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1.
Environ Pollut ; 348: 123893, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556146

RESUMO

Below the boundary layer, the air pollutants have been confirmed to present the decreasing trend with the height in most situaitons. However, the disperiosn rate of air pollutants in the vertical profile is rarely investigated in detail, especially through in-situ measurement. With this consideration, we employed an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with portable monitoring equipments to scrutinize the vertical distribution of PM2.5. Based on the original data, we found that PM2.5 concentration decreases gradually with altitude below the boundary layer and demonstrated an obvious linear correlation. Therefore, the vertical distribution of PM2.5 was quantified by representing the distribution of PM2.5 with the slope of PM2.5 vertical distribution. We used backward trajectories to reveal the causes of outliers (PM2.5 increasing with altitude), and found that PM2.5 in the high altitude came from the southwest. Besides, the relationship between the vertical distribution of PM2.5 and various meteorological factors was investigated using stepwise regression analysis. The results show that the four meteorological factors most strongly correlated with the slope values are: (a) the difference in relative humidity between the ground and the air; (b) the difference in temperature between the ground and the air; (c) the height of the boundary layer; and (d) the wind speed. The slope values increase with increasing the difference in relative humidity between ground and air and the difference in temperature between the ground and the air, and decrease with increasing boundary layer height and wind speed. According to the Random Forest calculations, the ground-to-air relative humidity difference is the most important at 0.718; the wind speed is the least important at 0.053; and the ground-to-air temperature difference and boundary layer height are 0.140 and 0.088, respectively.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to validate the prognostic implication of uncertain resection, R(un), proposed by International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and evaluate the prognostic value of spread through air spaces (STAS) in reclassifying the R classification among patients with lung adenocarcinoma after segmentectomy. METHODS: We enrolled 1007 patients who underwent segmentectomy for c-stage IA lung adenocarcinoma between 2014 and 2017. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared to evaluate the prognostic value of IASLC-R(un) and STAS. Whether STAS would skip into complementary lobectomy was evaluated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The current IASLC-R(un) failed to significantly stratify the RFS (P = .078) in segmentectomy, and STAS was a stronger risk factor of poor prognosis for both RFS and OS (P < .001). Moreover, the presence of STAS was associated with increased locoregional recurrence in patients undergoing segmentectomy (P < .001) but not in those treated with lobectomy (P = .187), indicating that only STAS-positive segmentectomy was consistent with the concept of R(un) in relapse pattern. After reclassifying STAS-positive segmentectomy into the R(un) category, the proposed R(un) showed an improvement in prognosis stratification. In addition, 2 of 30 patients (6.2%) in the prospective cohort who underwent initial segmentectomy and complementary lobectomy had STAS clusters in the complementary lobectomy specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable prognosis, relapse patterns consistent with R(un), and pathologic verification that saltatory spread of STAS observed in complementary lobectomy specimens supported reclassifying STAS-positive segmentectomy as R(un). STAS is a critical concern for the surgical completeness evaluation after segmentectomy.

3.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 10(4): 2607-2615, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478959

RESUMO

Conventional thinking when designing biodegradable materials and devices is to tune the intrinsic properties and morphological features of the material to regulate their degradation rate, modulating traditional factors such as molecular weight and crystallinity. Since regenerated silk protein can be directly thermoplastically molded to generate robust dense silk plastic-like materials, this approach afforded a new tool to control silk degradation by enabling the mixing of a silk-degrading protease into bulk silk material prior to thermoplastic processing. Here we demonstrate the preparation of these silk-based devices with embedded silk-degrading protease to modulate the degradation based on the internal presence of the enzyme to support silk degradation, as opposed to the traditional surface degradation for silk materials. The degradability of these silk devices with and without embedded protease XIV was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Ultimately, this new process approach provides direct control of the degradation lifetime of the devices, empowered through internal digestion via water-activated proteases entrained and stabilized during the thermoplastic process.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Seda , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Água
4.
Lung Cancer ; 189: 107472, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Lepidic Component (LP) identifies a subgroup with an excellent prognosis for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Our research aimed to propose an improved pathological T (pT) stage for LUAD based on LP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally, 3335 surgical patients with pathological stage I LUAD were incorporated. Factors affecting survival were investigated by analyzing recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses. Subgroup analysis based on Lepidic Ratio (LR) was further evaluated. The net benefit from the modified pT category (pTm) was assessed using the Area Under the time-dependent Receiver Operating Curve (AUC), Harrell's Concordance Index (C-index), Reclassification Improvement (NRI), and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). RESULTS: The presence of LP (LP+) was identified in 1425 (42.7 %) patients, indicating a significantly better RFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P < 0.001) than those without LP, and similar results were reproduced in pT1a-pT2a subcategory (P < 0.050 for all). Multivariable Cox analysis revealed LP+ as an independent prognostic factor for both RFS (HR, 0.622; P < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.710; P = 0.019). However, lepidic ratio (LR) was not independently associated with both RFS and OS for LP+ patients. The 5-year RFS and OS rates between T1a (LP-) and T1b (LP+), T1b (LP-) and T1c (LP+), and T1b (LP-) and T2a (LP+) were comparable (P > 0.050 for all). After modification, compared with current 8th edition pT stage system (pT8), pTm independently predicted RFS and OS, and AUCs, c-index, NRI, and IDI analysis all demonstrated pTm holds better discrimination performances than pT8 for LUAD prognosis. CONCLUSION: LP can be an additional down-staged T descriptor for pathological stage I LUAD and improve the survival predictive performance of reclassification.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Área Sob a Curva
5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 19(1): 130-140, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37567388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) proposed a revised R classification to upstage extracapsular extension (ECE) of tumor in nodes from R0 to R1. Nevertheless, evidence to confirm this proposal is insufficient. METHODS: The study included 4061 surgical patients with NSCLC. After reclassification by IASLC-R classification, overall survival (OS) was analyzed to compare patients with ECE with those with R0, R(un), and incomplete resection (R1 and R2). The recurrence pattern of ECE was evaluated to determine whether it correlated with incomplete resection. RESULTS: Among 1136 patients with N disease, those without ECE (n = 754, 67%) had a significantly better OS than those with ECE (n = 382, 33%) (p < 0.001). This negative prognostic significance was consistent across multiple subgroups. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECE was an independent prognostic risk factor (p < 0.001). When patients with ECE were separated from the IASLC-R1 group, their OS was significantly worse than that of IASLC-R(un) patients, but comparable to that of the remaining patients in the IASLC-R1 patients when analyzing all patients and patients with N disease. Moreover, patients with ECE had an increased risk of local recurrence in the mediastinum (p < 0.001), ipsilateral lung (p = 0.031), and malignant pleural effusion or nodes (p = 0.004) but not distant recurrence including contralateral or both lungs (p = 0.268), liver (p = 0.728), brain (p = 0.252), or bone (p = 0.322). CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of ECE patients is comparable with that of R1 patients. Moreover, their higher risk of local recurrence strongly suggests the presence of occult residual tumor cells in the surgical hemithoracic cavity. Therefore, upgrading ECE into incomplete resection is reasonable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Extensão Extranodal/patologia , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6250, 2023 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802995

RESUMO

Voltage-gated processing units are fundamental components for non-von Neumann architectures like memristor and electric synapses, on which nanoscale molecular electronics have possessed great potentials. Here, tailored foldamers with furan‒benzene stacking (f-Fu) and thiophene‒benzene stacking (f-Th) are designed to decipher electro-responsive through-space interaction, which achieve volatile memory behaviors via quantum interference switching in single-molecule junctions. f-Fu exhibits volatile turn-on feature while f-Th performs stochastic turn-off feature with low voltages as 0.2 V. The weakened orbital through-space mixing induced by electro-polarization dominates stacking malposition and quantum interference switching. f-Fu possesses higher switching probability and faster responsive time, while f-Th suffers incomplete switching and longer responsive time. High switching ratios of up to 91 for f-Fu is realized by electrochemical gating. These findings provide evidence and interpretation of the electro-responsiveness of non-covalent interaction at single-molecule level and offer design strategies of molecular non-von Neumann architectures like true random number generator.

7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 23(1): 353, 2023 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Older stroke survivors usually experience various psychology disorders, such as post-stroke depression (PSD), which may be associated with high experiential avoidance (EA) and can seriously affect their quality of life. To date, the efficacy of group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for older stroke survivors has not been established. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of group-based ACT on EA, PSD, psychological distress, and quality of life in older stroke survivors after group-based ACT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a randomized, single-blind, wait-list controlled, parallel-arm trial. A total of 66 stroke survivors will be randomly assigned to wait-list control group or intervention group. Participants in wait-list control group will receive treatment as usual (TAU), while the intervention group will receive group-based ACT once a week for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure being EA, and the secondary outcome measures being PSD, psychological distress, and quality of life. Results of the two groups will be blindly assessed by professional evaluators at baseline (T0), post-treatment (T1), and one-month follow up (T2). DISCUSSION: The results of this study will provide the first evidence for the effectiveness of a group-based ACT intervention in reducing EA, PSD, psychological stress, and improving quality of life for post-stroke survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2200066361.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 4(9): 100556, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37654895

RESUMO

Introduction: Neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy has recently been the standard of care for resectable locally advanced NSCLC. Factors affecting the neoadjuvant immunotherapy efficacy, however, remain elusive. Metabolites have been found to modulate immunity and associate with immunotherapeutic efficacy in advanced tumors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of plasma metabolites on the pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy. Methods: Patients with stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC who underwent neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy in a prospective phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04422392) were enrolled. Metabolomic profiling of the plasma before treatment was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model was further used to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Proteomics and multiplexed immunofluorescence of the mice tumor were performed. Results: A total of 39 patients who underwent three cycles of anti-programmed cell death-protein 1 (anti-PD-1) (sintilimab) and chemotherapy were included. The level of acetaminophen (APAP) was found to be significantly elevated in patients who did not achieve major pathologic response. The level of APAP remained an independent predictor for major pathologic response in multivariate logistic analysis. In the Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model, combination of APAP and anti-PD-1 treatment significantly reduced the treatment efficacy compared with anti-PD-1 treatment alone. Proteomics of the tumor revealed that myeloid leukocyte activation and neutrophil activation pathways were enriched after APAP treatment. Tumor microenvironment featuring analysis also revealed that the combination treatment group was characterized with more abundant neutrophil signature. Further multiplexed immunofluorescence confirmed that more neutrophil extracellular trap formation was observed in the combination treatment group. Conclusions: APAP could impair neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy efficacy in patients with NSCLC by promoting neutrophil activation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

9.
Int J Surg ; 109(12): 4126-4134, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37755369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The eighth edition of nodal classification is defined only by the anatomical location of metastatic lymph nodes and has limited prognostic discrimination power. The authors aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance and discriminatory capability of the number of metastatic lymph nodes (nN) in resected nonsmall cell lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stage IA to IIIB resected nonsmall cell lung cancer between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 were analyzed as a Chinese cohort. The optimal thresholds for the nN classification were determined by the X-tile. The receiver operating characteristic curve, net reclassification improvement and standardized net benefit calculated by decision curve analysis was estimated to quantify the nN classification's performance in prognostic stratification. External validation in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database was performed to test the robustness of the nN classification. RESULTS: Both cohorts showed a stepwise prognosis deterioration with increasing nN. One to three, four to six, and more than six were selected as optimal thresholds of nN classification in the Chinese cohort, which included 4432 patients, then validated in the SEER cohort ( n =28 022 patients). Multivariate Cox analysis showed the nN classification was an independent predictive factor for overall survival in both cohorts (Chinese cohort and SEER cohort: N 0 vs. N 1-3 , P <0.001; N 0 vs. N 3-6 , P <0.001; N 0 vs. N >6 , P <0.001). And prognostic discriminatory capability was improved in the nN classification compared with location-based N classification [5-year NRI score, 0.106 (95% CI: 0.049-0.132) and 5-year time-independent AUC, 0.593 (95% CI: 0.560-0.625) vs. 0.554 (95% CI: 0.520-0.588), P <0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: The nN classification tended to be a superior prognostic indicator than the location-based N classification. The number of metastatic lymph nodes should be considered in the future revision of the TNM system.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Prognóstico , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Linfonodos/patologia
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 326, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37652953

RESUMO

Whether the alternated microbiota in the gut contribute to the risk of allograft rejection (AR) and pulmonary infection (PI) in the setting of lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remains unexplored. A prospective multicenter cohort of LTRs was identified in the four lung transplant centers. Paired fecal and serum specimens were collected and divided into AR, PI, and event-free (EF) groups according to the diagnosis at sampling. Fecal samples were determined by metagenomic sequencing. And metabolites and cytokines were detected in the paired serum to analyze the potential effect of the altered microbiota community. In total, we analyzed 146 paired samples (AR = 25, PI = 43, and EF = 78). Notably, we found that the gut microbiome of AR followed a major depletion pattern with decreased 487 species and compositional diversity. Further multi-omics analysis showed depleted serum metabolites and increased inflammatory cytokines in AR and PI. Bacteroides uniformis, which declined in AR (2.4% vs 0.6%) and was negatively associated with serum IL-1ß and IL-12, was identified as a driven specie in the network of gut microbiome of EF. Functionally, the EF specimens were abundant in probiotics related to mannose and cationic antimicrobial peptide metabolism. Furthermore, a support-vector machine classifier based on microbiome, metabolome, and clinical parameters highly predicted AR (AUPRC = 0.801) and PI (AUPRC = 0.855), whereby the microbiome dataset showed a particularly high diagnostic power. In conclusion, a disruptive gut microbiota showed a significant association with allograft rejection and infection and with systemic cytokines and metabolites in LTRs.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Citocinas , Aloenxertos
11.
Eur Radiol ; 33(12): 8564-8572, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37464112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the prediction of ypN2 disease in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy has not been reported. This multicenter study investigated the utility of PET/CT to assess ypN2 disease in these patients. METHODS: A total of 181 consecutive patients (chemoimmunotherapy = 86, chemotherapy = 95) at four institutions were enrolled in this study. Every patient received a PET/CT scan prior to surgery and complete resection with systematic nodal dissection. The diagnostic performance was evaluated through area under the curve (AUC). Kaplan-Meier method and Cox analysis were performed to identify the risk factors affecting recurrences. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT for ypN2 diseases were 0.667, 0.835, and 0.779, respectively. Therefore, the AUC was 0.751. Compared with the false positive cases, the mean value of max standardized uptake value (SUVmax) (6.024 vs. 2.672, p < 0.001) of N2 nodes was significantly higher in true positive patients. Moreover, the SUVmax of true positive (7.671 vs. 5.976, p = 0.365) and false (2.433 vs. 2.339, p = 0.990) positive cases were similar between chemoimmunotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively. Survival analysis proved that pathologic N (ypN) 2 patients could be stratified by PET/CT-N2(+ vs. -) for both chemoimmunotherapy (p = 0.023) and chemotherapy (p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT is an accurate and non-invasive test for mediastinal restaging of NSCLC patients who receive neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy. The ypN2 patients with PET/CT-N2( +) are identified as an independent prognostic factor compared with PET/CT-N2(-). CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: Imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) plays an integral role during disease diagnosis, staging, and therapeutic response assessments in patients with NSCLC. PET/CT could be an effective non-invasive tool for predicting ypN2 diseases after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy. KEY POINTS: • PET/CT could serve as an effective non-invasive tool for predicting ypN2 diseases. • The ypN2 patients with PET/CT-N2( +) were a strong and independent prognostic factor. • The application of PET/CT for restaging should be encouraged in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Linfadenopatia , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
12.
Cell Rep ; 42(7): 112745, 2023 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37405911

RESUMO

Although increasing evidence suggests potential iatrogenic injury from supplemental oxygen therapy, significant exposure to hyperoxia in critically ill patients is inevitable. This study shows that hyperoxia causes lung injury in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, prolonged inspiration of oxygen at concentrations higher than 80% is found to cause redox imbalance and impair alveolar microvascular structure. Knockout of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (Cxcr1) inhibits the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from neutrophils and synergistically enhances the ability of endothelial cells to eliminate ROS. We also combine transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analysis and find that CXCR1 knockdown promotes glutamine metabolism and leads to reduced glutathione by upregulating the expression of malic enzyme 1. This preclinical evidence suggests that a conservative oxygen strategy should be recommended and indicates that targeting CXCR1 has the potential to restore redox homeostasis by reducing oxygen toxicity when inspiratory hyperoxia treatment is necessary.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia , Lesão Pulmonar , Receptores de Interleucina-8A , Humanos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Hiperóxia/complicações , Hiperóxia/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Receptores de Interleucina-8A/metabolismo
13.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 149(14): 13311-13321, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37488397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The benefits of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for heterogeneous pathological N2 (pN2) diseases remain unclear in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to investigate suitable pN2 patients for adjuvant CRT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with pN2 NSCLC in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital from January 2012 to December 2016. Included cases were subdivided as highest mediastinal lymph node (HM) (n = 732) metastasis and non-HM metastasis (n = 677) groups according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Furthermore, the Kaplan-Meier and Cox models were used to evaluate the prognostic benefits of adjuvant CRT in heterogeneous pN2 subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 1409 patients were enrolled in this study, with a median follow-up time of 63.8 months. Patients with HM involvement had worse prognoses (p < 0.001 for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS)). Furthermore, the survival improvement of adjuvant CRT was significant for these patients (p < 0.001 for RFS and p = 0.032 for OS), regardless of whether it was single (p < 0.001 for RFS and p = 0.029 for OS) or multiple pN2 (p < 0.001 for RFS and p = 0.026 for OS) diseases. According to multivariable cox analysis, the long-term RFS and OS in the cancerous HM group were independently predicted by pathological N stage (p = 0.002 for RFS and p < 0.001 for OS) and adjuvant CRT (p < 0.001 for RFS and p = 0.011 for OS). CONCLUSION: Metastatic HM was associated with a worse prognosis in pN2 disease. Our analysis supported that adjuvant CRT significantly improved both RFS and OS for these patients.

14.
J Biomed Sci ; 30(1): 42, 2023 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37337179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global burden of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) has shown an upsurge in recent years due to the higher load of immunocompromised patients suffering from various diseases. The role of early and accurate diagnosis in the aggressive containment of the fungal infection at the initial stages becomes crucial thus, preventing the development of a life-threatening situation. With the changing demands of clinical mycology, the field of fungal diagnostics has evolved and come a long way from traditional methods of microscopy and culturing to more advanced non-culture-based tools. With the advent of more powerful approaches such as novel PCR assays, T2 Candida, microfluidic chip technology, next generation sequencing, new generation biosensors, nanotechnology-based tools, artificial intelligence-based models, the face of fungal diagnostics is constantly changing for the better. All these advances have been reviewed here giving the latest update to our readers in the most orderly flow. MAIN TEXT: A detailed literature survey was conducted by the team followed by data collection, pertinent data extraction, in-depth analysis, and composing the various sub-sections and the final review. The review is unique in its kind as it discusses the advances in molecular methods; advances in serology-based methods; advances in biosensor technology; and advances in machine learning-based models, all under one roof. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review covering all of these fields (especially biosensor technology and machine learning using artificial intelligence) with relevance to invasive fungal infections. CONCLUSION: The review will undoubtedly assist in updating the scientific community's understanding of the most recent advancements that are on the horizon and that may be implemented as adjuncts to the traditional diagnostic algorithms.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
15.
Protein Cell ; 14(1): 37-50, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726760

RESUMO

The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemics or pandemics of viral disease, including the devastating COVID-19. Novel effective antivirals with broad-spectrum coverage are urgently needed. Herein, we reported a novel broad-spectrum antiviral compound PAC5. Oral administration of PAC5 eliminated HBV cccDNA and reduced the large antigen load in distinct mouse models of HBV infection. Strikingly, oral administration of PAC5 in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 omicron (BA.1) infection significantly decreases viral loads and attenuates lung inflammation. Mechanistically, PAC5 binds to a pocket near Asp49 in the RNA recognition motif of hnRNPA2B1. PAC5-bound hnRNPA2B1 is extensively activated and translocated to the cytoplasm where it initiates the TBK1-IRF3 pathway, leading to the production of type I IFNs with antiviral activity. Our results indicate that PAC5 is a novel small-molecule agonist of hnRNPA2B1, which may have a role in dealing with emerging infectious diseases now and in the future.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Vírus da Hepatite B , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo A-B , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Camundongos , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo A-B/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 12(1): 34-40, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36793988

RESUMO

Background: The clinical efficacy of robot-assisted thoracic surgeries has been explored by numerous recent studies. Nonetheless, since current standard robotic systems (da Vinci Xi system) were intended for multiportal surgical processes and robotic staplers were still unavailable in the developing world, obstacles still remain concerning the feasibility of uniportal robotic surgeries. Methods: A hybrid uniportal robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) modality utilizing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) staplers was investigated in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. Clinicopathological characteristics and perioperative outcomes concerning patients receiving hybrid uniportal RATS between August 2022 and September 2022 were collected. Results: A total of 40 patients were included in this study. Most of the patients (23/40, 57.5%) received hybrid uniportal RATS lobectomies. One conversion from uniportal RATS to biportal process was encountered due to extensive adhesions discovered intraoperatively. The median procedural duration was 76 min [interquartile range (IQR), 61-99 min], and the median blood loss volume was 50 mL (IQR, 50-50 mL). A median stay length of three days (IQR, 2-4 days) was recorded. Eleven patients (27.5%) developed Clavien-Dindo grade I-II postoperative complications, while no grade III-IV complications were observed. Aside from this, none of the patients were readmitted or died within 30 days post-surgery. Conclusions: The feasibility of hybrid uniportal RATS procedures using VATS staplers has been preliminarily validated. For early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients, such a procedure might clinical efficacy comparable to that of uniportal RATS utilizing robotic staplers.

17.
Lung Cancer ; 178: 20-27, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764154

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reliable predictive markers are lacking for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy. The present study investigated the utility of SUVmax values acquired from PET/CT to predict the response to neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy for resectable NSCLC. MATERAL AND METHODS: SUVmax, clinical and pathological outcomes, were collected from patients in 5 hospitals. Patients who received dynamic PET/CT surveillance were divided into cohorts A (chemoimmunotherapy) and B (chemotherapy), respectively, while cohort C (chemoimmunotherapy) comprised patients undergoing post-therapy PET/CT. Associations between SUVmax and major pathologic response (MPR) were evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: A total of 129 cases with an MPR rate of 46.5 % was identified. In neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy, ΔSUVmax% (AUC: 0.890, 95 % CI: 0.761-0.949) and post-therapy SUVmax (AUC: 0.933, 95 % CI: 0.802-0.959) could accurately predict MPR. On the contrary, the baseline SUVmax was not associated with MPR (p = 0.184). Furthermore, an independent cohort C proved that post-therapy SUVmax could serve as an independent predictor (AUC: 0.928, 95 % CI: 0.823-0.958). In addition, robust predictive performance could be observed when we use the optimal cut-off point of both ΔSUVmax% (54.4 %, AUC: 0.912, 95 % CI: 0.824-0.994) and post-therapy SUVmax (3.565, AUC: 0.912, 95 % CI: 0.824-0.994) in neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy. The RNA data revealed that the expression of PFKFB4, a key enzyme in glycolysis, was positively correlated with SUVmax value and tumor cell proliferation after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy. CONCLUSION: These findings highlighted that the ΔSUVmax% and remained SUVmax were accurate and non-invasive tests for the prediction of MPR after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Fosfofrutoquinase-2
18.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 210, 2023 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639727

RESUMO

Volumetric additive manufacturing (VAM) enables fast photopolymerization of three-dimensional constructs by illuminating dynamically evolving light patterns in the entire build volume. However, the lack of bioinks suitable for VAM is a critical limitation. This study reports rapid volumetric (bio)printing of pristine, unmodified silk-based (silk sericin (SS) and silk fibroin (SF)) (bio)inks to form sophisticated shapes and architectures. Of interest, combined with post-fabrication processing, the (bio)printed SS constructs reveal properties including reversible as well as repeated shrinkage and expansion, or shape-memory; whereas the (bio)printed SF constructs exhibit tunable mechanical performances ranging from a few hundred Pa to hundreds of MPa. Both types of silk-based (bio)inks are cytocompatible. This work supplies expanded bioink libraries for VAM and provides a path forward for rapid volumetric manufacturing of silk constructs, towards broadened biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Fibroínas , Seda , Tinta , Bioimpressão/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte
19.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 15: 17588359221148028, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643658

RESUMO

Background: Grading system for resected invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) was validated as a strong prognostic indicator. Nonetheless, the efficacy of utilizing such grading system in prognostic assessment of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy still needs elucidating. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted including patients with resected adenocarcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy or targeted therapy from August 2012 to December 2020 in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. All the surgical specimens were re-evaluated and graded. The prognostic value of the grading system was further validated. Results: Ultimately, a total of 198 patients were enrolled in this study, and subdivided into three cohorts according to the grading system. There were 13 (6.6%), 37 (18.7%), and 148 (74.7%) patients belonging to Grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively. IASLC grading system demonstrated significant power in prognosis differentiation of the entire cohort [recurrence-free survival (RFS), p < 0.001; overall survival (OS), p < 0.001] and the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and targeted therapy cohorts separately, and was further verified as a significant prognostic indicator for RFS and OS in multivariable Cox analysis. Since the majority of the patients (84.8%) did not achieve major pathologic response (MPR), representing a wide spectrum of survival, the prognostic value of grading system in non-MPR cohort was further evaluated. Similar results were also obtained that IASLC grading system was assessed significant in univariable analysis of RFS (p < 0.001) and univariable analysis of OS (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The prognostic efficacy of pathological evaluation of the residual proportion of pulmonary adenocarcinoma post-neoadjuvant therapy using IASLC grading system was preliminarily verified. Such grading system might assist prognostic evaluation of neoadjuvant cohort other than traditional pathological parameters.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 11, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), mostly defined as mechanical ventilation > 72 h after lung transplantation with or without tracheostomy, is associated with increased mortality. Nevertheless, the predictive factors of PMV after lung transplant remain unclear. The present study aimed to develop a novel scoring system to identify PMV after lung transplantation. METHODS: A total of 141 patients who underwent lung transplantation were investigated in this study. The patients were divided into PMV and non-prolonged ventilation (NPMV) groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with PMV. A risk nomogram was then established based on the multivariate analysis, and model performance was further examined regarding its calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. RESULTS: Eight factors were finally identified to be significantly associated with PMV by the multivariate analysis and therefore were included as risk factors in the nomogram as follows: the body mass index (BMI, P = 0.036); primary diagnosis as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, P = 0.038); pulmonary hypertension (PAH, P = 0.034); primary graft dysfunction grading (PGD, P = 0.011) at T0; cold ischemia time (CIT P = 0.012); and three ventilation parameters (peak inspiratory pressure [PIP, P < 0.001], dynamic compliance [Cdyn, P = 0.001], and P/F ratio [P = 0.015]) at T0. The nomogram exhibited superior discrimination ability with an area under the curve of 0.895. Furthermore, both calibration curve and decision-curve analysis indicated satisfactory performance. CONCLUSION: A novel nomogram to predict individual risk of receiving PMV for patients after lung transplantation was established, which may guide preventative measures for tackling this adverse event.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos
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