Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 853
Filtrar
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that a potential association between dietary protein intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may depend on the protein source, that is, plant- or animal-derived, but past research was limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of dietary plant- or animal-derived protein consumption with risk of CVD, and its components ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. METHODS: This analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-CVD case-cohort study included 16,244 incident CVD cases (10,784 IHD and 6423 stroke cases) and 15,141 subcohort members from 7 European countries. We investigated the association of estimated dietary protein intake with CVD, IHD, and stroke (total, fatal, and nonfatal) using multivariable-adjusted Prentice-weighted Cox regression. We estimated isocaloric substitutions of replacing fats and carbohydrates with plant- or animal-derived protein and replacing food-specific animal protein with plant protein. Multiplicative interactions between dietary protein and prespecified variables were tested. RESULTS: Neither plant- nor animal-derived protein intake was associated with incident CVD, IHD, or stroke in adjusted analyses without or with macronutrient-specified substitution analyses. Higher plant-derived protein intake was associated with 22% lower total stroke incidence among never smokers [HR 0.78, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.62, 0.99], but not among current smokers (HR 1.08, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.40, P-interaction = 0.004). Moreover, higher plant-derived protein (per 3% total energy) when replacing red meat protein (HR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.88), processed meat protein (HR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.90), and dairy protein (HR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.98) was associated with lower incidence of fatal stroke. CONCLUSION: Plant- or animal-derived protein intake was not associated with overall CVD. However, the association of plant-derived protein consumption with lower total stroke incidence among nonsmokers, and with lower incidence of fatal stroke highlights the importance of investigating CVD subtypes and potential interactions. These observations warrant further investigation in diverse populations with varying macronutrient intakes and dietary patterns.

4.
Lancet ; 403(10430): 984-996, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458217

RESUMO

Globally, 9 million women are diagnosed with cancer each year. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, followed by colorectal cancer in high-income countries and cervical cancer in low-income countries. Survival from cancer is improving and more women are experiencing long-term effects of cancer treatment, such as premature ovarian insufficiency or early menopause. Managing menopausal symptoms after cancer can be challenging, and more severe than at natural menopause. Menopausal symptoms can extend beyond hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms). Treatment-induced symptoms might include sexual dysfunction and impairment of sleep, mood, and quality of life. In the long term, premature ovarian insufficiency might increase the risk of chronic conditions such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Diagnosing menopause after cancer can be challenging as menopausal symptoms can overlap with other common symptoms in patients with cancer, such as fatigue and sexual dysfunction. Menopausal hormone therapy is an effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms and seems to be safe for many patients with cancer. When hormone therapy is contraindicated or avoided, emerging evidence supports the efficacy of non-pharmacological and non-hormonal treatments, although most evidence is based on women older than 50 years with breast cancer. Vaginal oestrogen seems safe for most patients with genitourinary symptoms, but there are few non-hormonal options. Many patients have inadequate centralised care for managing menopausal symptoms after cancer treatment, and more information is needed about cost-effective and patient-focused models of care for this growing population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Fogachos/terapia , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Mutagenesis ; 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441165

RESUMO

Gut barrier dysfunction and related inflammation are known to be associated with the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated associations of 292 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 27 genes related to endotoxins/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensing and tolerance, mucin synthesis, inflammation, and Crohn's disease with colon and rectal cancer risks. Incident CRC cases (N=1,374; colon=871, rectum=503) were matched 1:1 to controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Previously measured serum concentrations of gut barrier function and inflammation biomarkers (flagellin/LPS-specific immunoglobulins and C-reactive protein [CRP]) were available for a sub-set of participants (Ncases=1,001; Ncontrols=667). Forty-two unique SNPs from 19 different genes were associated with serum biomarkers at Punadjusted≤0.05 among controls. Among SNPs associated with a gut permeability score, 24 SNPs were in genes related to LPS sensing and mucin synthesis. Nine out of 12 SNPs associated with CRP were in genes related to inflammation or Crohn's disease. TLR4 was associated with colon cancer at the SNP level (nine SNPs, all Punadjusted≤0.04) and at the gene level (Punadjusted≤0.01). TLR4 rs10759934 was associated with rectal cancer but not colon cancer. Similarly, IL10 was associated with rectal cancer risk at a SNP and gene level (both Punadjusted ≤ 0.01), but not colon cancer. Genes and SNPs were selected a priori therefore we present unadjusted P-values. However, no association was statistically significant after multiple testing correction. This large and comprehensive study has identified gut barrier function and inflammation-related genes possibly contributing to CRC risk in European populations and is consistent with potential etiological links between host genetic background, gut barrier permeability, microbial endotoxemia and CRC development.

6.
Thorax ; 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female reproductive factors may influence the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through the female hormonal environment, but studies on this topic are limited. This study aimed to assess whether age at menarche, number of children, infertility, miscarriage, stillbirth and age at natural menopause were associated with the risk of COPD. METHODS: Women from three cohorts with data on reproductive factors, COPD and covariates were included. Cause specific Cox regression models were adjusted for birth year, race, educational level, body mass index and pack years of smoking, stratified by asthma, and incorporating interaction between birth year and time. Between cohort differences and within cohort correlations were taken into account. RESULTS: Overall, 2 83 070 women were included and 10 737 (3.8%) developed COPD after a median follow-up of 11 (IQR 10-12) years. Analyses revealed a U shaped association between age at menarche and COPD (≤11 vs 13: HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.23; ≥16 vs 13: HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.27). Women with three or more children (3 vs 2: HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.17; ≥4 vs 2: HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.40), multiple miscarriages (2 vs 0: HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.32; ≥3 vs 0: HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.43) or stillbirth (1 vs 0: HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.53; ≥2 vs 0: HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.10) were at a higher risk of COPD. Among postmenopausal women, earlier age at natural menopause was associated with an increased risk of COPD (<40 vs 50-51: HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.63 to 1.75; 40-44 vs 50-51: HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple female reproductive factors, including age at menarche, number of children, miscarriage, stillbirth, and age at natural menopause were associated with the risk of COPD.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 89: 102545, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer before menopause, but increased risk after menopause. Exactly when this reversal occurs in relation to menopause is unclear. Locating that change point could provide insight into the role of adiposity in breast cancer etiology. METHODS: We examined the association between BMI and breast cancer risk in the Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, from age 45 up to breast cancer diagnosis, loss to follow-up, death, or age 55, whichever came first. Analyses included 609,880 women in 16 prospective studies, including 9956 who developed breast cancer before age 55. We fitted three BMI hazard ratio (HR) models over age-time: constant, linear, or nonlinear (via splines), applying piecewise exponential additive mixed models, with age as the primary time scale. We divided person-time into four strata: premenopause; postmenopause due to natural menopause; postmenopause because of interventional loss of ovarian function (bilateral oophorectomy (BO) or chemotherapy); postmenopause due to hysterectomy without BO. Sensitivity analyses included stratifying by BMI in young adulthood, or excluding women using menopausal hormone therapy. RESULTS: The constant BMI HR model provided the best fit for all four menopausal status groups. Under this model, the estimated association between a five-unit increment in BMI and breast cancer risk was HR=0.87 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.89) before menopause, HR=1.00 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.04) after natural menopause, HR=0.99 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.05) after interventional loss of ovarian function, and HR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.02) after hysterectomy without BO. CONCLUSION: The BMI breast cancer HRs remained less than or near one during the 45-55 year age range indicating that the transition to a positive association between BMI and risk occurs after age 55.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Menopausa , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Pré-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Cancer ; 154(12): 2064-2074, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357914

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer (TC) is substantially more common in women than in men, pointing to a possible role of sex steroid hormones. We investigated the association between circulating sex steroid hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and the risk of differentiated TC in men and women within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. During follow-up, we identified 333 first primary incident cases of differentiated TC (152 in pre/peri-menopausal women, 111 in post-menopausal women, and 70 in men) and 706 cancer-free controls. Women taking exogenous hormones at blood donation were excluded. Plasma concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, estrone and progesterone (in pre-menopausal women only) were performed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. SHBG concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. No significant associations were observed in men and postmenopausal women, while a borderline significant increase in differentiated TC risk was observed with increasing testosterone (adjusted OR T3 vs T1: 1.68, 95% CI: 0.96-2.92, ptrend = .06) and androstenedione concentrations in pre/perimenopausal women (adjusted OR T3 vs T1: 1.78, 95% CI: 0.96-3.30, ptrend = .06, respectively). A borderline decrease in risk was observed for the highest progesterone/estradiol ratio (adjusted OR T3 vs T1: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.28-1.05, ptrend = .07). Overall, our results do not support a major role of circulating sex steroids in the etiology of differentiated TC in post-menopausal women and men but may suggest an involvement of altered sex steroid production in pre-menopausal women.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Androstenodiona , Progesterona , Estudos Prospectivos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Estradiol , Estrona , Testosterona , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 39(2): 147-159, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180593

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to provide novel evidence on the impact of changing lifestyle habits on cancer risk. In the EPIC cohort, 295,865 middle-aged participants returned a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline and during follow-up. At both timepoints, we calculated a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score based on cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index and physical activity. HLI ranged from 0 (most unfavourable) to 16 (most favourable). We estimated the association between HLI change and risk of lifestyle-related cancers-including cancer of the breast, lung, colorectum, stomach, liver, cervix, oesophagus, bladder, and others-using Cox regression models. We reported hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Median time between the two questionnaires was 5.7 years, median age at follow-up questionnaire was 59 years. After the follow-up questionnaire, we observed 14,933 lifestyle-related cancers over a median follow-up of 7.8 years. Each unit increase in the HLI score was associated with 4% lower risk of lifestyle-related cancers (HR 0.96; 95%CI 0.95-0.97). Among participants in the top HLI third at baseline (HLI > 11), those in the bottom third at follow-up (HLI ≤ 9) had 21% higher risk of lifestyle-related cancers (HR 1.21; 95%CI 1.07-1.37) than those remaining in the top third. Among participants in the bottom HLI third at baseline, those in the top third at follow-up had 25% lower risk of lifestyle-related cancers (HR 0.75; 95%CI 0.65-0.86) than those remaining in the bottom third. These results indicate that lifestyle changes in middle age may have a significant impact on cancer risk.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estado Nutricional , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 33(4): 509-515, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist for the association between bladder cancers and waterpipe smoking, an emerging global public health concern. METHODS: We used the IROPICAN database in Iran and used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for cigarette smoking, opium use, and other confounding factors. In addition, we studied the association between exclusive waterpipe smoking and bladder cancer. RESULTS: We analyzed 717 cases and 3,477 controls and a subset of 215 patients and 2,145 controls who did not use opium or cigarettes. Although the OR adjusted for opium, cigarettes, and other tobacco products was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.20], we observed a statistically significant elevated risk in exclusive waterpipe smokers (OR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.16-2.72) compared with non-users of opium or any tobacco. Associations were strongest for smoking more than two heads/day (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.21-4.18) and for initiating waterpipe smoking at an age less than 20 (OR = 2.73; 95% CI, 1.11-6.72). The OR for urothelial bladder cancer was higher in ex-smokers (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.24-4.42) than in current smokers (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.72-3.15). All observed associations were consistently higher for urothelial histology. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking may be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, notably among individuals who are not exposed to cigarette smoking and opium. IMPACT: The study provides compelling evidence that waterpipe smoking is a confirmed human carcinogen, demanding action from policymakers. See related In the Spotlight, p. 461.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Humanos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ópio , Tabaco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
12.
Int J Cancer ; 154(9): 1596-1606, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200695

RESUMO

Resistin is a protein involved in inflammation and angiogenesis processes and may play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it remains unclear whether resistin is associated with increased mortality after CRC diagnosis. We examined pre-diagnostic serum resistin concentrations in relation to CRC-specific and all-cause mortality among 1343 incident CRC cases from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. For CRC-specific mortality as the primary outcome, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from competing risk analyses based on cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models and further in sensitivity analyses using Fine-Gray proportional subdistribution hazards models. For all-cause mortality as the secondary outcome, Cox proportional hazards models were used. Subgroup analyses were performed by sex, tumor subsite, tumor stage, body mass index and time to CRC diagnosis. Resistin was measured on a median of 4.8 years before CRC diagnosis. During a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 474 deaths from CRC and 147 deaths from other causes were observed. Resistin concentrations were not associated with CRC-specific mortality (HRQ4vsQ1 = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73-1.23; Ptrend = .97; and HRper doubling of resistin concentration = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.84-1.19; P = .98) or all-cause mortality. Results from competing risk (sensitivity) analysis were similar. No associations were found in any subgroup analyses. These findings suggest no association between pre-diagnostic circulating resistin concentrations and CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among persons with CRC, and the potential insignificance of resistin in CRC progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Resistina , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 89: 102525, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the effects of age, diagnosis year (calendar period) and birth year (cohort) on the incidence trends of breast cancer among Golestan women, Northeast Iran, 2004-2018. METHODS: Incidence data were obtained by residential status (urban/rural) and ethnic region (Turkmens/non-Turkmens). We calculated age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 person-years. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) were calculated, and age-period-cohort (APC) models fitted to assess non-linear effects of period and cohort as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). RESULTS: The total number of female breast cancer cases in Golestan, 2004-2018, were 3853, with an overall ASR of 31.3. We found higher rates in urban population (40.5) and non-Turkmens region (38.5) compared to rural area (20.8) and Turkmens region (20.2), respectively. There were increasing trends in incidence rates overall (EAPC= 4.4; 95%CI: 2.2, 6.7), with greater changes in rural areas (EAPC=5.1), particularly among non-Turkmens (EAPC=5.8). The results of the APC analysis indicate the presence of significant non-linear cohort effects with increasing IRRs across successive birth cohorts (IRR=0.1 and IRR= 2.6 for the oldest and the youngest birth cohorts vs. the reference birth cohort, respectively). CONCLUSION: We found increasing trends in breast cancer incidence among Golestan women over the study period, with disparities in patterns and trends by residence area and ethnic region. The observed cohort effects suggest an increasing prevalence of key risk factors for breast cancer in this Iranian population. Further investigations are warranted to clarify the relationships between determinants such as reproductive factors and ethnicity in the region.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Sistema de Registros
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 63(2): 377-396, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37989797

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of adiposity in the associations between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and head and neck cancer (HNC) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Our study included 450,111 EPIC participants. We used Cox regressions to investigate the associations between the consumption of UPFs and HNC and OAC risk. A mediation analysis was performed to assess the role of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in these associations. In sensitivity analyses, we investigated accidental death as a negative control outcome. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14.13 ± 3.98 years, 910 and 215 participants developed HNC and OAC, respectively. A 10% g/d higher consumption of UPFs was associated with an increased risk of HNC (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.34) and OAC (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47). WHR mediated 5% (95% CI 3-10%) of the association between the consumption of UPFs and HNC risk, while BMI and WHR, respectively, mediated 13% (95% CI 6-53%) and 15% (95% CI 8-72%) of the association between the consumption of UPFs and OAC risk. UPF consumption was positively associated with accidental death in the negative control analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We reaffirmed that higher UPF consumption is associated with greater risk of HNC and OAC in EPIC. The proportion mediated via adiposity was small. Further research is required to investigate other mechanisms that may be at play (if there is indeed any causal effect of UPF consumption on these cancers).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Adiposidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Alimento Processado , Análise de Mediação , Obesidade , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 63(1): 209-220, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previously reported associations of protein-rich foods with stroke subtypes have prompted interest in the assessment of individual amino acids. We examined the associations of dietary amino acids with risks of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the EPIC study. METHODS: We analysed data from 356,142 participants from seven European countries. Dietary intakes of 19 individual amino acids were assessed using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires, calibrated using additional 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in relation to the intake of each amino acid. The role of blood pressure as a potential mechanism was assessed in 267,642 (75%) participants. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.9 years, 4295 participants had an ischaemic stroke and 1375 participants had a haemorrhagic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, a higher intake of proline (as a percent of total protein) was associated with a 12% lower risk of ischaemic stroke (HR per 1 SD higher intake 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94). The association persisted after mutual adjustment for all other amino acids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The inverse associations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, glutamic acid, serine and tyrosine with ischaemic stroke were each attenuated with adjustment for proline intake. For haemorrhagic stroke, no statistically significant associations were observed in the continuous analyses after correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSION: Higher proline intake may be associated with a lower risk of ischaemic stroke, independent of other dietary amino acids and blood pressure.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Hemorrágico , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Aminoácidos , Prolina , Fatores de Risco
16.
Mol Oncol ; 18(2): 245-279, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38135904

RESUMO

Analyses of inequalities related to prevention and cancer therapeutics/care show disparities between countries with different economic standing, and within countries with high Gross Domestic Product. The development of basic technological and biological research provides clinical and prevention opportunities that make their implementation into healthcare systems more complex, mainly due to the growth of Personalized/Precision Cancer Medicine (PCM). Initiatives like the USA-Cancer Moonshot and the EU-Mission on Cancer and Europe's Beating Cancer Plan are initiated to boost cancer prevention and therapeutics/care innovation and to mitigate present inequalities. The conference organized by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in collaboration with the European Academy of Cancer Sciences discussed the inequality problem, dependent on the economic status of a country, the increasing demands for infrastructure supportive of innovative research and its implementation in healthcare and prevention programs. Establishing translational research defined as a coherent cancer research continuum is still a challenge. Research has to cover the entire continuum from basic to outcomes research for clinical and prevention modalities. Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCCs) are of critical importance for integrating research innovations to preclinical and clinical research, as for ensuring state-of-the-art patient care within healthcare systems. International collaborative networks between CCCs are necessary to reach the critical mass of infrastructures and patients for PCM research, and for introducing prevention modalities and new treatments effectively. Outcomes and health economics research are required to assess the cost-effectiveness of new interventions, currently a missing element in the research portfolio. Data sharing and critical mass are essential for innovative research to develop PCM. Despite advances in cancer research, cancer incidence and prevalence is growing. Making cancer research infrastructures accessible for all patients, considering the increasing inequalities, requires science policy actions incentivizing research aimed at prevention and cancer therapeutics/care with an increased focus on patients' needs and cost-effective healthcare.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Cidade do Vaticano , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica , Atenção à Saúde , Medicina de Precisão
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 255: 114287, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37989047

RESUMO

Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, endocrine disruptors and persistent chemicals for which the main exposure source is diet due to their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. Cohort studies in the general populations have reported inconsistent associations between these chemicals in serum/plasma and mortality. Our objective was to study the association between dietary intake of 17 dioxins and 35 PCBs and all-cause, cancer-specific and cardiovascular-specific mortalities were assessed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs was assessed combining EPIC food consumption data with European food contamination data provided by the European Food Safety Authority. We applied multivariable Cox regressions. The analysis included 451,390 adults (mean ± SD age:51.1 ± 9.7 years) with 46,627 deaths and a median follow-up of 17.4 years (IQR = 15.2-19.1). A U-shaped non-linear association with all-cause mortality for dietary intake of dioxins (Pnon-linearity<0.0001), DL-PCB (Pnon-linearity = 0.0001), and NDL-PCBs (Pnon-linearity<0.01) was observed. For example, the hazard ratios (95%Confidance interval) for all-cause mortality obtained with the spline model was equal to 1.03 (1.02-1.05) for low levels of intake to dioxins (7 pg TEQ/day), 0.93 (0.90-0.96) for moderate levels of intake (25 pg TEQ/day), while for high levels of intake (55 pg TEQ/day) it was 1.03 (0.97-1.09). Intake of dioxins, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs was not associated with cardiovascular mortality. There was no association between intakes of dioxins and cancer mortality, but a U-shaped association was observed for intake of DL-PCBs and intakes of NDL-PCBs and cancer mortality. The PCBs and dioxins are known to have endocrine disrupting properties which can lead to non-monotonic dose responses. These results need to be interpreted with caution and further studies are needed to better clarify the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCB and mortality in the general population.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Neoplasias , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(1)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is higher in women than in men but whether sex steroid hormones contribute to this difference remains unclear. Studies of reproductive and hormonal factors and thyroid cancer risk have provided inconsistent results. METHODS: Original data from 1 252 907 women in 16 cohorts in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia were combined to evaluate associations of DTC risk with reproductive and hormonal factors. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2142 women were diagnosed with DTC. Factors associated with higher risk of DTC included younger age at menarche (<10 vs 10-11 years; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.64), younger (<40; HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05-1.62) and older (≥55; HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.68) ages at menopause (vs 40-44 years), ever use of menopausal hormone therapy (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.33) and previous hysterectomy (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.39) or bilateral oophorectomy (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.29). Factors associated with lower risk included longer-term use (≥5 vs <5 years) of oral contraceptives (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96) among those who ever used oral contraception and baseline post-menopausal status (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96). No associations were observed for parity, duration of menopausal hormone therapy use or lifetime number of reproductive years or ovulatory cycles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some evidence linking reproductive and hormonal factors with risk of DTC. Results should be interpreted cautiously considering the modest strength of the associations and potential for exposure misclassification and detection bias. Prospective studies of pre-diagnostic circulating sex steroid hormone measurements and DTC risk may provide additional insight.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Gravidez , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Prospectivos , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Menopausa , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Menarca
19.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2301101, 2023 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38079601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is strong evidence that leisure-time physical activity is protective against postmenopausal breast cancer risk but the association with premenopausal breast cancer is less clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with the risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. METHODS: We pooled individual-level data on self-reported leisure-time physical activity across 19 cohort studies comprising 547,601 premenopausal women, with 10,231 incident cases of breast cancer. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for associations of leisure-time physical activity with breast cancer incidence. HRs for high versus low levels of activity were based on a comparison of risk at the 90th versus 10th percentiles of activity. We assessed the linearity of the relationship and examined subtype-specific associations and effect modification across strata of breast cancer risk factors, including adiposity. RESULTS: Over a median 11.5 years of follow-up (IQR, 8.0-16.1 years), high versus low levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with a 6% (HR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.99]) and a 10% (HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.95]) reduction in breast cancer risk, before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively. Tests of nonlinearity suggested an approximately linear relationship (Pnonlinearity = .94). The inverse association was particularly strong for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched breast cancer (HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.39 to 0.84]; Phet = .07). Associations did not vary significantly across strata of breast cancer risk factors, including subgroups of adiposity. CONCLUSION: This large, pooled analysis of cohort studies adds to evidence that engagement in higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lead to reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk.

20.
Acta Oncol ; 62(12): 1661-1668, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37934078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opium use has been associated with an increased risk of cancers of the lung, oesophagus, and pancreas, and it was recently classified by the International Agency for Cancer Research as carcinogenic to humans. It is not clear whether opium also increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of our study was to assess the association between various metrics of opium use and the risk of CRC. METHODS: This case-referent study from seven provinces in Iran comprised 848 CRC cases and 3215 referents. Data on opium use (duration, amount, frequency) and potential confounders were collected by trained interviewers. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were used to measure odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age, gender, province, marital status, family history of CRC-linked cancers, consumption of red meat, fruits and vegetables, body shape, occupational physical activity, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Regular opium consumption was not associated with the risk of CRC (OR 0.9, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.7, 1.2) compared to subjects who never used opium. However, frequent opium use more than twice a day was associated with an increased risk of CRC compared to non-users of opium (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.8; p for quadratic trend 0.008). CONCLUSION: There seems to be no overall association between opium use and CRC, but the risk of CRC might be increased among persons who use opium many times a day.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dependência de Ópio , Humanos , Dependência de Ópio/epidemiologia , Dependência de Ópio/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Ópio/efeitos adversos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...