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1.
Interdiscip Sci ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491536

RESUMO

With the constant update of large-scale sequencing data and the continuous improvement of cancer genomics data, such as International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), it gains increasing importance to detect the functional high-frequency mutation gene set in cells that causes cancer in the field of medicine. In this study, we propose a new recognition method of driver modules, named ECSWalk to solve the issue of mutated gene heterogeneity and improve the accuracy of driver modules detection, based on human protein-protein interaction networks and pan-cancer somatic mutation data. This study first utilizes high mutual exclusivity and high coverage between mutation genes and topological structure similarity of the nodes in complex networks to calculate interaction weights between genes. Second, the method of random walk with restart is utilized to construct a weighted directed network, and the strong connectivity principle of the directed graph is utilized to create the initial candidate modules with a certain number of genes. Finally, the large modules in the candidate modules are split using induced subgraph method, and the small modules are expanded using a greedy strategy to obtain the optimal driver modules. This method is applied to TCGA pan-cancer data and the experimental results show that ECSWalk can detect driver modules more effectively and accurately, and can identify new candidate gene sets with higher biological relevance and statistical significance than MEXCOWalk and HotNet2. Thus, ECSWalk is of theoretical implication and practical value for cancer diagnosis, treatment and drug targets.

2.
Clin Immunol ; : 108856, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536574

RESUMO

AIMS: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of physical disability in middle-aged and elderly people globally. Previous studies have revealed that circular RNA (circRNA) is involved in the pathogenesis of OA. In this study, we studied the role of circ_0001846 in interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)-induced OA progression. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with OA and 17 volunteers were recruited for the collection of articular cartilage tissues. The expression of circ_0001846, microRNA-149-5p (miR-149-5p) and Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (WNT5B) was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. Cell viability, apoptosis, invasion and migration were demonstrated by cell counting kit-8, flow cytometry analysis, transwell invasion and wound-healing assays, respectively. The levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The interaction between miR-149-5p and circ_0001846 or WNT5B was predicted by starbase online database, and proved by dual-luciferase reporter and RIP assays. RESULTS: Circ_0001846 and WNT5B expression were upregulated, while miR-149-5p expression was downregulated in articular cartilage tissues from patients with OA and IL-1ß-treated CHON-001 cells compared with normal articular cartilage tissues or untreated CHON-001 cells. Circ_0001846 expression was increased in IL-1ß-treated CHON-001 cell exosomes. Circ_0001846 knockdown reversed IL-1ß-mediated cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in CHON-001 cells. Additionally, circ_0001846 participated in IL-1ß-induced chondrocyte cell damage by sponging miR-149-5p. MiR-149-5p mediated IL-1ß-induced chondrocyte cell dysfunction by targeting WNT5B. Furthermore, circ_0001846 secretion was mediated by exosomes in IL-1ß-treated CHON-001 cells. CONCLUSION: Exosome-mediated transfer of circ_0001846 modulated IL-1ß-induced chondrocyte cell damage by miR-149-5p/WNT5B axis, providing a novel avenue for the therapy of OA.

3.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 78: 105735, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479075

RESUMO

Acoustic cavitation is a very important hydrodynamic phenomenon, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial, medical, and daily living applications. In these applications, the effect mechanism of liquid surface tension on improving the efficiency of acoustic cavitation is a crucial concern for researchers. In this study, the effects of liquid surface tension on the dynamics of an ultrasonic driven bubble near a rigid wall, which could be the main mechanism of efficiency improvement in the applications of acoustic cavitation, were investigated at the microscale level. A synchronous high-speed microscopic imaging method was used to clearly record the temporary evolution of single acoustic cavitation bubble in the liquids with different surface tension. Meanwhile, the bubble dynamic characteristics, such as the position and time of bubble collapse, the size and stability of the bubbles, the speed of bubble boundaries and the micro-jets, were analyzed and compared. In the case of the single bubbles near a rigid wall, it was found that low surface tension reduces the stability of the bubbles in the liquid medium. Meanwhile, the bubbles collapse earlier and farther from the rigid wall in the liquids with lower surface tension. In addition, the surface tension has no significant influence on the speed of the first micro-jet, but it can substantially increase the speed of second and the third micro-jets after the first collapse of the bubble. These effects of liquid surface tension on the bubble dynamics can explain the mechanism of surfactants in numerous fields of acoustic cavitation for facilitating its optimization and application.

4.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473407

RESUMO

Baihe Dihuang decoction is a commonly used herbal formula to treat depression and insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine. This study established a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to investigate the potential active ingredients and the components absorbed in the blood and brain tissue of mice. Using a new data processing method, 94 chemical components were identified, 33 and 9 of which were absorbed in the blood and brain. More interestingly, we analyzed the substance changes during co-decoction and the characteristics of the compounds absorbed in the blood and brain. The results show that 71 newly generated chemical components were discovered from co-decoction: 38 with fragment information and five absorbed in the blood. Ultimately, the results of molecular docking show that these components have excellent performance in proteins of γ-aminobutyric acid, serotonin and melatonin receptors. The docking results of emodin with Monoamine Oxidase A and Melatonin Receptor 1A, and luteolin with Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4, Glyoxalase I, Monoamine Oxidase B and Melatonin Receptor 1A, may explain the mechanism of action of Baihe Dihuang decoction in treating insomnia and depression. Overall, our research results may provide novel perspectives for further understanding of the effective substances in Baihe Dihuang decoction.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0082321, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494863

RESUMO

Conidiation is a pivotal strategy for fungi to resist adverse environments and disperse to new habitats, which is especially important for entomopathogenic fungi whose conidia are infective as fungal pesticide propagules. However, the molecular mechanism for regulating conidiation in entomopathogenic fungi is not fully understood. Here, we characterized the regulatory mechanism of the key developmental transcription factor Mr-AbaA. Bioinformatic analysis, transcriptional profiles, and subcellular localization of Mr-abaA indicated that AbaA functioned as a transcription factor in the conidiophore development and conidium stages. Microscopic examination showed that the null mutant of Mr-abaA differentiated into defective phialides to produce an abacus structure instead of conidia. Loss of Mr-abaA resulted in the inhibition of submerged blastospore separation in vitro. Moreover, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) one-hybrid assays of interactions between genes and deletion of Mr-veA showed that Mr-AbaA regulates conidiation by interacting with the promoter regions of Mr-veA and Mr-wetA. These results demonstrate that Mr-AbaA positively regulates conidiation in Metarhizium robertsii by regulating the velvet family ortholog gene Mr-veA and contributes to the separation of blastospores in submerged culture. IMPORTANCE Metarhizium robertsii is an emerging model entomopathogenic fungus for developing biopesticides; therefore, a comprehensive understanding of its conidiation is very important for its application. In this study, we revealed that the transcription factor Mr-AbaA is involved in the control of aerial conidiation and blastospore separation in submerged culture. Further yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that Mr-AbaA interacts with the promoter regions of Mr-veA and Mr-wetA, which code for proteins involved in the control of conidiation. This finding provides new insight into the regulation of the conidiation of this important entomopathogenic fungi.

6.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 264, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell type identification is one of the most important questions in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data analysis. With the accumulation of public scRNA-seq data, supervised cell type identification methods have gained increasing popularity due to better accuracy, robustness, and computational performance. Despite all the advantages, the performance of the supervised methods relies heavily on several key factors: feature selection, prediction method, and, most importantly, choice of the reference dataset. RESULTS: In this work, we perform extensive real data analyses to systematically evaluate these strategies in supervised cell identification. We first benchmark nine classifiers along with six feature selection strategies and investigate the impact of reference data size and number of cell types in cell type prediction. Next, we focus on how discrepancies between reference and target datasets and how data preprocessing such as imputation and batch effect correction affect prediction performance. We also investigate the strategies of pooling and purifying reference data. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our analysis results, we provide guidelines for using supervised cell typing methods. We suggest combining all individuals from available datasets to construct the reference dataset and use multi-layer perceptron (MLP) as the classifier, along with F-test as the feature selection method. All the code used for our analysis is available on GitHub ( https://github.com/marvinquiet/RefConstruction_supervisedCelltyping ).

7.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511601

RESUMO

Gasdermin-D (GSDMD), the executioner of pyroptotic cell death when it is cleaved by inflammatory caspases, plays a crucial role in host defense and the response to danger signals. So far, there are no known mechanisms, other than cleavage, for regulating GSDMD. Here, we show that tripartite motif protein TRIM21 acts as a positive regulator of GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis. TRIM21 interacted with GSDMD via its PRY-SPRY domain, maintaining GSDMD stable expression in resting cells yet inducing the N-terminus of GSDMD (GSDMD-N) aggregation during pyroptosis. TRIM21-deficient cells displayed a reduced cell death in response to NLRP3 or NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Genetic ablation of TRIM21 in mice conferred protection from LPS-induced inflammation and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Therefore, TRIM21 plays an essential role in GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis and may be a viable target for controlling and treating inflammation-associated diseases.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515844

RESUMO

D-Galactose is an abundant carbohydrate monomer in nature and widely exists in macroalgae, plants, and dairy wastes. D-Galactose is useful as a raw material for biomass fuel production or low-calorie sweetener production, attracting increased attention. This article summarizes the studies on biotechnological processes for galactose utilization. Two main research directions of microbial fermentation and enzyme-catalyzed conversion from galactose-rich biomass are extensively reviewed. The review provides the recent discoveries for biofuel production from macroalgae, including the innovative methods in the pretreatment process and technological development in the fermentation process. As modern people pay more attention to health, enzyme technologies for low-calorie sweetener production are more urgently needed. D-Tagatose is a promising low-calorie alternative to sugar. We discuss the recent studies on characterization and genetic modification of L-arabinose isomerase to improve the bioconversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose. In addition, the trends and critical challenges in both research directions are outlined at the end. KEY POINTS: • The value and significance of galactose utilization are highlighted. • Biofuel production from galactose-rich biomass is accomplished by fermentation. • L-arabinose isomerase is a tool for bioconversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose.

9.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542564
10.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131987, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474385

RESUMO

As traditional methods of oil shale production emitting high levels of pollutants, in-situ exploitation has aroused great concerns. In order to study the effect of in-situ pyrolysis products on the underground environment, an in-situ oil shale exploitation of underground environment impact laboratory simulation system was designed. Based on the hydrogeological condition of oil shale area in Nong'an City, a physical simulation test was conducted. It was found the temperature of surrounding layers continued to be perturbed after heating of the formation had stopped. The time during which the temperature was perturbed was about 4-5 times the heating period. During the simulation test, stray gas migration through fractures and faults was considered a mechanism for groundwater contamination. In the test, the maximum TOC content in aquifer was the value of 97.0 mg/L. The maximum total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the simulated formation was 129 mg/kg after oil pyrolysis.

11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112343, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474893

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly implicated as a cause of low-back pain. Stem cell-based tissue engineering in treating intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration recently obtained increasing attention. An appropriately engineered scaffold is considered essential to maintain the viability and function of transplanted cells if it can provide a more physical-relevant condition to replicate the extracellular microenvironments and even to reverse the process of IVD degradation. Here we proposed to utilize nanostructured gelatin colloidal hydrogels loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of IVD degeneration. The colloidal gel consisting of self-assembled gelatin nanoparticles formed a homogeneous porous network dispersed in a continuous phase of an aqueous solution. These special structural and compositional properties render the colloidal gels with shear-thinning and self-healing behavior, as well as injectability and moldability. More importantly, the mechanical properties of gelatin colloidal gels can be adjusted to resemble native nucleus pulposus (NP) which is also viscoelastic and thixotropic. Results demonstrated that gelatin colloidal gels were cytocompatible, biodegradable, and able to support the NP-like differentiation of MSCs. Also, gelatin colloidal gels had the potential to prevent leakage of MSCs and retain cell viability after injection. Upon transplantation into rabbit degenerated IVDs, mesenchymal stem cell-loaded nanostructured colloidal gels promoted IVD regeneration evidenced by the significant improvement in morphological and histological assessment, cellularity, glycosaminoglycan contents, disc height index, and MRI index. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of stem cell-laden gelatin colloidal gels as a tissue-engineered construct for IVD repair and regeneration.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Disco Intervertebral , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Núcleo Pulposo , Animais , Hidrogéis , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/terapia , Coelhos , Engenharia Tecidual
12.
Gut ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) sequencing is increasingly used in the clinical management of patients with colorectal cancer. However, the genomic heterogeneity in ctDNA during treatments and its impact on clinical outcomes remain largely unknown. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study (NCT04228614) of 171 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who underwent first-line treatment and prospectively collected blood samples with or without tumour samples from patients at baseline and sequentially until disease progression or last follow-up. RESULTS: The RAS/BRAF alterations in paired baseline tissue and plasma samples from 63 patients displayed a favourable concordance (81.0%, 51/63). After a period of first-line treatment (median time between baseline and last liquid biopsy, 4.67 months), 42.6% (26/61) of RAS-mutant patients showed RAS clearance and 50.0% (5/10) of BRAF-mutant patients showed BRAF clearance, while 3.6% (3/84) and 0.7% (1/135) of patients showed new RAS or BRAF mutations in ctDNA. Patients with plasma RAS/BRAF clearance showed similar progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with patients who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type, while much better outcomes than those who remained RAS/BRAF mutant. Patients who gained new RAS/BRAF mutations showed similar prognosis as those who maintained RAS/BRAF mutations, and shorter PFS and OS than those who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type. CONCLUSION: This prospective, serial and large-scale ctDNA profiling study reveals the temporal heterogeneity of mCRC-related somatic variants, which should be given special attention in clinical practice, as evidenced by the finding that the shift in plasma RAS/BRAF mutational status can yield a drastic change in survival outcomes.

13.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478552

RESUMO

C-repeat (CRT) binding factors (CBFs) are well known to act as crucial transcription factors that function in cold stress response. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC)-mediated putrescine biosynthesis has been reported to be activated in plants exposed to cold conditions, but it remains elusive whether CBFs can regulate ADC expression and putrescine accumulation. In this study, we show that cold up-regulated ADC gene (CsADC) and elevation of endogenous putrescine content in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Promoter of CsADC contains two CRT sequences that are canonical elements recognized by CBFs. Sweet orange genome contains four CBFs (CsCBF1-4), in which CsCBF1 was significantly induced by cold. CsCBF1, located in the nucleus, was demonstrated to bind directly and specifically to the promoter of CsADC and acted as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of CsCBF1 led to notable elevation of CsADC and putrescine level in sweet orange transgenic plants, along with remarkably enhanced cold tolerance, relative to the wild type (WT). However, pretreatment with D-arginine, an ADC inhibitor, caused prominent reduction of endogenous putrescine level in the overexpressing lines, accompanied by greatly compromised cold tolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CBF1 of sweet orange directly regulates ADC expression and modulates putrescine synthesis for orchestrating the cold tolerance. Our findings shed light into the transcriptional regulation of putrescine accumulation through targeting the ADC gene in the presence of cold stress. Meanwhile, this study illustrates a new mechanism underlying the CBF-mediated cold stress response.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150010, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487897

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) and related factors, i.e., relative humidity (RH), aerosol mass concentration (PM2.5), and aerosol hygroscopicity, on aerosol optical properties, based on field measurements made in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China at the surface (1 November 2019 to 21 January 2020) and in the upper boundary layer (the 532-m Guangzhou tower from 1 February to 21 March 2020). In general, temporal variations in the ambient aerosol backscattering coefficient (ßp) and ALWC followed each other. However, the surface ßp and 532-m ßp had generally opposite diurnal variation patterns, caused by dramatic differences in PM2.5 and ambient RH between the surface and the upper boundary layer. The ambient 532-m RH was systematically higher than the surface RH, with the latter having a much pronounced diurnal cycle than the former. The surface PM2.5 concentration was systematically higher than the PM2.5 concentration at 532 m, and their diurnal cycle patterns were overall opposite. These dramatic differences reveal that the atmospheric variables, i.e., ambient RH and the PM2.5 concentration in the upper boundary layer, cannot be directly represented by the same variables at the surface. Vertical variability should be considered. Clear differences in the sensitivities of aerosol light scattering to ambient RH, PM2.5, and aerosol hygroscopicity between the two levels were found and examined. Aerosol chemical composition played a minor role in causing the differences between the two levels. In particular, ßp was more sensitive to PM2.5 at the surface level but more to the ambient RH in the upper boundary layer. The larger contribution of aerosol loading to the variability in ßp at the surface implies that local emission controls can decrease ßp and further improve atmospheric visibility effectively at the surface during winter in the PRD region.

15.
Phys Med Biol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474407

RESUMO

Many deep learning (DL) frameworks have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in the super-resolution (SR) task of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but most performances have been achieved with simulated low-resolution (LR) images rather than LR images from real acquisition. Due to the limited generalizability of the SR network, enhancement is not guaranteed for real LR images because of the unreality of the training LR images. In this study, we proposed a DL-based SR framework with an emphasis on data construction to achieve better performance on real LR MR images. The framework comprised two steps: (a) downsampling training using a generative adversarial network (GAN) to construct more realistic and perfectly matched LR/high-resolution (HR) pairs. The downsampling GAN input was real LR and HR images. The generator translated the HR images to LR images and the discriminator distinguished the patch-level difference between the synthetic and real LR images. (b) Super-resolution training was performed using an enhanced deep super-resolution network (EDSR). In the controlled experiments, three EDSRs were trained using our proposed method, Gaussian blur, and k-space zero-filling. As for the data, liver MR images were obtained from 24 patients using breath-hold serial LR and HR scans (only HR images were used in the conventional methods). The k-space zero-filling group delivered almost zero enhancement on the real LR images and the Gaussian group produced a considerable number of artifacts. The proposed method exhibited significantly better resolution enhancement and fewer artifacts compared with the other two networks. Our method outperformed the Gaussian method by an improvement of 0.111 ± 0.016 in the structural similarity index (SSIM) and 2.76 ± 0.98 dB in the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). The blind/reference-less image spatial quality evaluator (BRISQUE) metric of the conventional Gaussian method and proposed method were 46.6 ± 4.2 and 34.1 ± 2.4, respectively.

16.
Spine Deform ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although matching lumbar lordosis (LL) with pelvic incidence (PI) is an important surgical goal for adult spinal deformity (ASD), there is concern that overcorrection may lead to proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). We introduce the upper instrumented vertebra-femoral angle (UIVFA) as a measure of appropriate postoperative position in the setting of lower thoracic to pelvis surgical correction for patients with sagittal imbalance. We hypothesize that a more posterior UIV position in relation to the center of the femoral head is associated with an increased risk of PJK given compensatory hyperkyphosis above the UIV. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients undergoing lower thoracic (T9-T12) to pelvis correction of ASD with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were included. UIVFA was measured as the angle subtended by a line from the UIV centroid to the femoral head center to the vertical axis. Patients who developed PJK and those who did not were compared with preoperative and postoperative UIVFA as well as change between postoperative and preoperative UIVFA (deltaUIVFA). RESULTS: Of 119 patients included with an average 3.6-year follow-up, 51 (42.9%) had PJK and 24 (20.2%) had PJF. Patients with PJK had significantly higher postoperative UIVFA (12.6 ± 4.8° vs. 9.4 ± 6.6°, p = 0.04), deltaUIVFA (6.1 ± 7.6° vs. 2.1 ± 5.6°, p < 0.01), postoperative pelvic tilt (27.3 ± 9.2 vs. 23.3 ± 11, p = 0.04), postoperative lumbar lordosis (47.7 ± 13.9° vs. 42.4 ± 13.1, p = 0.04) and postoperative thoracic kyphosis (44.9 ± 13.2 vs. 31.6 ± 18.8) than patients without PJK. With multivariate logistic regression, postoperative UIVFA and deltaUIVFA were found to be independent risk factors for PJK (p < 0.05). DeltaUIVFA was found to be an independent risk factor for PJF (p < 0.05). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for UIVFA as a predictor for PJK was established with an area under the curve of 0.67 (95% CI 0.59-0.76). Per the Youden index, the optimal UIVFA cut-off value is 11.5 degrees. CONCLUSION: The more posterior the UIV is from the femoral head center after lower thoracic to pelvis surgical correction for ASD, the more patients are at risk for PJK. The greater the magnitude of posterior translation of the UIV from the femoral head center from preop to postop, the greater the likelihood for PJF.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1619, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate global burden of refraction disorders by year, age, region, gender, socioeconomic status and other national characteristics in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and prevalence from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019 and World Bank Open Data 2019. METHODS: Global, regional, and national DALY numbers, crude DALY rates, age-standardized DALY and prevalence rates of refraction disorders were acquired from the GBD study 2019. Mobile cellular subscriptions, urban population, GDP per capita, access to electricity and total fertility rate were obtained from the World Bank to explore the factors that influenced the health burden of refraction disorders. Kruskal-Wallis test, linear regression and multiple linear regression were performed to evaluate the associations between the health burden with socioeconomic levels and other national characteristics. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was used to investigate the gender disparity. RESULTS: Globally, age-standardized DALY rates of refraction disorders decreased from 88.9 (95% UI: 60.5-120.3) in 1990 to 81.5 (95% UI: 55.0-114.8) in 2019, and might fall to 73.16 (95% UI: 67.81-78.51) by 2050. Age-standardized prevalence rates would also reduce to 1830 (95% UI: 1700-1960) by 2050, from 2080 (95% UI: 1870-2310) in 1990 to 1960 (95% UI: 1750-2180) in 2019. In low SDI region, age-standardized DALY rates (equation: Y = 114.05*X + 27.88) and prevalence rates (equation: Y = 3171.1*X + 403.2) were positively correlated with SDI in linear regression respectively. East Asia had the highest blindness rate caused by refraction disorders in terms of age-standardized DALY rates (11.20, 95% UI: 7.38-16.36). Gender inequality was found among different age groups and SDI regions. CONCLUSION: Health burden of refraction disorders decreased in recent years, and may continue to alleviate in the next three decades. Older ages, females and lower socioeconomic status were associated with higher refraction disorders health burden.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Carga Global da Doença , Idoso , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521193

RESUMO

Estimates of riverine N2O emission contain great uncertainty because of the lack of quantitative knowledge concerning riverine N2O sources and fates. Using a 3.5-year record of monthly N2O measurements from the Yongan River network of eastern China, we developed a mass-balance model to address the riverine N2O source and sink processes. We achieved reasonable model efficacies (R2 = 0.44-0.84, Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients = 0.40-0.80) across three tributaries and the entire river system. Estimated riverine N2O loads originated from groundwater (38-88%), surface runoff (3-26%), and in-stream production (4-48%). Estimated in-stream losses via atmospheric release + complete denitrification accounted for 76, 95, 25, and 89% of riverine N2O fate for the agricultural, residential, forest, and entire river system, respectively. Considering limited complete denitrification, the model estimated an upper-bound riverine N2O emission rate of 2.65 ton N2O-N km-2 year-1 for the entire river system. Riverine N2O emission estimates were of comparable magnitude to those estimated with a power-law scaling model. Riverine N2O emissions using the IPCC default emission factor (0.26%) overestimated emissions by 3-15 times, whereas the dissolved N2O concentration-based emission factor overestimated or underestimated emissions. This study highlights the importance of combining comprehensive information on N2O sources and fates to achieve accurate riverine N2O emission estimates.

19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1572-1585, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507165

RESUMO

Embedding two-dimension micro/nanocontainers containing corrosion inhibitors into organic coating is a well-established concept to impart the coating with enhanced barrier and self-healing feature. Herein, a versatile nanoemulsion assembly approach was used to synthesis nanocarriers combing mesoporous polydopamine nanoparticles (MPDA) with reduced graphene oxide (GO), which was employed to encapsulate corrosion inhibitors (benzotriazole, BTA) to improve the anticorrosion performance of waterborne epoxy coating. The BTA release profiles from synthesized GO with MPDA (PDAG) demonstrated the rapid pH-triggered activities to acidic corrosion environment. With the addition of BTA-loaded PDAG, the composited epoxy coatings presented self-repairing behavior and enhanced corrosion resistance during long-term immersion. The outstanding anticorrosion performance is attributed to dual-protection mechanism provided by BTA-loaded PDAG: (1) MPDA endows GO with satisfactory interface compatibilities and thus provides impermeable barrier to delay the penetration process of corrosive electrolyte; (2) corrosion inhibitors including BTA and polydopamine form the adsorption layers on bare steel surface to resist continuous corrosion at metal/coating interface.

20.
Neurologist ; 26(5): 189-195, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptomeningeal amyloidosis (LA) represents a rare subtype of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, characterized by deposition of amyloid in cranial and spinal leptomeninges. Of >120 TTR mutations identified, few have been associated with LA. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of progressive symptoms including cognitive decline and right-sided weakness and numbness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses demonstrated high protein level. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive leptomeningeal enhancement over the surface of the brain and spinal cord. Pathologic analyses revealed a TTR mutation c.113A>G (p.D38G). REVIEW SUMMARY: Fifteen mutations and genotype-phenotype correlation of 72 LA patients have been summarized to provide an overview of LA associated with transthyretin mutations. The mean age of clinical onset was 44.9 years and the neurological symptoms primarily included cognitive impairment, headache, ataxia seizures and hearing, visual loss. CSF analysis showed elevated high CSF protein level and MRI revealed extensive leptomeningeal enhancement. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of this rare form of familial transthyretin amyloidosis as well as its typical MRI enhancement and high CSF protein. The important role of biopsy, genetic testing and the potential early diagnosis value of contrast MRI were suggested. Early recognition of these characteristics is important to provide misdiagnosis and shorten the time before correct diagnosis. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of TTR gene and have implications for the diagnosis, treatment, and systematic study of LA.

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