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1.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674016

RESUMO

Dent disease is a rare X-linked recessive inherited tubular disease. In this multicenter study, the clinical presentation and genetic background of Chinese children with Dent disease are studied to improve the cognition and diagnostic ability of pediatricians. In this prospective cohort, we described the genotype and phenotype of a national cohort composed of 45 pediatric probands with Dent disease belonging to 45 families from 12 different regions of China recruited from 2014 to 2018 by building up the multicenter registration system. The CLCN5 gene from 32 affected families revealed 28 different mutations. The OCRL gene from 13 affected families revealed 13 different mutations. The incidence of low-molecular-weight proteinuria (LMWP) in both Dent disease type 1 populations and Dent disease type 2 populations was 100.0%; however, the incidence of other manifestations was not high, which was similar to previously reported data. Therefore, LMWP is a key clinical feature that should alert clinicians to the possibility of Dent disease. A high amount of LMWP combined with positive gene test results can be used as the diagnostic criteria for this disease. The diagnostic criteria are helpful in reducing the missed diagnosis of this disease and are beneficial for protecting the renal function of these patients through early diagnosis and early intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Nutr Biochem ; 75: 108261, 2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710934

RESUMO

Aging-related cholinergic dysfunction, extensive neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in brain are predominant pathogenic factors for dementia. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of piperine, an alkaloid nutrient component of Piper nigrum, against cognitive impairment in a senescent mouse model induced by D-galactose (D-Gal) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Senescent mouse model was established by repeated subcutaneous injection of D-Gal (150 mg/kg, once daily for 42 days). Fourteen days after the first D-Gal exposure, piperine (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered once daily for 28 days. The cognitive function of mice was evaluated by Morris water maze test (MWM). Twenty-four hours after behavioral test, the cholinergic function and oxidative stress level in mouse hippocampus were measured by spectrophotometric assays. In addition, the hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß and interleukin-6, were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) and its upstream or downstream molecules including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K),protein kinase B (AKT), protein kinase C (PKC), NF-E2-related factor 2, nuclear factor-κB and microtubule-associated protein tau in hippocampus were determined by western blotting, immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining. Our data revealed that chronic D-Gal exposure in mice led to cognitive impairment in MWM, along with cholinergic malfunction, extensive oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, as well as hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in hippocampus. All these neurochemical, neuroinflammatory and cognitive alterations could be ameliorated by 4-week repeated piperine administration. Moreover, piperine also reversed D-Gal-induced GSK-3ß activation through modulating PKC and PI3K/AKT pathways in senescent mouse hippocampus, suggesting GSK-3ß-related signaling might be involved in the benefits of piperine against D-Gal-induced cognitive decline in mice.

3.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 47: 101865, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Untreated schizophrenia commonly leads to poor prognosis. The medication treatment rate of schizophrenia patients in economically underdeveloped areas of China has not been well-studied. This study aimed to examine the pattern of unmedicated schizophrenia patients in economically underdeveloped rural and urban areas of China. METHOD: A total of 4240 schizophrenia patients in Lanzhou (1720 rural and 2520 urban patients) registered in the community mental-health service system in Lanzhou, Gansu province were included. Their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including medication treatment status were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The proportion of unmedicated schizophrenia patients was 22.5% (n = 953) in the whole sample, with 32.3% (556/1720) in rural and 15.8% (397/2520) in urban patients (X2=161.1, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that unmedicated schizophrenia patients in rural area were more likely to be older (OR=1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.03), male (OR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.07-1.71), unmarried (OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.55-0.91), and have lower educational level (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.24-0.65), longer illness duration (OR=1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.02) and less frequent admissions (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.38-0.54). In contrast, unmedicated patients in urban area were more likely to be older (OR=1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.02), unmarried (OR=0.77, 95%CI: 0.61-0.98), employed (OR=2.38, 95%CI: 1.87-3.04), and have lower educational level (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), better financial status (OR=0.60, 95%CI: 0.48-0.76) and less frequent admissions (OR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.75-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of unmedicated schizophrenia patients is high in economically underdeveloped areas of China, particularly in rural areas. Effective policies and measures should be implemented urgently to improve the treatment rate in this population.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770738

RESUMO

Inspired by natural photosynthesis, the artificial heterojunction photocatalysts have been extensively studied. Herein, a novel ternary g-C3N4/Pt/BiVO4 photocatalytic system was successfully synthesized, where Pt@BiVO4 nanosheet is anchored on the surface of layered graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as evidenced by structural observations. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) are carried out to identify the position of the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). A Z-scheme is used to interpret the superior photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4/Pt/BiVO4 and further verified by the capture of free radicals and terephthalic acid photoluminescence experiments. Compared with the g-C3N4/BiVO4 binary system, the Z-scheme g-C3N4/Pt/BiVO4 photocatalyst possesses not only enhanced carriers separation efficiency but also maintains sufficient redox properties, thus inducing the superior photocatalytic activity. More importantly, the novel Z-scheme photocatalyst exhibit excellent recycle stability, which can provide inspiration on the rational design of efficient and practical photocatalyst in environmental pollution treatment. Ternary photocatalyst also exhibits significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production performance.

5.
Nature ; 575(7784): 618-621, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776491

RESUMO

All stellar-mass black holes have hitherto been identified by X-rays emitted from gas that is accreting onto the black hole from a companion star. These systems are all binaries with a black-hole mass that is less than 30 times that of the Sun1-4. Theory predicts, however, that X-ray-emitting systems form a minority of the total population of star-black-hole binaries5,6. When the black hole is not accreting gas, it can be found through radial-velocity measurements of the motion of the companion star. Here we report radial-velocity measurements taken over two years of the Galactic B-type star, LB-1. We find that the motion of the B star and an accompanying Hα emission line require the presence of a dark companion with a mass of [Formula: see text] solar masses, which can only be a black hole. The long orbital period of 78.9 days shows that this is a wide binary system. Gravitational-wave experiments have detected black holes of similar mass, but the formation of such massive ones in a high-metallicity environment would be extremely challenging within current stellar evolution theories.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1206: 273-286, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776991

RESUMO

With the development of nanotechnology and the emergence of new nanomaterials, the effect of nanomaterials on autophagy regulation has attracted increasing attention. Nanomaterial-mediated autophagy regulation has potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of autophagy-related diseases, such as cancer treatment, drug sensitization and neurodegenerative diseases. Different nanomaterials can regulate autophagy through different mechanisms because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. In this chapter, we will introduce the effects and mechanisms of autophagy mediated by nanomaterials and the applications of autophagy induced by different nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine.

7.
Transl Oncol ; 13(1): 25-31, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743830

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In contrast to other studies, our previous study showed that adding induction chemotherapy (IC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) significantly worsened the prognosis of patients with stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the population used was small; therefore, there is an urgent need to confirm the result in a larger population because IC is still widely used in certain sections of china for stage II NPC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively analyzed an additional 272 patients. Therefore, in total, we report the results for 445 patients with stage II NPC treated with IC + CCRT or CCRT between June 2003 to June 2016 at the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital and Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center. RESULTS: This study included 445 patients treated with IC + CCRT (n = 195) or CCRT (n = 250). By last analysis, 22 (11.3%) patients in the IC + CCRT group developed local-regional recurrence and 23 (11.8%) patients developed distant metastases. Twenty-four (9.6%) patients in the CCRT group developed local-regional recurrence and 12 (4.8%) patients developed distant metastases. Univariate analyses showed that adding IC to CCRT significantly decreased the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) (80.6% vs. 88.5%, P = .043); however, there was no statistically significant difference in 5-year overall survival (OS) (90.5% vs. 95.0%, P = .375). CONCLUSION: Using a larger population, the present study showed that adding IC to CCRT had a negative effect on patients with stage II NPC, which warrants further investigation.

8.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747283

RESUMO

Five new matrine-type alkaloid dimers, alopecuroides A-E, were isolated from the aerial parts of Sophora alopecuroides. Alopecuroides A and B represent the first dimeric matrine-type alkaloids possessing a cyano group and an epoxy moiety. Alopecuroides C and D are dimeric matrine-type alkaloids connected via C-2-C-9' and C-10-C-3' bonds, respectively. The chemical structures of alopecuroides A-E were elucidated by spectroscopic methods combined with single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of alopecuroides A-E were evaluated, and alopecuroide B exhibited the most significant activity, better than that of matrine, the representative compound from S. alopecuroides.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032779, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To detect the combined effects of lifestyle factors on work-related burnout (WB) and to analyse the impact of the number of weekend catch-up sleep hours on burnout risk in a medical workplace. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Hospital-based survey in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 2746 participants completed the hospital's Overload Health Control System questionnaire for the period from the first day of January 2016 to the end of December 2016, with a response rate of 70.5%. The voluntary participants included 358 physicians, 1406 nurses, 367 medical technicians and 615 administrative staff. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: All factors that correlated significantly with WB were entered into a multinomial logistic regression after adjustment for other factors. The dose-response relationship of combined lifestyle factors and catch-up sleep hours associated with WB was explored by logistic regression. RESULTS: Abnormal meal time (adjusted OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.85 to 3.15), frequently eating out (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.97), lack of sleep (adjusted OR 5.13, 95% CI 3.94 to 6.69), no exercise (adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.81) and >40 work hours (adjusted OR 2.72, 95% CI 2.08-3.57) were independently associated with WB (for high level compared with low level). As the number of risk factors increased (1-5), so did the proportion of high severity of WB (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.45 to 4.27, to adjusted OR 32.98, 95% CI 10.78 to 100.87). For those with more than 7 hours' sleep on workdays, weekend catch-up sleep (≤0/>0 and ≤2/>2 hours) was found to be related to an increase of burnout risk (adjusted OR 4.91, 95% CI 2.24 to 10.75/adjusted OR 4.94, 95% CI 2.54 to 9.63/adjusted OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.94 to 15.46). CONCLUSION: WB in the medical workplace was affected by five unhealthy lifestyle factors, and combinations of these factors were associated with greater severity of WB. Weekend catch-up sleep was correlated with lower burnout risk in those with a short workday sleep duration (less than 7 hours). Clinicians should pay particular attention to medical staff with short sleep duration without weekend catch-up sleep.

10.
Cancer ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) target volume for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been controversial for decades. In this report, the final results of a prospective randomized trial on the TRT target volume before and after induction chemotherapy are presented. METHODS: After 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin, patients arm were randomized to receive TRT to the postchemotherapy or prechemotherapy tumor volume in a study arm and a control arm. Involved-field radiotherapy was received in both arms. TRT consisted of 1.5 grays (Gy) twice daily in 30 fractions to up to a total dose of 45 Gy. Lymph node regions were contoured, and intentional and incidental radiation doses were recorded. RESULTS: The study was halted early because of slow accrual. Between 2002 and 2017, 159 and 150 patients were randomized to the study arm or the control arm, respectively; and 21.4% and 19.1% of patients, respectively, were staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (P = .31). With a median follow-up of 54.1 months (range, 19.9-165.0 months) in survivors, the 3-year local/regional progression-free probability was 58.2% and 65.5% in the study and control arms, respectively (P = .44), and the absolute difference was -7.3% (95% CI, -18.2%, 3.7%). In the study and control arms, the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 26.6 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 22.8% and 28.1%, respectively (P = .26). Grade 3 esophagitis was observed in 5.9% of patients in the study arm versus 15.5% of those in the control arm (P = .01). The isolated out-of-field failure rate was 2.6% in the study arm versus 4.1% in the control arm (P = .46), and all such failures were located in the supraclavicular fossa or contralateral hilum. The regions 7, 3P, 4L, 6, 4R, 5, and 2L received incidental radiation doses >30 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: TRT could be limited to the postchemotherapy tumor volume, and involved-field radiotherapy could be routinely applied for limited-stage SCLC.

11.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(10): 746-755, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703755

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of Yiqi Wenyang (YQWY) decoction on reversing cardiac hypertrophy induced by the transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Wistar rats aged 7-8 weeks were subjected to TAC surgery and then randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5/group): Sham group, TAC group, low-dose group and high dose group. After 16-week intragastric administration of YQWY decoction, the effect of YQWY decoction on alleviating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), hematoxylin/eosin (HE), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF), respectively. The results showed significant differences in left ventricle volume-diastole/systole (LV Vol d/s), N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (P < 0.01), Ejection Fraction (EF), LV mass and fractional shortening (FS) (P < 0.05) between YQWY-treated group and TAC group. HE and WGA staining showed that treatment with YQWY decoction dramatically prevented TAC-induced cardiomycyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the results of WB, IHC and IF indicated that administration of YQWY could suppress the expressions of cardiac hypertrophic markers, which included the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), BNP and myosin heavy chain 7 (MYH7) (P < 0.05) and inhibit phosphorylation of GATA binding protein 4 (P-GATA4) (P < 0.05), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) (P < 0.05), phosphorylation of P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (P-P38) (P < 0.05) and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) (P < 0.05). Thus, we concluded that YQWY decoction suppressed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and reversed the impaired heart function, and the curative effects of YQWY decoction were associated with the decreased phosphorylation of GATA4 and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as the reduced expression of the downstream targets of GATA4, including ANP, BNP, and MYH7.

12.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723217

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a major threat to human health due to its resistance to almost all classes of antibiotics. Discovery of novel antibacterial agents with new structures which combat the pathogens responsible for MRSA is urgent. In this study, three series of benzyl phenyl sulfide derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their antibacterial activity against eleven MRSA strains were evaluated. The results showed that two series of the synthetic compounds (5a-5l and 12p-12u) exhibit potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus and MRSA, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2-64 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships are discussed and the mechanism of the antibacterial activity was shown to involve the destruction of the bacterial cell membrane. Finally, the MTT assay results suggest that the toxicity of compounds 5f and 5h is selective between bacteria and mammalian cells.

13.
Aging Cell ; : e13064, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714004

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare laminopathy that produces a mutant form of prelamin A, known as Progerin, resulting in premature aging. HGPS cells show morphological abnormalities of the nuclear membrane, reduced cell proliferation rates, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of senescence markers. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a growth factor-like lipid mediator that regulates various physiological functions via activating multiple LPA G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we study the roles of LPA and LPA receptors in premature aging. We report that the protein level of LPA3 was highly downregulated through internalization and the lysosomal degradation pathway in Progerin-transfected HEK293 cells. By treating Progerin HEK293 cells with an LPA3 agonist (OMPT, 1-Oleoyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerophosphothionate) and performing shRNA knockdown of the Lpa3r transcript in these cells, we showed that LPA3 activation increased expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, consequently inhibiting ROS accumulation and ameliorating cell senescence. LPA3 was shown to be downregulated in HGPS patient fibroblasts through the lysosomal pathway, and it was shown to be crucial for ameliorating ROS accumulation and cell senescence in fibroblasts. Moreover, in a zebrafish model, LPA3 deficiency was sufficient to cause premature aging phenotypes in multiple organs, as well as a shorter lifespan. Taken together, these findings identify the decline of LPA3 as a key contributor to the premature aging phenotypes of HGPS cells and zebrafish.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725767

RESUMO

Calreticulin (CRT) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) are crucial for angiogenesis, and mediate multiple malignant behaviors in gastric cancer. In this study, we report that CRT is positively correlated with VEGF-A in gastric cancer patients. Moreover, high expressions of both CRT and VEGF-A are markedly associated with the pathological stage, progression, and poor prognosis in the patients. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which CRT affects VEGF-A in gastric cancer. Firstly, we demonstrate the novel finding that knockdown of CRT reduced VEGF-A mRNA stability in two gastric cancer cell lines, AGS and MKN45. The AU-Rich element (ARE) is believed to play a crucial role in the maintenance of VEGF-A mRNA stability. Luciferase reporter assay shows that knockdown of CRT significantly decreased the activity of renilla luciferase with VEGF-A ARE sequence. Additionally, competition results from RNA-binding/electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicate that CRT forms an RNA-protein complex with the VEGF-A mRNA by binding to the ARE. In addition, the proliferation rate of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was significantly reduced when treated with conditioned medium from CRT knockdown cells; this was rescued by exogenous VEGF-A recombinant protein. Our results demonstrate that CRT is involved in VEGF-A ARE binding protein complexes to stabilize VEGF-A mRNA, thereby promoting the angiogenesis, and progression of gastric cancer.

15.
Yi Chuan ; 41(11): 979-993, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735702

RESUMO

With rapid advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, the genomes of many organisms have been sequenced and widely applied in different settings. Mitochondrial genome data is equally important and the high-throughput whole-genome data typically contain mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences. How to extract and assemble the mitogenome from massive whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data remain a hot area in molecular biology, genetics and medicine. The cataloging and analysis of accumulating mitogenome data promotes the development of assembly strategies and corresponding software applications related to mitochondrial DNA from the WGS data. Mitogenome assembly strategies can be divided into mitogenome-reference strategy and de novo strategy. Each strategy has different advantages and limitations with respect to the difference of bait mitogenome-linked short reads from the WGS data and corresponding assembly strategy. In this review, we summarize and compare current mitogenome assembly strategies and the software applications available. We also provide suggestions related to use different assembly strategies and software applications, and the expected benefits and limitations of methods references in life science.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Software , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 58(6): 885-887, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report a case with benign bilateral ovarian tumor during pregnancy mimicking malignancy. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old women at 20 weeks gestation with large bilateral adnexal masses found on prenatal ultrasound. The cysts had been growing gradually over the course of the pregnancy. MRI show huge multiple cysts in both ovaries. CA-125 was elevated at 260 U/mL. Due to initial impression was malignancy, an excisional surgery was done. Pathology revealed multiple luteinized granulosa cells with benign nature. CONCLUSION: Hyperreactio luteinalis (HL) is often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on ultrasound or at the time of cesarean section. As the lesions are self-resolving, management is conservative and surgical intervention is required only in cases with severe complications. HL can be mistaken for malignancy, especially in cases in which the tumor marker CA-125 is elevated, leading to inadvertent surgery.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(18): 180504, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763920

RESUMO

Quantum systems can be exploited for disruptive technologies but in practice quantum features are fragile due to noisy environments. Quantum coherence, a fundamental such feature, is a basis-dependent property that is known to exhibit a resilience to certain types of Markovian noise. Yet, it is still unclear whether this resilience can be relevant in practical tasks. Here, we experimentally investigate the resilient effect of quantum coherence in a photonic Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state under Markovian bit-flip noise, and explore its applications in a noisy metrology scenario. In particular, using up to six-qubit probes, we demonstrate that the standard quantum limit can be outperformed under a transversal noise strength of approximately equal magnitude to the signal, providing experimental evidence of metrological advantage even in the presence of uncorrelated Markovian noise. This work highlights the important role of passive control in noisy quantum hardware, which can act as a low-overhead complement to more traditional approaches such as quantum error correction, thus impacting on the deployment of quantum technologies in real-world settings.

18.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757743

RESUMO

We aim to report two cases of type Ⅱ odontoid fractures to share our experience in surgery treatment of type Ⅱ odontoid fractures. A 33-year-old woman with comminuted type Ⅱ odontoid fracture and a 42-year-old man with fracture end hardened type Ⅱ odontoid fracture received surgical treatment in our hospital. Though imaging examination suggested that these two patients were suitable for anterior screw fixation, we encountered difficulties during the operation. The two patients eventually underwent posterior C1-C2 fusion surgery and recovered well. According to the experience of these two cases, we found that the fracture line angle and the degree of comminution are two important factors affecting surgical decision-making. Although anterior screw fixation is the ideal choice for type Ⅱ odontoid fractures with anterior superior to posterior inferior fracture line, it may not be the best choice for comminuted or fracture end hardened type Ⅱ odontoid fractures.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1068, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates inherited risk in the aetiology of lung cancer, although smoking exposure is the major attributing factor. Family history is a simple substitute for inherited susceptibility. Previous studies have shown some possible yet conflicting links between family history of cancer and EGFR mutation in lung cancer. As EGFR-mutated lung cancer favours female, never-smoker, adenocarcinoma and Asians, it may be argued that there may be some underlying genetic modifiers responsible for the pathogenesis of EGFR mutation. METHODS: We searched four databases for all original articles on family history of malignancy and EGFR mutation status in lung cancer published up to July 2018. We performed a meta-analysis by using a random-effects model and odds ratio estimates. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were also investigated. Then we conducted a second literature research to curate case reports of familial lung cancers who studied both germline cancer predisposing genes and their somatic EGFR mutation status; and explored the possible links between cancer predisposing genes and EGFR mutation. RESULTS: Eleven studies have been included in the meta-analysis. There is a significantly higher likelihood of EGFR mutation in lung cancer patients with family history of cancer than their counterparts without family history, preferentially in Asians (OR = 1.35[1.06-1.71], P = 0.01), those diagnosed with adenocarcinomas ((OR = 1.47[1.14-1.89], P = 0.003) and those with lung cancer-affected relatives (first and second-degree: OR = 1.53[1.18-1.99], P = 0.001; first-degree: OR = 1.76[1.36-2.28, P < 0.0001]). Familial lung cancers more likely have concurrent EGFR mutations along with mutations in their germline cancer predisposition genes including EGFR T790 M, BRCA2 and TP53. Certain mechanisms may contribute to the combination preferences between inherited mutations and somatic ones. CONCLUSIONS: Potential genetic modifiers may contribute to somatic EGFR mutation in lung cancer, although current data is limited. Further studies on this topic are needed, which may help to unveil lung carcinogenesis pathways. However, caution is warranted in data interpretation due to limited cases available for the current study.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728768

RESUMO

The effects of liquid hot water combined with 1, 4-butanediol (LHW-BDO) on the chemical composition and structure of moso bamboo were investigated. The structure changes of moso bamboo fibers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electronic scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the delignification rates of 1, 4-butanediol (BDO) and LHW-BDO pretreatment methods were at the same level (91.42-93.08%). However, compared with BDO pretreatment, the cellulose content in solid residue after LHW-BDO pretreatment was increased by 17.06% with a recovery rate of 75.68%, while the hemicellulose removal rate increased by 115.33% and reached 50.34%. After LHW-BDO pretreatment, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, intermolecular hydrogen bonds, methylene bonds, and aromatic ether bonds of the fibers were broken, which contributed to the depolymerization and separation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin molecules. However, LHW-BDO pretreatment does not destroy the ß-glycoside bond which links the glucose molecule inside the fiber molecule, which was also beneficial to the separation of cellulose. In addition, the amorphous zone of bamboo fibers was destroyed by the above treatments, and the fiber structure of bamboo samples mostly exists in crystalline form. The crystallinity of bamboo pretreated with LHW-BDO was increased by 32.15%. It can be found by scanning electron microscopy that the surface of the pretreated bamboo samples showed uniformly distributed bubbly protuberance.

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