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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130740, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375891

RESUMO

Traditional sample preparation methods for insecticide analysis are laborious and fatal to living organisms. In the work, an in vivo sampling rate calibrated-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established and successfully used for in vivo sampling and quantitative determination of three insecticides (hexachlorobenzene, fipronil and chlorfenapyr) by direct exposing micron-sized fiber in living garlic. Absorption, enrichment, migration and elimination behavior of insecticides in garlic were investigated. Bioaccumulative effects with obvious tissue differences were observed to all three insecticides, especially for chlorfenapyr. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.0342 to 1.0887 were obtained, and the closer to roots, the higher BCFs. The half-life of insecticides in garlic ranged from 0.43 to 0.96 d. In the first 24 h, 55.0% - 80.3% insecticides residues in garlic were eliminated with first-order elimination kinetics. The research provides in vivo insights into the environmental fates of insecticides in complex living system with minimized organism damage.


Assuntos
Alho , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
Behav Brain Res ; 416: 113535, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416301

RESUMO

Reboxetine, the first selective norepinephrine (NA) reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of depression, mainly acts by binding to the NA transporter and blocking reuptake of extracellular NA. Recently, some other pharmacological targets beyond the NA transporter are being demonstrated for reboxetine. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Previous reports have demonstrated the role of hippocampal PPARα in the pathophysiology of depression. Here we assume that hippocampal PPARα may participate in the antidepressant mechanism of reboxetine. Therefore, the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression, various behavioral tests, the western blotting and adenovirus associated virus (AAV)-mediated genetic knockdown methods were used together in the present study. Our results showed that repeated reboxetine treatment markedly restored the decreasing effects of CSDS on the expression of hippocampal PPARα, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB). Pharmacological blockade of PPARα notably prevented the antidepressant-like effects of reboxetine in the CSDS model. Furthermore, genetic knockdown of hippocampal PPARα also fully abolished the antidepressant-like effects of reboxetine in the CSDS model. Taken together, promoting the hippocampal PPARα expression participates in the antidepressant mechanism of reboxetine.

3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130844, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425338

RESUMO

The sensory perception of food is a dynamic procedure, which is closely related to the released flavor stimuli. Thus, we evaluated the dynamic sensations of fresh and roasted salmon during the chewing process and investigated the tastants released in saliva. For fresh salmon, the fishy, umami, salty, and sweet attributes were perceived successively. Meanwhile, the smoky and fried flavors were the most dominant attributes of roasted salmon at the beginning, then various attributes were perceived. During the chewing process, free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides released in saliva were quantified. Compared to the sensory data, the results demonstrated that glutamic acid and inosine 5'-monophosphate released in saliva might induce the umami perception. The sweet-tasting amino acids alanine and glycine may contribute to sweetness. Therefore, we suggested that the time dimension of tastants dissolved in saliva would affect the dynamic sensation of food, even for complex food materials.


Assuntos
Salmo salar , Animais , Inosina Monofosfato , Mastigação , Sensação , Paladar
4.
Exp Therm Fluid Sci ; 130: 110518, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518737

RESUMO

The report of COVID-19 virus in municipal wastewater raises the question of whether viruses can become airborne during wastewater transport in sewer systems. The present work experimentally investigates a water jet impinging vertically onto a horizontal plate and the behaviours of the generated tiny droplets. Depending on whether the jet breaks into primary drops before the impingement, three regimes can be defined: non-splashing, jet-splashing and drop-splashing regimes. The splashing ratio, i.e., the portion of jet flow rate becoming splashing droplets, ranges from 1% to 70% in the drop-splashing regime, while it remains less than 2% in the jet-splashing regime. For the splashing droplets, their size and velocity distributions follow log-normal laws. Their diameters are mainly in the range from 0 to 0.3 of the impact jet or drop diameter with the median less than 0.1. Their velocities mostly range from 0 to 3.0 times of the impact velocity with the median around 1.0. The medians of both the dimensionless diameter and velocity of splashing droplets decrease with the impact Weber number. The ejection angles of splashing droplets obey a bell-shaped distribution with the maximum around 70° and the median ranging from 16° to 30°.

5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118708, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742433

RESUMO

Inspired from the ancient China philosophy of "coupling hardness with softness", we attempted the combination of rigid cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and elastic rubbers to solve the limitations of structural brittleness and water sensitivity of CNC-based aerogels. Three rubber chains with the different chemical structures (silicon rubber, 1,2-polybutadiene, styreneic block copolymer) were covalently bonded on the CNC porous skeleton based on thiol-ene click chemistry, to fabricate the CNC/rubber composite aerogels. With the introduction of moderate loading levels of rubber, the composites aerogels exhibited low density and shrinkage, high porosity and specific surface area and improved mechanical performance. Furthermore, the presence of rubber components completely changed the hydrophilic nature of cellulose skeleton as the hydrophobic aerogels, contributing the superior solvents resistance and self-cleaning property. With their advantages on mechanical stability, heat insulation and hydrophobicity, the fabricated aerogels in this study exhibited the high added values in various potential applications.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 276: 118802, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823808

RESUMO

Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is the sustainable nanoparticle derived from natural cellulose, widely used as the functional additive to tailor the properties and performances of diverse matters. This study attempted the application of CNC as the rheological modifier in fluorocarbon lubricating oil (perfluoropolyether, PFPE). To solve the incompatibility between cellulose and base oil, fluoropolymer was covalently grafted onto the surface of nanocrystals by living radical polymerization. The introduction of modified cellulose nanocrystals exhibited significant thickening effect to PFPE-based hybrid oils, with the increase on viscosity, improved thixotropy performance and enhanced storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). In particular, when adding 10-15 wt% modified nanocrystals, a transition of G' > G″ from the flowable state to grease-like state appeared in hybrid oils, attributed to the formation of stable subnetwork based on the chain entanglement of the grafted fluoropolymer and PFPE oil.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 793-799, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419818

RESUMO

Metal electrode is considered as an ideal candidate for electrocatalytic carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction considering its excellent chemical stability, application potential and eco-friendly properties. Optimization process such as morphological control, non-metallic doping, alloying is widely studied to improve the efficiency of metal electrodes. In this work, we successfully improved the CO2 reduction performance of silver using a facile plasma vulcanization treatment. The obtained sulfide derived silver (Ag) porous microrods (SD-AgPMRs) are optimized from both morphology and composition aspects, and demonstrates high Faradaic efficiency and partial current density for carbon monoxide (CO) production at low potentials. The larger specific surface area of porous microrod structure and the improved adsorption energy of important intermediates in comparison with Ag foil are realized by introduction of sulfur (S) atoms after plasma vulcanization activation, as suggested by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This work presents a novel strategy to optimize metal electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction as well as to improve catalysis in other fields.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118691, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742418

RESUMO

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) are a sulfated polysaccharide exclusively existing in the body wall of sea cucumber. FCS possesses a mammalian chondroitin sulfate like backbone, namely repeating disaccharides units composed of GlcA and GalNAc, with fucosyl branches linked to GlcA and/or GalNAc residues. It is found that FCS can prevent unhealthy dietary pattern-induced metabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and ß-cell function improvement, anti-inflammation, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-adipogenesis. Further studies show that those activities of FCS might be achieved through positively modulating gut microbiota composition. Besides, FCS also show therapeutic efficacy in cancer, HIV infection, and side effects of cyclophosphamide. Furthermore, bioactivities of FCS are closely affected by their molecular weights, sulfation pattern of the fucosyl branches, and chain conformations. This review summarizes the recent 20 years studies to provide references for the future studies and applications of FCS in functional foods or drugs.

9.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131919, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450365

RESUMO

Uranium (VI) (U(VI)) is a major fuel for nuclear power, and the mass of it in seawater is about 4.5 billion tons. However, many current U(VI) adsorbents exist in the form of powder, which hinders the smooth recovery of U(VI) from aqueous solutions and its application in actual environments. Herein, the MP@LDH as an easy-to-recover and 3D macroscopic adsorbent for U(VI) extraction from aqueous solution was successfully prepared. The adsorbent was obtained via anchoring of LDH on the surface of melamine sponge (MS) coated with polydopamine (PDA). The maximum experimental adsorption capacity of MP@LDH sponge for U(VI) was as high as 559.8 mg g-1 (at pH = 8.0, T = 298 K). In the competitive sorption experiments against the competitions of Ba(II), Sr(II), Zn(II) and others ions, MP@LDH still exhibited a particularly excellent selectivity for U(VI) (almost 90% removal rate). Furthermore, the removal rate of MP@LDH towards U(VI) reached 88.18% under simulated seawater (C0 = 3.47 µg L-1). We believe that the MP@LDH with easy retrieval, excellent selectivity and uptake amount provides a convenient way for U(VI) extraction from seawater.


Assuntos
Hidróxidos , Esqueleto , Adsorção , Indóis , Cinética , Polímeros
10.
Environ Res ; 203: 111944, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428451

RESUMO

Herein, an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor with activated carbon (AC)-nano manganese dioxide (MnO2) added was employed for azo dye wastewater treatment to investigate its effectiveness at decolorizing of azo dyes and removing COD. The results showed that the treatment of azo dye wastewater with the AC-MnO2 modified EGSB reactor gave an 83% average decolorization efficiency, which was more efficient than the pure AC modified EGSB reactor. Moreover, the COD removal and changes in the intermediate products were controlled by AC-MnO2. Additionally, there was a sharp increase in the sludge conductivity, while there was a significant decrease in the coenzyme F420 concentration with long-term operation. Moreover, electrochemical analysis showed that the addition of AC-MnO2 can enhance electron transfer in anaerobic system. The AC-MnO2 can act as redox mediator; in the presence of the Mn4+/Mn2+ cycle, accelerating the electron transfer between the microbial cells and dyes, thereby promoting the decolorization of azo dyes. This caused a decrease in the methanogenic activity. Furthermore, high-throughput sequencing showed that the relative abundances of Pseudomonas and Desulfovibrio were significantly high among the acidogenic bacteria community, while Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta had very low abundances from among the methanogenic archaea community.

11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131865, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399262

RESUMO

The complexity of natural water made it difficult to remove fluoride. Based on the environmental problems found in the investigation, the fluoride removal research in the water containing algal cells was carried out. In this study, AlCl3 and [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ (Al13) were used to remove fluoride. Additionally, the role of aluminum speciation in fluoride removal and the effect of Microcystis aeruginosa on the fluoride removal by different aluminum species coagulants were elucidated. The results showed that AlCl3 mainly removed fluoride by physical interactions, surface adsorption and enmeshment. When algal cells were added to the system, the fluoride removal rate increased from 22.75 % to 72.99 % at a dosage of 40.0 mg/L. This was because algal cells greatly increased the distribution of Al(OH)3 in the flocs. In particular, the specific surface area of the flocs containing algal cells reached 160.77 m2/g, which allowed more fluoride to be adsorbed. However, excessive Al3+ led to serious damage to algal cells and release of intracellular organic matter (IOM), worsening the effect of defluoridation. F- and Al3+ formed AlF2+ and AlF2+ via complexation in water. These compounds were not conducive to defluoridation. Al13 removed fluorine mainly through ion exchange, substitution and hydrogen bonding. Algal cells had an inhibitory effect on defluorination, which was observed in the process of coagulation by different Al dosages. Al13 achieved agglomeration of algal cells and generated small and dense flocs through charge neutralization and electrostatic patch mechanism. Once Al13 combined with algal cells and algae organic matter (AOM), the reaction between Al13 and fluoride would be weakened. Al13 not only maintained the defluoridation performance, but also did not damage the integrity of algal cells, even at high dosages.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Purificação da Água , Alumínio , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Floculação , Polímeros
12.
Zool Res ; 43(1): 64-74, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845879

RESUMO

Retinal angiogenesis is a critical process for normal retinal function. However, uncontrolled angiogenesis can lead to pathological neovascularization (NV), which is closely related to most irreversible blindness-causing retinal diseases. Understanding the molecular basis behind pathological NV is important for the treatment of related diseases. Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) is a well-known transcription factor and principal inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many human cancers. Our previous study showed that Twist1 expression is elevated in pathological retinal NV. To date, however, the role of TWIST1 in retinal pathological angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. To study the role of TWIST1 in pathological retinal NV and identify specific molecular targets for antagonizing pathological NV, we generated an inducible vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific Twist1 transgenic mouse model ( Tg-Twist1 iEC+ ). Whole-mount retinas from Tg-Twist1 iEC+ mice showed retarded vascular progression and increased vascular density in the front end of the growing retinal vasculature, as well as aneurysm-like pathological retinal NV. Furthermore, overexpression of Twist1 in the ECs promoted cell proliferation but disturbed cell polarity, thus leading to uncontrolled retinal angiogenesis. TWIST1 promoted pathological NV by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway and inducing the expression of NV formation-related genes, thereby acting as a 'valve' in the regulation of pathological angiogenesis. This study identified the critical role of TWIST1 in retinal pathological NV, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for pathological NV.

13.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 161, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742316

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multi-system neurodegenerative disorder. Patients with PD often suffer chronic pain. In the present study, we investigated motor, sensory and emotional changes in three different PD mice models. We found that 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treatment caused significant changes in all measurements. Mechanical hypersensitivity of PD model induced by MPTP peaked at 3 days and persisted for at least 14 days. Using Fos transgenic mice, we found that neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were activated after MPTP treatment. Inhibiting ACC by bilateral microinjection of muscimol significantly reduced mechanical hypersensitivity and anxiety-like responses. By contrast, MPTP induced motor deficit was not affected, indicating ACC activity is mostly responsible for sensory and emotional changes. We also investigated excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity using brain slices of MPTP treated animals. While L-LTP was blocked or significantly reduced. E-LTP was not significantly affected in slices of MPTP treated animals. LTD induced by repetitive stimulation was not affected. Furthermore, we found that paired-pulse facilitation and spontaneous release of glutamate were also altered in MPTP treated animals, suggesting presynaptic enhancement of excitatory transmission in PD. Our results suggest that ACC synaptic transmission is enhanced in the animal model of PD, and cortical excitation may play important roles in PD related pain and anxiety.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 757919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760703

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were recently implicated in modifying the transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) signaling in multiple cancers. However, TGF-ß-derived miRNAs and their potential clinical significance remain largely unexplored in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). In this study, we proposed an integrated framework that enables the identification of TGF-ß-derived miRNAs in ICC (termed "TGFmitor"). A total of 36 TGF-ß-derived miRNAs were identified, of which nine significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) and aberrantly expressed in ICC. According to these miRNAs, we discovered and validated a TGF-ß associated miRNA signature (TAMIS) in GSE53870 (n =63) and TCGA-CHOL (n =32). To further confirm the clinical interpretation of TAMIS, another validation based on qRT-PCR results from 181 ICC tissues was performed. TAMIS was proven to be an independent risk indicator for both OS and relapse-free survival (RFS). TAMIS also displayed robust performance in three cohorts, with satisfactory AUCs and C-index. Besides, patients with low TAMIS were characterized by superior levels of CD8+ T cells infiltration and PD-L1 expression, while patients with high TAMIS possessed enhanced CMTM6 expression. Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested CMTM6 could further stratify TAMIS. The TAMIShighCMTM6high subtype had the worst prognosis and lowest levels of CD8A and PD-L1 expression relative to the other subtypes, indicating this subtype might behave as "super-cold" tumors. Notably, the improved discrimination was observed when CMTM6 was combined with TAMIS. Overall, our signature could serve as a powerful tool to help improve prognostic management and immunotherapies of ICC patients.

15.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-8, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the baseline characters that influence 3-month clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after thrombolytic therapy. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 241 AIS patients who are treated with thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Baseline characters were measured on admission including the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), risk factors, platelet indices, and lipid parameters. The subjects were divided into good or poor functional outcomes based on modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. The multivariate logistic regression was performed to explore the association between baseline factors and outcomes. Pearson correlation was used to investigate whether linear associations existed between platelet indices in different outcomes. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the NIHSS, TOAST classification, diabetes, mean platelet volume (MPV) are important factors for predicting clinical outcomes after 3 months in AIS patients. We found a correlation between elevated MPV and worse outcome at 3 months, particularly in large-artery atherosclerosis stroke patients. MPV and platelet count are negative correlated (r = -0.375, p = 0.000). MPV and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (r = 0.83, p = 0.000), MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW) (r = 0.820, p = 0.000) both have highly positive linear correlations in patients with good outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, lower NIHSS and MPV levels on admission were predictors of good functional outcomes in patients with AIS after undergoing thrombolytic therapy. The correlations between MPV, PDW, and PLR may be helpful to evaluate prognosis in stroke patients and deserve further exploration.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 882-892, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785463

RESUMO

One sustainable concept emerges to implement the selective oxidation of sulfides with dioxygen (O2) at ambient conditions and has received increasing attention. As such, three donor-acceptor (D-A) type conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) were connected via robust CC bonds prepared from FeCl3-promoted polymerization of monomers of 3,6-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9H-fluorene with the 9H position of the fluorene moiety occupied by 1,1'-biphenyl-, difluoro-, or keto- group, furnishing 9,9'-(9,9'-spirobi[fluorene]-2,7-diyl)-bis-9H-carbazole-CMP (SFC-CMP), 9,9'-(9,9-difluoro-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(9H-carbazole)-CMP (FFC-CMP), and 2,7-di(carbazol-9-yl)-fluoren-9-one-CMP (OFC-CMP), respectively. These three carbazole-fluorene CMPs could implement blue light-driven highly selective oxidation of sulfides into sulfoxides with O2 in methanol (CH3OH). Intriguingly, the SFC-CMP imparted the best photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of sulfides in a broad scope. Besides, the SFC-CMP photocatalyst could be fully recovered even outperforming the fresh one. This work highlights that the properties of CMPs could be regulated by the D-A units like carbazole-fluorene to execute selective chemical transformations ambiently.

18.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1600, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790806

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the role and mechanism of EEF1D in various diseases, especially in tumorigenesis and development, and explore the possibility of EEF1D as a biological target. Background: EEF1D is a part of the EEF1 protein complex, which can produce four protein isoforms, of which three short isoforms are used as translation elongation factors. The three short isoforms play a role in anti-aging, regulating the cell cycle, and promoting the occurrence and development of malignant tumors, and the only long-form isoform plays a role in the development of the nervous system. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for literature up to January 2021 using relevant keywords, including "EEF1D", "eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta", "translation elongation factor", "translation elongation factor and cancer", and "translation elongation factor and nervous system disease". We then created an overview of the literature and summarized the results of the paper. Conclusions: Through the review of relevant articles, we found that EEF1D is obviously overexpressed in a variety of tumors, and can regulate the proliferation of tumor cells and tumor growth, as well as play a role in tumor invasion. EEF1D is likely to become a new biological target for tumor therapy and diagnosis.

19.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131435, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741971

RESUMO

Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) is a popular, nutritional, and tasty mollusk. To better understand the composition of nutrients and improve further processing of the mussels, metabolomic approaches were used to analyze the free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides, and lipid compositions of different tissues. Our results showed that the viscera and gonad were rich in glutamine and glycine. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate, uridine 5'-monophosphate, guanosine 5'-monophosphate, and inosine 5'-monophosphate were abundant in the mantle, foot, and adductor muscle. Three main types of lipids, phospholipids (PLs), glycerides, and fatty acids (FAs), were semi-quantified. PLs were mainly distributed in the gonad of male mussels and viscera, gonad, and mantles of female mussels. FAs were relatively high in the viscera of males and in the gonad and viscera of females. The viscera of females were rich in phosphatidylcholine, such as 16:0/22:6 and 16:0/20:5. Triglycerides were the key lipids for distinguishing different tissues, especially 16:0/18:1/18:3 and 16:0/18:4/20:5.

20.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 1067, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753901

RESUMO

Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins are involved in the development of tumors. Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 2 (UBA2) is an important member of the SUMO modification system; however, its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the expression and function of UBA2 in ccRCC. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of UBA2 were found to be higher in ccRCC than in normal renal tissues and significantly related to the tumor size, Fuhrman grade, and tumor stage. UBA2 knockdown inhibited ccRCC cell growth, promoted apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and decreased the abundance of a p53 mutant, c-Myc, and key enzymes of the SUMO modification system. Meanwhile, overexpression of UBA2 had the opposite effects. Overexpression of the p53 mutant or c-Myc alleviated the effects of UBA2 knockdown on ccRCC cell proliferation and apoptosis. In conclusion, targeting UBA2 may have a therapeutic potential against ccRCC.

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