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1.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a metric of functional connectivity to classify and grade the excitability of brain regions based on evoked potentials in response to single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES). METHODS: Patients who underwent 1-Hz frequency stimulation at prospectively selected contacts between 2003 and 2014 at the Yale Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were included. The stimulated contacts were classified as the seizure onset zone (SOZ), highly irritative zone (possibly epileptogenic irritative zone [IZp]), and control contacts not involved in the epileptic activity. Response contacts were classified as SOZ, active interictal irritative zone (IZ), quiet, or other. The normalized number of responses was defined as the number of contacts with any evoked responses divided by the total number of recorded contacts, and the normalized distance is the ratio of the average distance between the site of stimulation and sites of evoked responses to the average distances between the site of stimulation and all other recording contacts. A new metric that the authors labeled the connectivity index (CI) is defined as the product of the 2 values. RESULTS: A total of 57 stimulation sessions in 22 patients were analyzed. The CI of the SOZ was higher than for control contacts (median CI of 0.74 vs 0.16, p = 0.0002). The evoked responses after stimulation of SOZ were seen at further distances compared to control (median normalized distance 0.96 vs 0.62, p = 0.0005). It was 1.8 times more likely that a response would be recorded at the SOZ than in nonepileptic contacts after stimulation of a control site. Habitual seizures were triggered in 27% of patients and 35% of SOZ contacts (median stimulation intensity 4 mA) but in none of the control or IZp contacts. Non-SOZ contacts in multifocal or poor surgical outcome cases had a higher CI than non-SOZ contacts in patients with localizable onsets (median CI of 0.5 vs 0.12, p = 0.04). There was a correlation between the stimulation current intensity and the normalized number of evoked responses (r = + 0.49, p = 0.01) but not with distance (r = + 0.1, p = 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found enhanced connectivity when stimulating the SOZ compared to stimulating control contacts; responses were more distant as well. Habitual auras and seizures provoked by SPES were highly predictive of brain sites involved in seizure generation.

2.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 115: 103244, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560967

RESUMO

Three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) can typically be found in the sensilla lymph of noctuid moth antennae, but their relative contributions in perception of the sex pheromone is rarely verified in vivo. Previously, we demonstrated that SlitPBP3 plays a minor role in the sex pheromone detection in Spodoptera litura using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In the present study, the roles of two other SlitPBPs (SlitPBP1 and SlitPBP2) are further verified using the same system. First, by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA/sgRNA into newly laid eggs, a high rate of target mutagenesis was induced, 51.5% for SlitPBP1 and 46.8% for SlitPBP2 as determined by restriction enzyme assay. Then, the homozygous SlitPBP1 and SlitPBP2 knockout lines were obtained by cross-breeding. Finally, using homozygous knockout male moths, we performed electrophysiological (EAG recording) and behavioral analyses. Results showed that knockout of either SlitPBP1 or SlitPBP2 in males decreased EAG response to each of the 3 sex pheromone components (Z9,E11-14:Ac, Z9,E12-14:Ac and Z9-14:Ac) by 53%, 60% and 63% (for SlitPBP1 knockout) and 40%, 43% and 46% (for SlitPBP2 knockout), respectively. These decreases in EAG responses were similar among 3 pheromone components, but were more pronounced in SlitPBP1 knockout males than in SlitPBP2 knockout males. Consistently, behavioral assays with the major component (Z9,E11-14:Ac) showed that SlitPBP1 knockout males responded in much lower percentages than SlitPBP2 knockout males in terms of orientation to the pheromone, along with reduction in close range behaviors such as hairpencil display and mating attempt. Taken together, this study provides direct functional evidence for the roles of SlitPBP1 and SlitPBP2, as well as their relative importance (SlitPBP1 > SlitPBP2) in the sex pheromone perception. This information is valuable in understanding mechanisms of sex pheromone perception and may facilitate the development of PBP-targeted pest control techniques.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13017, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506537

RESUMO

Melilotus is an important forage legume, with high values as feed and medicine, and widely used as green manure, honey plant, and wildlife habitat enhancer. The genetic diversity, structure and subdivision of this forage crop remain unclear, and plant genetic resources are the basis of biodiversity and ecosystem diversity and have attracted increasing attention. In this study, the whole collection of 573 accessions from the National Gene Bank of Forage Germplasm (NGBFG, China) and 48 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS, USA) in genus Melilotus were measured with respect to five seed characters: seed length, width, width-to-length ratio, circumference and 100-seed weight. Shannon' genetic diversity index (H') and phenotypic differentiation (Pst) were calculated to better describe the genetic diversity. The ITS and matK sequences were used to construct phylogenetic trees and study the genetic relationships within genus Melilotu. Based on seed morphology and molecular marker data, we preliminarily developed core collections and the sampling rates of M. albus and M. officinalis were determined to be 15% and 25%, respectively. The results obtained here provide preliminary sorting and supplemental information for the Melilotus collections in NGBFG, China, and establish a reference for further genetic breeding and other related projects.

4.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105148, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425673

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous and obligate intracellular pathogen, belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa, is capable of infecting a broad range of warm-blooded hosts including birds and mammals that is nearly worldwide. Preventive measures for toxoplasmosis are currently lacking and as such, development of novel vaccines is of urgent need. The plant-like calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) expressed by T. gondii, play important roles in cell invasion, gliding motility, egress and some other developmental processes, in which T. gondii CDPK3 (TgCDPK3) has been implicated as an important virulence factor. In this study, the immune protective function of recombinant TgCDPK3 (rTgCDPK3) against experimental toxoplasmosis in BALB/c were evaluated. We divided the mice into different dose groups of vaccines and all immunizations with purified rTgCDPK3 protein were injected by intramuscular at weeks 0, 2, and 4 in BALB/c mice. The rTgCDPK3 vaccine provided protection was correlated with the development of humoral and cellular immune responses demonstrated through the antigen-specific spleen cell proliferation, release of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, and the production of the high titers of IgG antibody with a predominance of IgG2a over IgG1. Vaccination with rTgCDPK3 conferred partial protection against acute toxoplasmosis, as demonstrated by prolonged survival rate after lethal challenge. Additionally, the amount of brain tissues cysts in vaccinated mice led to 46.5% reduction compared with non-vaccinated ones. These data demonstrated that rTgCDPK3 inoculation prevents or attenuates the harmful influence of T. gondii infection, and it is a potential vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis.

5.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(10): 152575, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387807

RESUMO

The important role of LncRNA in the development of breast cancer is attracting more and more attention. In the previous study, we found that the expression level of LncRNA SNHG6 in breast cancer tissues and cells was significantly increased, but its mechanism in the development of breast cancer was still unclear. Our study found that knockdown of SNHG6 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Further study showed that knockdown of SNHG6 significantly inhibited the expression level of VASP. More importantly, SNHG6 and VASP both can bind directly to miR-26a, suggesting that SNHG6 could act as a ceRNA to sponge miR-26a, thereby promoting the expression of VASP, which leading to activated proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study revealed the important role of the SNHG6/miR-26a/VASP regulatory network in the development of breast cancer, and provided a reference for exploring new pathogenesis and biomarkers of breast cancer.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112900, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394347

RESUMO

Breast milk, especially colostrum, is not just a source of nutrients and immune factors for the newborn, but also accumulates environmental persistent pollutants and its diverse microbes affect the early colonization of the newborn's gut. Little is known about associations between environmental pollutants and the microbial composition of human colostrum. We assessed the influence of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), a persistent organic pollutant (POP), in colostrums on the microbial composition of human colostrum samples. HCH concentrations in 89 colostrum samples collected from a population living on the easternmost island of China were measured via gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS), HCH exposure risks for infants via dietary intake of breast milk were assessed, and for 29 colostrum samples the microbiota were profiled using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to assess the association with HCH exposure levels. Our study confirmed high colostrum exposure levels of total HCHs (12.19 ±â€¯13.68 µg L-1) in this Chinese population. We predominantly identified Proteobacteria (67.6%) and Firmicutes (25.1%) in colostrum and microbial diversity at the genus level differed between samples with different HCH levels; e.g., Pseudomonas which contains several HCH degrading strains was found in significantly higher abundance in γ-HCH rich samples. Also, microbes that were statistically significantly associated with HCH levels were also highly correlated with each other (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.01) and clustered in network analysis. Microbial diversity is associated with HCH levels in human colostrum and these associations might be attributable to their HCH degrading ability. These finding provide first insights into the role that environmental persistent pollutants may play in the microbial composition of human colostrum and the colonization of the infant gut.

7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 69-76, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378363

RESUMO

Sex pheromones are crucial for communication between females and males in moths, and pheromone receptors (PRs) play a key role in peripheral coding of sex pheromones. During the last decade, many PR candidates have been identified based on transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, but their detailed functions remain mostly unknown. Here, focusing on four PR candidates of Athetis dissimilis (AdisOR1, AdisOR6, AdisOR11 and AdisOR14) identified in a previous study, we first cloned the full-length cDNAs and determined the tissue expression profiles by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results revealed that expression of three of these genes were male antennae-specific, while AdisOR11 was similar in expression between male and female antennae. Furthermore, the expression level of AdisOR1 was much higher than those of the other three genes. Then, functional analysis was conducted using Xenopus oocyte system. AdisOR1 responded strongly to the sex pheromone component Z9-14:OH and the potential pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OH, suggesting its important role in the sex pheromone perception; AdisOR14 showed specificity for Z9,E12-14:OH; while AdisOR6 and AdisOR11 did not respond to any of the pheromone components and analogs tested. Taken together, this study contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex pheromone reception and provides potential targets for development of OR based pest control techniques in A. dissimilis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lepidópteros/metabolismo , Receptores de Feromonas/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Lepidópteros/genética , Masculino , Feromônios/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Feromonas/genética
8.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466225

RESUMO

Associations between whole blood transcriptome and clinical phenotypes in vitamin D-deficient overweight and obese children can provide insight into the biological effects of vitamin D and obesity. We determined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in vitamin D-deficient black children with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and ascertained the cardiometabolic phenotypes associated with the DEGs. We examined whole-blood transcriptome gene expression by RNA sequencing and cardiometabolic profiling in 41, 10- to 18-year-old children. We found 296 DEGs in association with BMI after adjusting for age, race, sex, and pubertal status. Cardiometabolic phenotypes associated with the BMI-related DEGs, after adjusting for age, sex, pubertal status, and %total body fat, were (i) flow-mediated dilation (marker of endothelial function), (ii) c-reactive protein (marker of inflammation), and (iii) leptin (adipocytokine). Canonical pathways of relevance for childhood obesity and its phenotypes that were significantly associated with the BMI-related DEGs affected immune cell function/inflammation, vascular health, metabolic function, and cell survival/death; several immune and inflammatory pathways overlapped across the three phenotypes. We have identified transcriptome-based biomarkers associated with BMI in vitamin D-deficient, overweight and obese black children. Modulating effects of vitamin D supplementation on these biomarkers and their related phenotypes need further exploration.

9.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(2): 1943-1951, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257464

RESUMO

Saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) can be extracted from Bupleurum spp. roots (Radix Bupleuri), which belongs to the Umbelliferae family. The current study aimed to explore the effects of SSb2 on proliferation of breast cancer cells and to identify the mechanism by which SSb2 affects breast cancer cell migration. mRNA expression levels of STAT3 and vasodilator­stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) were determined and increased expression was observed in 16 breast cancer tissues compared with the paracancerous tissues. MTT, wound healing, colony formation assays and western blot suggested that SSb2 inhibited MCF­7 proliferation and migration. It was further identified by western blot analysis that SSb2 treatment reduced levels of phosphorylated STAT3, VASP, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 in MCF­7 compared with the untreated cells. In addition, it was demonstrated that inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation decreased VASP expression levels and induction of STAT3 phosphorylation increased VASP levels. Furthermore, it was observed that the treatment of Kunming mice with SSb2 at 30 mg/kg/day for 30 days induced no obvious changes in the liver or kidney tissues, as determined by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, these results indicated that SSb2 may be a potential antitumor drug for the treatment of breast cancer, which acts by suppressing proliferation and migration by downregulating the STAT3 signalling pathway and inhibiting the expression of VASP, MMP2 and MMP9 expression.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 686, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic profiling of cancers for variations in copy number, structure or expression of certain genes has improved diagnosis, risk-stratification and therapeutic decision-making. However the tumor-restricted nature of these changes limits their application to certain cancer types or sub-types. Tests with broader prognostic capabilities are lacking. METHODS: Using RNAseq data from 10,227 tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we evaluated 212 protein-coding transcripts from 12 cancer-related pathways. We employed t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) to identify expression pattern difference among each pathway's transcripts. We have previously used t-SNE to show that survival in some cancers correlates with expression patterns of transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins and enzymes for cholesterol biosynthesis and fatty acid oxidation. RESULTS: Using the above 212 transcripts, t-SNE-assisted transcript pattern profiling identified patient cohorts with significant survival differences in 30 of 34 different cancer types comprising 9350 tumors (91.4% of all TCGA cases). Small subsets of each pathway's transcripts, comprising no more than 50-60 from the original group, played particularly prominent roles in determining overall t-SNE patterns. In several cases, further refinements in long-term survival could be achieved by sequential t-SNE profiling with two pathways' transcripts, by a combination of t-SNE plus whole transcriptome profiling or by employing t-SNE on immuno-histochemically defined breast cancer subtypes. In two cancer types, individuals with Stage IV disease at presentation could be readily subdivided into groups with highly significant survival differences based on t-SNE-based tumor sub-classification. CONCLUSIONS: t-SNE-assisted profiling of a small number of transcripts allows the prediction of long-term survival across multiple cancer types.

11.
Pain Physician ; 22(4): 353-360, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has increased in recent years. A simple, reliable, and reproducible animal model is critical for understanding the underlying mechanisms of IVD degeneration. The caudal discs of rats have been proposed as a common puncture model in which to induce IVD degeneration. However, there is still no consensus on the size of needle to be used. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to identify the appropriate needle size to establish an IVD degeneration model. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, experimental trial. SETTING: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China. METHODS: Validity was verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. RESULTS: From T2-weighted MRI imaging and histological examination, the IVD punctured by the 16-gauge needle degenerated acutely one week after the operation, whereas the 26-gauge needle puncture did no harm to the IVD. An 18-gauge needle showed a progressive degeneration in IVD. LIMITATIONS: The observation period was not very long (4 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: An 18-gauge needle can be used to induce IVD degeneration in rats. Therefore, an 18-gauge needle is the optimal selection to establish the degenerative IVD model on rats, whereas the 26-gauge needle failed to cause IVD degeneration. Thus, to study the prevention and treatment of IVD degeneration, a 26-gauge needle can be used for IVD injection of growth factors, plasmids, and drugs. A 16-gauge needle may be used to induce acute disc injury, but not IVD degeneration. KEY WORDS: Low back pain, degenerative intervertebral disc, animal model, puncture needle, rat model, optimal choice.

12.
Trials ; 20(1): 462, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture-balanced anesthesia has been found to offer protective benefits. Electrical stimulation at certain acupoints can potentially promote perioperative gastrointestinal function recovery. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function, on anesthesia strategies for abdominal surgery, on postoperative pain treatment, and on any associated complications or alterations in immune function. We further seek to verify the protective effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), to explore possible underlying neuroimmune-endocrine mechanisms, and to thereby develop an optimized acupuncture-balanced anesthesia strategy suitable for abdominal surgery. Together, these findings will provide a scientific basis for the clinical utilization of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia in the context of abdominal surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a multicenter, large-sample, randomized placebo-controlled trial. All subjects will be patients undergoing elective gastric or colorectal surgery. In Part 1, these patients will be stratified according to surgical site (gastric or colorectal), and randomly divided into four groups based on different perioperative interventions: Con group, which will undergo sham TEAS before, during, and after surgery; T1 group, which will receive TEAS during the preoperative and intraoperative periods, and sham TEAS during the postoperative period; T2 group, which will receive TEAS during the preoperative period, sham TEAS during the intraoperative period, and TEAS during the postoperative period; and T3 group, which will receive TEAS before, during, and after operation. Part 2 of this study will focus solely on colorectal surgery patients. All patients will receive TEAS during the preoperative and intraoperative periods, and they will be randomized into four groups according to different postoperative treatments: Con' group, which will not receive TEAS; T1' group, which will receive sham TEAS; T2' group, which will receive 5-Hz TEAS; and T3' group, which will receive 100-Hz TEAS. Venous blood (5 ml) will be used to measure immunological and inflammatory indexes both at the preoperative stage prior to TEAS and 4-5 days after operation. The primary outcome will be the time to first bowel sounds after surgery. Secondary outcomes will include gastrointestinal functional recovery, analgesic efficacy during the postoperative period, acupuncture-balanced anesthesia efficacy, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and postoperative complications. DISCUSSION: This study is designed to investigate the clinical value of TEAS during various perioperative periods in those undergoing abdominal surgery, with the overall goal of evaluating the clinical value and advantages of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia, and of providing new strategies for improving patient prognoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-14004435. Registered on 26 March 2014.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(28): 25295-25305, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260237

RESUMO

Liquid metals (LMs) possess tremendous potential applications in flexible electronic devices, heat flow management, and smart actuators. Splitting the bulk LMs into microspheres is of great significance to fabricate free-standing and microscale LM-based functional materials and devices. However, it is difficult to disperse the bulk LMs into microspheres because of their large surface tension and high density. In this work, the capillary-based microfluidic chip is employed to continuously and automatically generate LM microspheres in a large scale. The capillary-based microfluidic fabrication is universally applicable in ionic aqueous solution, hydrophobic solution, and the polymeric aqueous solution. The precise size control of LM microspheres can be easily realized by the co-flowing configuration in the microchannels. The coefficient of size variation of monodispersed LM microspheres can be controlled to as low as 0.47%. The free-standing LM microspheres can be used as functional microelectrodes within a wide temperature range from -19.8 to 20 °C and to fabricate tunable integrated circuits with different output powers. Most importantly, the LM microspheres exhibit photothermal property, which is used to make the optical sensor with linear response and to conduct the solar energy harvesting. The capillary-based microfluidic fabrication of LM microspheres provides a facile and templated methodology for processing bulk LMs into microscale units. The LM microspheres with excellent electrical conductivity and photothermal property hold great promise for the development of miniature soft electronics, light-driven actuators, and energy conversion medium.

14.
Anal Chem ; 91(13): 8574-8581, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247722

RESUMO

Mitophagy, as an evolutionarily conserved cellular process, plays a crucial role in preserving cellular metabolism and physiology. Various microenvironment alterations assigned to mitophagy including pH, polarity, and deregulated biomarkers are increasingly understood. However, mitophagy-specific viscosity dynamic in live cells remains a mystery and needs to be explored. Here, a water-soluble mitochondria-targetable molecular rotor, ethyl-4-[3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridium iodine)-9 H-carbazol-9-yl)] butanoate (BMVC), was exploited as a fluorescent viscosimeter for imaging viscosity variation during mitophagy. This probe contains two positively charged 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridium components as the rotors, whose rotation will be hindered with the increase of environmental viscosity, resulting in enhancement of fluorescence emission. The results demonstrated that this probe operates well in a mitochondrial microenvironment and displays an off-on fluorescence response to viscosity. By virtue of this probe, new discoveries such as the mitochondrial viscosity will increase during mitophagy are elaborated. The real-time visualization of the mitophagy process under nutrient starvation conditions was also proposed and actualized. We expect this probe would be a robust tool in the pathogenic mechanism research of mitochondrial diseases.

15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(23): 2863-2877, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249445

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms associated with inflammation-promoted tumorigenesis have become an important topic in cancer research. Various abnormal epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNA regulation, occur during the transformation of chronic inflammation into colorectal cancer (CRC). These changes not only accelerate transformation but also lead to cancer progression and metastasis by activating carcinogenic signaling pathways. The NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways play a particularly important role in the transformation of inflammation into CRC, and both are critical to cellular signal transduction and constantly activated in cancer by various abnormal changes including epigenetics. The NF-κB and STAT3 signals contribute to the microenvironment for tumorigenesis through secretion of a large number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their crosstalk in the nucleus makes it even more difficult to treat CRC. Compared with gene mutation that is irreversible, epigenetic inheritance is reversible or can be altered by the intervention. Therefore, understanding the role of epigenetic inheritance in the inflammation-cancer transformation may elucidate the pathogenesis of CRC and promote the development of innovative drugs targeting transformation to prevent and treat this malignancy. This review summarizes the literature on the roles of epigenetic mechanisms in the occurrence and development of inflammation-induced CRC. Exploring the role of epigenetics in the transformation of inflammation into CRC may help stimulate futures studies on the role of molecular therapy in CRC.

16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 45(8): 1545-1552, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179619

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize postpartum glycemic outcome and related risk factors in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by modified The International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 583 patients with GDM diagnosed by modified IADPSG criteria for Chinese women from 2016 to 2017. According to their oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) results at 6-12 weeks postpartum, the subjects were categorized into normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) groups using the World Health Organization criteria. Multivariate pregestational and gestational factors were compared between the NGT and AGT groups. RESULTS: A total of 174 (29.9%) and 17 (2.9%) subjects were found to have AGT and diabetes, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that elevated 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) at the diagnosis of GDM (odds ratio [OR], 1.485; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.253-1.760) and multigravida (OR, 2.187; 95% CI, 1.152-4.150) were independent predictors of AGT in GDM women. Subjects with elevated OGTT 2 h PPG at gestational 24-28 weeks had a 2.254-fold increased risk (95% CI, 1.439-3.530) of developing AGT. Presence of multigravida further increased the risk to 7.329 (95% CI, 2.879-18.659). Women with two or three elevated glucose levels at OGTT had higher risk for postpartum dysglycemia. There was a robust and continuous association of OGTT 2 h PPG at gestational 24-28 weeks with abnormal postpartum glycemic outcomes. CONCLUSION: In GDM women, OGTT 2 h PPG at gestational 24-28 weeks appear to confer a continuously increased risk for postpartum dysglycemia, which is further increased by the presence of multigravida. Multigravida and women with two or three elevated glucose levels during OGTT have higher risks of impaired postpartum glucose metabolism.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(27): 24377-24385, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195793

RESUMO

Mesoporous silica nanocarriers (MSNs) are appealing in terms of their large cavity surface area and high loading capacity, but they have been suffering from premature cargo release. Herein, we report a gated smart MSN that is sensitive to low oxygen concentration (i.e., hypoxia) via taking advantage of the superior electron-accepting ability of the azobenzene moiety. The azobenzene polymer was employed as the responsive gate-keeper that was deposited on the MSN surface, followed by coating with amphiphilic Pluronic F68 for steric stabilization. The obtained nanocarriers were less than 200 nm. The in vitro polymer degradation was spectrophotometrically witnessed via the employment of a reducing agent, namely, sodium dithionite, with a strong electron-donating ability. The hypoxia-responsive cargo release from the gated MSN was quantitatively demonstrated in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique where coumarin 6 and rhodamine B was selected as the FRET donor and acceptor, respectively. The FRET ratio was used as the index and decreased linearly over time under hypoxia, whereas it almost remained steady under normoxia. In addition, a model photosensitizer, namely, chlorin e6, was also loaded in the gated MSN whose toxicity under hypoxia was verified. This study developed a hypoxia-responsive MSN with the azobenzene polymer as the removable gate-keeper, which would expand the application of MSNs in pharmaceutical and biomedical areas since the low oxygen concentration is a unique trigger in many pathological conditions.

18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110577, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220534

RESUMO

Cadmium and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are both common and widespread pollutants in food and feed. There are several reports on toxicity induced by Cadmium or AFB1 alone, but few address the toxicity caused by co-exposure to the two substances. In this study, 42 female and 42 male Kunming (KM) mice were divided into seven groups to test the acute oral toxicity of CdCl2 and AFB1, using Karber's method. The combined toxicity was assessed using the Keplinger evaluation system. Acute toxicity symptoms, deaths, and body and organ weights were evaluated, and hematological, blood biochemical, and histopathological analyses were conducted. The results revealed the following median lethal doses (LD50): LD50(Female KM mice) = 62.56 mg/kg; LD50(Male KM mice) = 48.79 mg/kg; LD50(KM mice)=55.27 mg/kg. The combined toxicity of AFB1 and CdCl2 showed an additive effect in mice, and an increase in the mixed dose of AFB1 and CdCl2 resulted in greater toxicity. These results demonstrated that the combined toxicity of AFB1 and CdCl2 was greater than the toxicities of the individual components in mice; thus, this may cause particular challenges when addressing these hazards in food and feed and the associated risk to human and animal health.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Aflatoxina B1/administração & dosagem , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
19.
Environ Int ; 130: 104872, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy has been shown to increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopmental disorders. By utilizing high-resolution metabolomics (HRM), we investigated perturbations of the maternal serum metabolome in response to traffic-related air pollution to identify biological mechanisms. METHODS: We retrieved stored mid-pregnancy serum samples from 160 mothers who lived in the Central Valley of California known for high air particulate levels. We estimated prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure (carbon monoxide, nitric oxides, and particulate matter <2.5 µm) during first-trimester using the California Line Source Dispersion Model, version 4 (CALINE4) based on residential addresses recorded at birth. We used liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain untargeted metabolic profiles and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to select metabolic features associated with air pollution exposure. Pathway analyses were employed to identify biologic pathways related to air pollution exposure. As potential confounders we included maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. RESULTS: In total we extracted 4038 and 4957 metabolic features from maternal serum samples in hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) chromatography (positive ion mode) and C18 (negative ion mode) columns, respectively. After controlling for confounding factors, PLS-DA (Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) ≥2) yielded 181 and 251 metabolic features (HILIC and C18, respectively) that discriminated between the high (n = 98) and low exposed (n = 62). Pathway enrichment analysis for discriminatory features associated with air pollution indicated that in maternal serum oxidative stress and inflammation related pathways were altered, including linoleate, leukotriene, and prostaglandin pathways. CONCLUSION: The metabolomic features and pathways we found to be associated with air pollution exposure suggest that maternal exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and inflammation pathways previously implicated in pregnancy complications and adverse outcomes.

20.
PLoS Genet ; 15(5): e1008142, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063461

RESUMO

The development of high-throughput biotechnologies allows the collection of omics data to study the biological mechanisms underlying complex diseases at different levels, such as genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics. However, each technology is designed to collect a specific type of omics data. Thus, the association between a disease and one type of omics data is usually tested individually, but this strategy is suboptimal. To better articulate biological processes and increase the consistency of variant identification, omics data from various platforms need to be integrated. In this report, we introduce an approach that uses a modified Fisher's method (denoted as Omnibus-Fisher) to combine separate p-values of association testing for a trait and SNPs, DNA methylation markers, and RNA sequencing, calculated by kernel machine regression into an overall gene-level p-value to account for correlation between omics data. To consider all possible disease models, we extend Omnibus-Fisher to an optimal test by using perturbations. In our simulations, a usual Fisher's method has inflated type I error rates when directly applied to correlated omics data. In contrast, Omnibus-Fisher preserves the expected type I error rates. Moreover, Omnibus-Fisher has increased power compared to its optimal version when the true disease model involves all types of omics data. On the other hand, the optimal Omnibus-Fisher is more powerful than its regular version when only one type of data is causal. Finally, we illustrate our proposed method by analyzing whole-genome genotyping, DNA methylation data, and RNA sequencing data from a study of childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

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