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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2079: 155-166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728969

RESUMO

Cloning the open reading frame (ORF) of a protein-coding chimeric RNA into a mammalian expression vector is a simple, practiced way to study the function of the chimeric RNA. Here, we provide procedures for the insertion of the RRM2-C2orf48 fusion ORF into a mammalian expression vector, achieving the overexpression of the RRM2-C2orf48 fusion protein in a colon cancer cell line by retroviral transduction.

2.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 132: 109443, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731969

RESUMO

l-Ribose is an important pharmaceutical intermediate that is used in the synthesis of numerous antiviral and anticancer drugs. However, it is a non-natural and expensive rare sugar. Recently, the enzymatic synthesis of l-ribose has attracted considerable attention owing to its considerable advantages over chemical approaches. In this work, a new strategy was developed for the production of l-ribose from the inexpensive starting material l-arabinose. The l-arabinose isomerase (l-AIase) gene from Alicyclobacillus hesperidum and the d-lyxose isomerase (d-LIase) gene from Thermoflavimicrobium dichotomicum were cloned and co-expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in recombinant cells harboring the vector pCDFDuet-Alhe-LAI/Thdi-DLI. The co-expression system exhibited optimal activity at a temperature of 70 °C and pH 6.0, and the addition of Co2+ enhanced the catalytic activity by 27.8-fold. The system containing 50 g L-1 of recombinant cells were relatively stable up to 55 °C. The co-expression system (50 g L-1 of recombinant cells) afforded 20.9, 39.7, and 50.3 g L-1 of l-ribose from initial l-arabinose concentrations of 100, 300, and 500 g L-1, corresponding to conversion rate of 20.9%, 13.2%, and 10.0%, respectively. Overall, this study provides a viable approach for producing l-ribose from l-arabinose under slightly acidic conditions using a co-expression system harboring l-AIase and d-LIase genes.

3.
Talanta ; 207: 120313, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594600

RESUMO

Peptidomics research is of great significance for discovering potential biomarkers and monitoring human diseases. As a kind of common clinical biofluid, saliva known for its noninvasive collection and easy accessibility has been widely used in peptidomics research. In this article, we combined immobilized metal ions affinity chromotography (IMAC) with mesoporous material and proposed the copper ion doped magnetic mesoporous silica material (denoted as Fe3O4@mSiO2-Cu2+) which had a large surface area of 221 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.20 cm3 g-1. By immobilizing copper ions onto the mesopore walls, the standard peptide Angiotensin II could be identified in an extremely low concentration of 0.1 fmol µl-1 and in a mass ratio of 1:500 (Angiotensin II:BSA, m/m), which indicated significant sensitivity and a great size-exclusive ability. In addition, the introduction of polydopamine (PDA) made Fe3O4@mSiO2-Cu2+ more hydrophilic and biocompatible which could improve the profiling of endogenous peptides in bio-sample. Finally, 131 endogenous peptides were identified in human saliva after enrichment with Fe3O4@mSiO2-Cu2+. Therefore, Fe3O4@mSiO2-Cu2+ nanoparticles provided a promising candidate protocol for biomarker discovery.

4.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 723-734, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452248

RESUMO

With the extensive use of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in the surgical resection of tumours for its potent sedative and analgesic properties, its effects on various properties of tumours have received increased attention. The study described herein aimed to investigate the effects of Dex on glioma cells in the presence or absence of cisplatin (DDP). Glioma U251 and U87MG cells were treated with different doses (1-50 nM) of Dex for 12 hours, then recultured in a Dex-free medium. In addition, Dex was added to U251 and U87MG cells 12 hours before or simultaneously with a 12-hour DDP treatment. Treatment with Dex increased the viability of both cell lines; this effect continued for at least 24 hours after Dex was removed. A cell invasion assay indicated that Dex inhibited cell invasion at 50 nM, but not at 10 nM. Western blot analysis showed that Dex increased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphoitide 3-kinase and p-AKT, but decreased ROCK protein levels at a dose of 50 nM. Intracellular Ca 2+ concentration was decreased by Dex in a dose-dependent manner. DDP toxicity was attenuated by 10 nM Dex added either before or with DDP treatment. However, pretreatment with 50 nM Dex instead enhanced the toxicity of DDP. Single-dose treatment with Dex did not significantly change glioma volume in nude mice, but changed the expression of Ki67 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 in the tumour. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of the regulatory effects of Dex on proliferation, invasion and chemosensitivity of glioma cells, and outlines potential mechanisms for these effects.

5.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1013-1024, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240715

RESUMO

Iron is an essential metal ion in the human body and usually dysregulated in cancers. However, a comprehensive overview of the iron-related genes and their clinical relevance in cancer is lacking. In this study, we utilized the expression profiling, proteomics, and epigenetics from the Cancer Genome Atlas database to systematically characterized the alterations of iron-related genes. There were multiple iron-related genes with dysregulation across 14 cancers and some of these ectopic changes may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation. Meanwhile, a variety of genes were significantly associated with patient survival, especially in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma. Then differentially expressed genes were validated in clinical samples. Finally, we found deferoxamine and erastin could inhibit proliferation in various tumor cells and influence the expression of several iron-related genes. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive analysis of iron metabolism across cancers and highlights the potential treatment of iron targeted therapies for cancers.

6.
Science ; 366(6467): 838-843, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672915

RESUMO

The RSC complex remodels chromatin structure and regulates gene transcription. We used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure of yeast RSC bound to the nucleosome. RSC is delineated into the adenosine triphosphatase motor, the actin-related protein module, and the substrate recruitment module (SRM). RSC binds the nucleosome mainly through the motor, with the auxiliary subunit Sfh1 engaging the H2A-H2B acidic patch to enable nucleosome ejection. SRM is organized into three substrate-binding lobes poised to bind their respective nucleosomal epitopes. The relative orientations of the SRM and the motor on the nucleosome explain the directionality of DNA translocation and promoter nucleosome repositioning by RSC. Our findings shed light on RSC assembly and functionality, and they provide a framework to understand the mammalian homologs BAF/PBAF and the Sfh1 ortholog INI1/BAF47, which are frequently mutated in cancers.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677400

RESUMO

Water temperature can affect the metabolism of fish. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a representative eurythermic fish that can survive at a wide range of ambient temperatures, allowing it to live in an extensive geographical range. The goal of this work was to study the glucose metabolism of common carp at different temperatures and determine the miRNAs involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. We determined the indicators related to glucose metabolism after long-term temperature stress and constructed nine small RNA libraries of livers under different temperature stress (5 °C, 17 °C, and 30 °C, with three biological replicates for each temperature), and subjected these samples to high-throughput sequencing. A positive relationship was observed between weight gain rate (WGR) and temperature increase after 18 days of temperature stress. However, the glucose level in the plasma maintained a gentle decrease. Unexpectedly, liver lactic acid levels were elevated in HTG (high temperature group) and LTG (low temperature group). Six down-regulated miRNAs (miR-122, miR-30b, miR-15b-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-1, and miR-7b) were identified as involved in the regulation of glycolysis. Twelve genes were predicted as targets of these miRNAs, and these genes are in pathways related to pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and the citrate cycle (TCA cycle). The results allowed prediction of a potential regulatory network of miRNAs involved in the regulation of glycolysis. The target genes of six down-regulated miRNAs were up-regulated under temperature stress, including Aldolase C, fructose-bisphosphate, b (ALDOCB), multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (MINPP1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha 1 (PDHA1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 family member A1a (ALDH9A1A), Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACSS), lactate dehydrogenase b (LDH-b), and glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR). Other key genes of glycolysis, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), pyruvate kinase PKM (PKM), and mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) were significantly up-regulated in LTG and HTG. Overall, the results suggest that miRNAs maintain their energy requirements by regulating glycolysis and play an important role in the molecular response to cold and heat stress of common carp. These data provide the foundation for further studies of the role of miRNAs in environmental adaptation in fish.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16356, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705061

RESUMO

FeCrNiCu based high entropy alloy matrix composites were fabricated with addition of Si and C by vacuum electromagnetic induction melting. The primary goal of this research was to analyze the reaction mechanism, microstructure, mechanical properties at room temperature and strengthening mechanism of the composites with addition of Si and C. The reaction mechanism of powders containing (Si, Ni and C) was analyzed, only one reaction occurred (i.e., Si + C → SiC) and its activation energy is 1302.8 kJ/mol. The new composites consist of a face centered cubic (FCC) structured matrix reinforced by submicron sized SiC particles. The addition of Si and C enhances the hardness from 351.4 HV to 626.4 HV and the tensile strength from 565.5 MPa to 846.0 MPa, accompanied by a slight decrease in the plasticity. The main strengthening mechanisms of SiC/FeCrNiCu composites were discussed based on dislocation strengthening, load bearing effect, Orowan mechanism and solid solution hardening, whose contributions to the tensile strength increase are 58.6%, 6.3%, 14.3% and 20.8%, respectively.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705928

RESUMO

Cervical cancer remains the first leading cause of cancer-related mortality among female reproductive system malignancies worldwide, and invasion and lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer represent the major reason for its poor prognosis. In this study, we found that RACK1 facilitated tumor cell invasion and lymphatic tube formation in vitro, as well as promoted lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in vivo in a galectin-1-dependent manner. Mechanism studies revealed that RACK1 promoted the expression and secretion of galectin-1 by reducing miR-1275 levels. Additionally, RACK1 also augmented galectin-1-induced downstream MEK/ERK, FAK, and AKT signaling via integrin-ß1 in cervical cancer cells. Tissue microarray confirmed that RACK1 was upregulated in squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer, and RACK1 was positively correlated with invasion/metastasis phenotype, galectin-1 expression, and unfavorable prognosis in cervical cancer cases. Human papillomavirus E6 oncogene contributes to increased expression of RACK1 via the enhancement of its O-GlcNAcylation and protein stability. Together, our results demonstrate that RACK1 stimulates tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer via galectin-1 and imply that targeting RACK1/galectin-1 axis provides promising means for cervical cancer treatment.

10.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718142

RESUMO

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is routinely used in the clinic for tumor imaging with ultrahigh sensitivity, but tumor-targeted PET imaging probes are quite few. In this work, we rationally designed a furin-responsive radiotracer Acetyl-Arg-Val-Arg-Arg-Cys(StBu)-Lys(DOTA-68Ga)-CBT (CBT-68Ga) and demonstrated that coinjection of the radiotracer with its cold analogue CBT-Ga instructed the formation of 68Ga nanoparticles in furin-overexpressing MDA-MB-468 cancer cells, which significantly enhanced microPET imaging of the tumor in vivo. In vitro results showed that CBT-Ga subjected to furin-initiated CBT-Cys condensation reaction and self-assembly to form the nanoparticles CBT-Ga-NPs with an average diameter of 258.3 nm. In vivo microPET imaging results indicate that the mice coinjected with CBT-68Ga and CBT-Ga, which warrants 68Ga nanoparticle formation in their MDA-MB-468 tumors, had a tumor/liver ratio 9.1-fold of that of the mice only injected with CBT-68Ga. We envisioned that, by replacing the RVRR substrate of CBT-68Ga with other enzyme-specific ones and using the strategy of intracellular nanoparticle formation, a series of radioactive probes could be developed for more sensitive and precise tumor microPET imaging in the near future.

11.
Brain Res ; : 146511, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672472

RESUMO

Isoflurane anesthesia is reported to induce insulin resistance (IR) in the peripheral tissues. However, researches on the impact of isoflurane on insulin-related metabolism in the central nervous system, especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are scarce. This study sought to explore whether isoflurane anesthesia had a negative effect on insulin sensitivity both in peripheral and central tissues. Moreover, the possible role of isoflurane anesthesia in T2DM mice with pre-existing IR was analyzed. T2DM model in C57BL/6J mice was established by high fat diet (HFD) and single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Both HFD/STZ-induced T2DM mice and normal mice received 6 h isoflurane exposure. Blood glucose level and serum insulin concentration were detected and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index was calculated to estimate peripheral IR. Relative levels of genes and proteins in the insulin-dependent signaling pathway in mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were determined to measure central IR. Results indicated that 6 h isoflurane exposure induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and raised HOMA-IR index. Meanwhile, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS1) (Ser639) and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-2 (pIRS2) (Ser731) were upregulated, while phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT) (Ser473) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (pGSK3ß) (Ser9) were downregulated in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of anesthetized mice. Notably, isoflurane anesthesia significantly aggravated the degree of central IR in the aspects of gene transcriptions and protein expressions in HFD/STZ-induced T2DM mice with pre-existing IR. This study suggested that isoflurane anesthesia induced peripheral and central IR and aggravated pre-existing insulin resistance in T2DM mice.

12.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11913778, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735085

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is an early step to the progression of cardiovascular diseases in diabetes. Apart from their anti-diabetic action, DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors also reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effect of DPP-4 inhibitor on endothelial function is still obscure. In this study, we intervened type 1 or 2 diabetic model mice with vildagliptin for 4 weeks and measured the vascular reactivity. We found that vildagliptin improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in diabetic mice independent of GLP-1 (glucagonlike peptide-1), but this effect was blocked by a SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) inhibitor, Ex527. Mechanistically, vildagliptin-activated Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) to promote extracellular calcium uptake in endothelial cells, which activated AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/SIRT1 pathway to counteract hyperglycemia-induced endothelial reactive oxygen species generation and senescence. Vildagliptin directly binds to TRPV4 by forming a hydrogen bond, which is critical to vildagliptin-evoked endothelial calcium intake. Knockout or inhibition of TRPV4 erased the beneficial role of vildagliptin. In addition, activation of SIRT1 by SRT1720 improved endothelial function independent of TRPV4 and reduced TRPV4 transcription to maintain an appropriate calcium level. In summary, our findings prove that vildagliptin protects against hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction by activating TRPV4-meditaed Ca2+ uptake, which helps to re-understand the mechanism of DPP-4 inhibitors and expand the therapeutic scope.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740003

RESUMO

The orthopedic external fixation is always in dynamic mechanical environment with the somatic movement. We used a self-designed mini oscillator to simulate this condition by providing the reciprocating cyclic fluid stress, and observed the behavioral responses of fibroblasts implanted on titanium alloy plane to the stress at different frequencies, including 0.2 Hz, 0.6 Hz, and 1.0 Hz. We found that the cell angle, shape index and expression of vinculin were mostly biphasic-dependent with the increase of frequency, with peaks at 0.6 Hz. Whereas the cell area, expression of Col-I and α-SMA were mainly affected by the 1.0 Hz stress. Interestingly, 1.0 Hz stress also promoted Col-I expression of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), although it did not increase α-SMA. These results reveal that 0.6 Hz stress improves the alignment, polarity and adherence of fibroblasts on titanium alloy substrates, thus improving the sealing of implants; the 1.0 Hz force activates the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increases collagen produced by stem cells, which probably cause the formation of fibrous capsules around implants.

14.
Glycobiology ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742327

RESUMO

The sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan displays excellent anticancer properties with low toxicity in many kinds of cancers. However, its detailed pharmacological effect and mechanism of action in gastric carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we found that fucoidan could suppress gastric cancer (GC) cell growth, as well as cell migration and invasion. A cytokine expression screen demonstrated that TGF-ß1 secretion was decreased in fucoidan-treated cells. Fucoidan has been reported to be a platelet agonist for the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), and our previous research found that upregulation of CLEC-2 inhibited GC progression. Here, we confirmed that fucoidan, combined with CLEC-2, significantly increased CLEC-2 expression in GC cells via the transcription factor CDX2, an important regulator of gut homeostasis. In addition, the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on the gastric cancer cell malignant phenotype and TGF-ß1 secretion could be restored by knocking down CLEC-2. Thus, our data suggest that fucoidan targets CLEC-2 to exert anti-tumorigenesis and anti-metastatic activity, suggesting that fucoidan is a promising treatment for gastric carcinoma.

15.
Brain Res ; : 146537, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672473

RESUMO

Higher visual centers could modulate visually-guided ocular growth, in addition to local mechanisms intrinsic to the eye. There is evidence that such central modulations could be species (even subspecies)-dependent. While the mouse has recently become an important experimental animal in myopia studies, it remains unclear whether and how visual centers modulate refractive development in mice, an issue that was examined in the present study. We found that optic nerve crush (ONC), performed at P18, could modify normal refractive development in the C57BL/6 mouse raised in normal visual environment. Unexpectedly, sham surgery caused a steeper cornea, leading to a modest myopic refractive shift, but did not induce significant changes in ocular axis length. ONC caused corneal flattening and re-calibrated the refractive set-point in a bidirectional manner, causing significant myopic (<-3 D, 54.5%) or hyperopic (>+3 D, 18.2%) shifts in refractive error in most (totally 72.7%) animals, both due to changes in ocular axial length. ONC did not change the density of dopaminergic amacrine cells, but increased retinal levels of dopamine and DOPAC. We conclude that higher visual centers are likely to play a role in fine-tuning of ocular growth, thus modifying refractive development in the C57BL/6 mouse. The changes in refractive error induced by ONC are accounted for by alternations in multiple ocular dimensions, including corneal curvature and axial length.

16.
Int J Pharm ; : 118776, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678374

RESUMO

A comprehensive cocrystal study for the insoluble natural pharmaceutical compound xanthotoxin (XT) was conducted, in which xanthotoxin-para aminobenzoic acid (XT-PABA) and xanthotoxin-oxalic acid (XT-OA) cocrystals were obtained. The xanthotoxin cocrystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectra, and the crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal structures and thermal analysis showed that XT-OA was more stable than XT-PABA. Energy framework calculation indicated that H-bond and π···π interactions generated in XT-OA were stronger than that in XT-PABA and xanthotoxin. The powder dissolution experiments of xanthotoxin and its cocrystals suggested the XT-OA cocrystal might be applied as an alternative formulation of API, on account of its enhanced solubility and stability in the hydrochloric acid buffer solution (pH 1.2). The cocrystallization engineering can prolong the enhanced apparent solubility via modulating the stability.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707684

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the effect of steam explosion of oil palm frond (OPF) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro. The results showed that steam explosion decreased NDF (P < 0.01), ADF (P < 0.01), and hemicellulose content (P < 0.01) in OPF and EFB. Steam explosion improved the effective energy value of OPF and EFB. In vitro fermentation results revealed that 72-h gas production capacity of OPF and EFB increased by 12.60and 85.06% (P < 0.01), respectively, after steam explosion. Steam explosion had a tendency to improve the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) (P = 0.082). In conclusion, steam explosion of OPF and EFB reduced NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose content and increased gas production and TVFA concentration.

18.
Diabetes ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712319

RESUMO

The whitening and loss of brown adipose tissue (BAT) during obesity and aging promote metabolic disorders and related diseases. The imbalance of Ca2+ homeostasis accounts for the dysfunction and clearance of mitochondria during BAT whitening. Capsaicin, a dietary factor activating TRPV1, can inhibit obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD), but whether capsaicin inhibits BAT loss and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we determined that the inhibitory effects capsaicin on HFD-induced obesity and BAT whitening were dependent on the participation of SIRT3, a critical mitochondrial deacetylase. SIRT3 also mediated all the beneficial effects of capsaicin on alleviating ROS generation, elevating mitochondrial activity and restricting mitochondrial calcium overload induced by HFD. Mechanistically, SIRT3 inhibits mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)-mediated mitochondrial calcium overload by reducing the H3K27ac level on MCU promoter in an AMPK-dependent manner. In addition, HFD also inhibits AMPK activity to reduce SIRT3 expression, which could be reversed by capsaicin. Capsaicin intervention also inhibited aging-induced BAT whitening through this mechanism. In conclusion, this study emphasizes a critical role of AMPK/SIRT3 pathway in the maintenance of BAT morphology and function, and suggests that intervention in this pathway may be an effective target for preventing obesity or age-related metabolic diseases.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713668

RESUMO

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a representative iminopyranose, is widely used in anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity applications. It naturally exists in plants, insects, and the culture broth of some microbes as a secondary metabolite product. However, the content of DNJ in plants and insects is relatively low, which is an obstacle to investigating DNJ in terms of structure-function relationships and restricts large-scale industrial production. With the development of micro-biotechnology, the production of DNJ during microbial fermentation has potential for industrial applications. In this review, we primarily focus on the microbial production of DNJ. The review covers sources of DNJ, determination methods, and physiological functions and applications. In a discussion of the efficient production of DNJ microorganisms, we summarize the current methods for DNJ screening and how to guide industrialized large-scale production of DNJ through fermentation regulation strategies. In addition, differences in the biosynthetic pathways of DNJ in different sources are also summarized. Finally, a comparison of DNJ content derived from different sources is discussed.

20.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683678

RESUMO

The enantioselective transformations of indoles preferentially take place in the more-reactive azole ring. However, the methods for the enantioselective functionalization of the indole benzene ring are scarce. In this paper, a series of bifunctional (thio)urea derivatives were used to organocatalyze the enantioselective Friedel-Crafts hydroxyalkylation of indoles with isatins. The resulting products were obtained in good yields (65-90%) with up to 94% enantiomer excess (ee). The catalyst type and the substrate scope were broadened in this methodology.

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