here, we discuss the existing research methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and a few new techniques.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969689

RESUMO

Vonoprazan is characterized as having a long-lasting antisecretory effect on gastric acid. In this study we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) model linking to stomach to simultaneously predict vonoprazan pharmacokinetics and its antisecretory effects following administration to rats, dogs, and humans based on in vitro parameters. The vonoprazan disposition in the stomach was illustrated using a limited-membrane model. In vitro metabolic and transport parameters were derived from hepatic microsomes and Caco-2 cells, respectively. We found the most predicted plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of vonoprazan in rats, dogs and humans were within twofold errors of the observed data. Free vonoprazan concentrations (fu × C2) in the stomach were simulated and linked to the antisecretory effects of the drug (I) (increases in pH or acid output) using the fomula dI/dt = k × fu × C2 × (Imax - I) - kd × I. The vonoprazan dissociation rate constant kd (0.00246 min-1) and inhibition index KI (35 nM) for H+/K+-ATPase were obtained from literatures. The vonoprazan-H+/K+-ATPase binding rate constant k was 0.07028 min-1· µM-1 using ratio of kd to KI. The predicted antisecretory effects were consistent with the observations following intravenous administration to rats (0.7 and 1.0 mg/kg), oral administration to dogs (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) and oral single dose or multidose to humans (20, 30, and 40 mg). Simulations showed that vonoprazan concentrations in stomach were 1000-fold higher than those in the plasma at 24 h following administration to human. Vonoprazan pharmacokinetics and its antisecretory effects may be predicted from in vitro data using the PBPK-PD model of the stomach. These findings may highlight 24-h antisecretory effects of vonoprazan in humans following single-dose or the sustained inhibition throughout each 24-h dosing interval during multidose administration.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18688, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Estrogen is a key factor in breast cancer carcinogenesis, and reductions in its synthesis can decrease breast cancer risk. Anastrozole can reduce plasma estrogen levels by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, and is approved for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. We report a case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in a patient who was treated with anastrozole for an early-stage tumor. This case is of special interest because the patient achieved a better curative effect after the administration of anastrozole was discontinued. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old woman was found to have multiple pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) after being treated for 5 months with anastrozole as an adjuvant breast cancer therapy. A biopsy of the largest lesion of the right lung showed cryptococcus fungal bodies with granulomatous inflammation, so the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis. She was treated with fluconazole (400 mg/day) for 1 month, but a follow-up CT scan of chest showed no improvement. DIAGNOSIS: Pulmonary cryptococcosis. INTERVENTIONS: Because the pulmonary cryptococcosis was not improving, the administration of anastrozole was discontinued. Fluconazole was continued. OUTCOMES: The pulmonary lesions diminished in size 2 months after discontinuing anastrozole. The patient continued taking fluconazole for a total of 6 months without re-administration of anastrozole, and the lesions of pulmonary cryptococcosis almost disappeared. CONCLUSION: This case of pulmonary cryptococcosis may have been induced by a decrease in estrogen level caused by the aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole. Treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis with concurrent anastrozole use may be ineffective, and it may be better to discontinue the aromatase inhibitor.


Assuntos
Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/etiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/etiologia , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 188: 112026, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918072

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the formation of persistent nongrowing subpopulations (persisters) is a serious threat to human. Our previous studies have proved that two cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) analogues, compound 5b and 5j display remarkable antibacterial activities, especially overcoming drug resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Present study found that 5b and 5j are capable of eradicating MRSA persisters. However, their underlying antibacterial mechanism is still obscure. In this study, biological evaluation was performed by transmission electron micrograph, membrane permeability and membrane depolarization experiment to reveal the effects of drugs on bacteria. Further, affinity-based protein profiling and transcriptional profiling were performed to characterise the protein targets in bacterial. Biological evaluation suggested that 5b has an effect on bacterial membrane, affinity-based protein profiling identified that 5b targets membrane associated protein PgsA and verified by in vitro labelling profile. Transcriptional profiling indicated that 5b interferes in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) synthesis pathway. This study identified a novel antibacterial target PgsA and it might be a potential target to combat the resistant bacteria.

20.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960729

RESUMO

The anti-tumor effects of two compounds purified from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (S. mukorossi.) on breast cancer in vitro were observed. Their chemical structures were identified as sesquiterpene glycosides, namely, Mukurozioside IIa and Mukurozioside IIb. The results of XTT assay indicated that their inhibition rates against three cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435s) reached approximately 80% at a concentration of 200 µg/mL, which were higher than that of cyclophosphamide (below 40% at 200 µg/mL), and their 50% inhibiting concentrations were ranged from 120.73 to 154.01 µg/mL, indicating their inhibition were weaker than their parent fraction. Furthermore, the mechanism on breast cancer was predicted, and 22 targets including PTPN1, IL2 and VEGFA were relatively important. These results illustrated the anti-breast cancer activity of S. mukorossi was related to the two compounds with the structure of sesquiterpene glycosides, but they did not represent the full activity of their parent fraction.

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