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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(4 (Supple-4)): S43-S48, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712408

RESUMO

This narrative review explores the transformative potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced imaging techniques in predicting Pathological Complete Response (pCR) in Breast Cancer (BC) patients undergoing Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy (NACT). Summarizing recent research findings underscores the significant strides made in the accurate assessment of pCR using AI, including deep learning and radiomics. Such AI-driven models offer promise in optimizing clinical decisions, personalizing treatment strategies, and potentially reducing the burden of unnecessary treatments, thereby improving patient outcomes. Furthermore, the review acknowledges the potential of AI to address healthcare disparities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), where accessible and scalable AI solutions may enhance BC management. Collaboration and international efforts are essential to fully unlock the potential of AI in BC care, offering hope for a more equitable and effective approach to treatment worldwide.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante
2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(4 (Supple-4)): S132-S135, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712421

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) patients and survivors can experience immense emotional and psychosocial trauma. Treatment modalities for BC, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with certain displeasing and undesirable effects, including physical restrictions as well as mental stress. However, it has been ascertained that appropriate supportive and rehabilitative strategies can significantly help to alleviate the distress. Along with several conventional physical therapy options, the novel Virtual Reality (VR) tool has opened a new gateway in rehabilitative approaches in patients with BC. We reviewed the role of VR based management for BC-related incapacitations and found that its efficacy is comparable to that of contemporary therapy options. It has the additional benefits of modulating pain perceptions, improving mobility, and overall enhancing the quality of life of BC survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Qualidade de Vida , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Feminino , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(4)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604740

RESUMO

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) of the breast is an infrequent soft tissue sarcoma that usually affects young to middle-aged women. Our case report describes a unique occurrence of DFSP of the breast in an adolescent girl, which was initially being managed as a keloid for 2 years under dermatology despite being refractory to treatment. Once the diagnosis of DFSP was confirmed through punch biopsy, our patient underwent surgical excision of the lesion under general anaesthesia. Our patient was at an increased risk of damage to the ductal system due to proximity of the lesion to the nipple-areolar complex, warranting the need for early recognition and treatment. As demonstrated by our case, DFSP of the breast can be difficult to diagnose since it resembles a range of benign and malignant pathologies of the breast.


Assuntos
Dermatofibrossarcoma , Queloide , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Dermatofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Dermatofibrossarcoma/cirurgia , Dermatofibrossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Pele/patologia , Mamilos/patologia
5.
Pak J Med Sci ; 39(6): 1869-1874, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936732

RESUMO

Objective: Contrast enhanced mammography (CEM), a relatively new and promising modality, combines mammography (MMG) with an iodinated contrast material to illuminate neovascularity within the breast; analogous to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CEM improves the overall sensitivity of MMG; reduces the need for unnecessary biopsies and follow-up imaging and can be considered a reasonable substitute for MRI. In Pakistan, CEM was recently introduced and to assess its usability a study was conducted on five patients before making it available as a regular investigation. Case presentations: Four out of the five patients had a clinical suspicion of malignancy with two patients having heterogeneously dense breasts and two with dense breasts. All enhancing lesions were concordant on biopsy and had similar corresponding findings on additional imaging such as ultrasound (US) and/or MRI. CEM in all four cases of biopsy proven malignancy facilitated surgical planning. The fifth patient underwent CEM for screening and was found to have no enhancing lesion. Conclusion: In low-middle-income countries (LMICs) where breast MRI is not readily available and expensive for the populace, CEM can be a reliable alternative. The initial experience with CEM at our hospital shows better visualization of malignant lesions in dense and heterogeneously dense breasts with an easy-to-perform technique and a shorter imaging time while facilitating surgical decision-making in terms of breast conservation.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 30(10): 5965-5973, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37462826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) after mastectomy with indwelling drains. We explored the utility of continued PAP in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) rates after mastectomy without immediate reconstruction and with indwelling drains. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter, two-armed, randomized control superiority trial was conducted in Pakistan. We enrolled all consenting adult patients undergoing mastectomy without immediate reconstruction. All patients received a single preoperative dose of cephalexin within 60 min of incision, and postoperatively were randomized to receive either continued PAP using cephalexin (intervention) or a placebo (control) for the duration of indwelling, closed-suction drains. The primary outcome was the development of SSI within 30 days and 90 days postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included study-drug-associated adverse events. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients, 180 (48.8%) in the intervention group and 189 (51.2%) in the control group, were included in the final analysis. Overall cumulative SSI rates were 3.5% at 30 days and 4.6% at 90 days postoperatively. PAP was not associated with SSI reduction at 30 (hazard ratio, HR 1.666 [95% confidence interval CI 0.515-5.385]) or 90 (1.575 [0.558-4.448]) days postoperatively, or with study-drug-associated adverse effects (0.529 [0.196-1.428]). CONCLUSIONS: Continuing antibiotic prophylaxis for the duration of indwelling drains after mastectomy without immediate reconstruction offers no additional benefit in terms of SSI reduction. There is a need to update existing guidelines to provide clearer recommendations regarding use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis after mastectomy in the setting of indwelling drains.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Mastectomia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Paquistão , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
8.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 107: 108325, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37224725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Synovial sarcomas are rare tumors, and the incidence of axillary synovial sarcoma involving the brachial plexus has been reported as 2.9 % among all axillary soft tissue tumors. However, the recurrence of axillary synovial sarcomas has not been reported in literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-years-old Afghan female presented in Karachi, Pakistan with a history of persistently increasing, recurrent, right axillary mass for 6 months. Initially diagnosed as a spindle-cell tumor on excision in Afghanistan, she had received ifosfamide and doxorubicin, but the lesion recurred. On examination, it was a 5 × 6 cm, hard mass palpable in right axilla. After radiological work-up and a multidisciplinary team discussion, she underwent complete excision of the tumor with successful preservation of brachial plexus. The final diagnosis was reported as monophasic synovial sarcoma FNCLCC Grade 3. DISCUSSION: Our patient presented with a recurrent right axillary synovial sarcoma that was involving the axillary neurovascular bundle and brachial plexus, which was initially diagnosed as a spindle cell sarcoma. Pre-operative core-needle biopsy was unable to provide a definitive diagnosis. MRI scan was useful in delineating the proximity of the neurovascular structures. Re-excision of the tumor was performed which is the mainstay of treatment for axillary synovial sarcomas, combined with radiotherapy depending on the disease grading, staging and patient factors. CONCLUSION: Axillary synovial sarcoma recurrence with involvement of the brachial plexus is an extremely rare presentation. Our patient was successfully managed through a multidisciplinary approach with complete surgical excision and preservation of the brachial plexus followed by adjuvant radiotherapy.

10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(Suppl 1)(2): S19-S24, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36788387

RESUMO

Objectives: The present study is a scoping review of the progress of the field of stem cell research (SCR) in Pakistan in the last two decades. METHODS: Data was extracted from electronic search engines, international clinical trial registry platforms, and PubMed and presented in tabular and graphical form. RESULTS: China, India and Iran are investing heavily in SCR. In Pakistan, reasonable growth in terms of the number of publications is observed in this area, however, clinical translation of the field does not demonstrate any considerable progress. The Government of Pakistan has developed the regulatory framework and initiated preliminary policymaking, adopting rules from international regulatory agencies like World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Drug Authority (FDA), however, further clarity and policymaking are needed to address the growing trend of stem cell tourism in the country. CONCLUSIONS: The field of SCR is still in its infancy in Pakistan, and needs improvement; scientists, academia, policymakers, and funding agencies must come together to foster high-impact stem cell research in the country. This will aid in elevating the economic burden of many incurable diseases in the country. The outcomes of this study will be helpful for policymakers in their decision-making process.


Assuntos
Médicos , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco , Humanos , Paquistão , Governo , Traduções
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(Suppl 1)(2): S47-S55, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36788391

RESUMO

Breast Cancer Stem Cells (BCSCs), unlike normal breast cells, exhibit the potential for self-regeneration and tumour formation and express unique markers. Studies have highlighted their role in tumour progression, recurrence, and treatment resistance. BCSCs can be one of the reasons that resistance is encountered despite recent advances in the treatment of breast cancer (BC). This review underlines the clinical implications at the molecular level of different cellular pathways, cellular level interactions in Tumour Micro Environment (TME), and types of markers and receptors involved in tumorigenesis. It accentuates the importance of comprehensive targeted treatment options available for BCSCs so that targeted modalities can be introduced to deal with treatment resistance. Stem cells (SCs) are a developing field, and limited data is available from our country to use stem cell-targeted treatment plans as a therapeutic option. Therefore, this literature review will provide insight for future research in this domain.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(Suppl 1)(2): S111-S115, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36788398

RESUMO

Stem cells can transform into specialized types of cells, and their capability of self-renewal is limitless. The advancements in stem cell therapy have encountered various hurdles. Considering the massive scope of stem cells applications in health, an effective regulation and monitoring system should be implemented. It is important to ensure that stem cell research projects in Pakistan work closely with the ethics committees as respecting human rights are of paramount importance. It is also necessary that the ethics and legislation guidelines are reviewed, updated, and monitored effectively at every evolving step.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Células-Tronco , Humanos , Paquistão , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(Suppl 1)(2): S155-S159, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36788408

RESUMO

One of the bone's morphogenic protein (BMP) antagonists, Gremlin-1 or GREM-1, can bind directly to BMPs. GREM-1 can act in either BMP-dependent or -independent pathways, according to research. It reinforces organogenesis, tissue differentiation, and organ fibrosis. Recent research from numerous studies has demonstrated the significance of GREM-1 in the initiation, progression, and even metastasis of different cancers, including breast, cervical, gastric, and colorectal cancers. This review highlights the function of GREM-1 in the development of breast cancer and its effect on the cellular procedures and signalling pathways involved in carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo
14.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 84: 104916, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536719

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Various oncoplastic techniques have emerged over the years to preserve breast cosmesis and symmetry without compromising the principles of tumor excision. One of the newer techniques for breast volume replacement to achieve symmetry and cosmesis is the use of fasciocutaneous pedicled chest wall perforator flaps or local perforator flaps (LPF). The objectives of this study were to document the details of the surgical procedure as well as patient-reported satisfaction and well-being following the procedure using a validated BREAST-Q tool among Pakistani women. Materials & methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2019 to February 2021 enrolling 25 female patients who underwent breast conservative surgery using LPF for breast tumors at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Data related to the procedure was collected on a pre-designed proforma. Cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction were evaluated using 2 scales from BREAST-Q BCT domain version 2.0. The questionnaire was self-administered by the patients during their routine follow-up in the clinic. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Mean (SD)/median (IQR) were computed for quantitative variables and frequency and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables. 2 sample t-test was applied. P-value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: 25 patients underwent LPF with a mean age of 47 ± 13.1 years. 8 LICAP, 7 AICAP, and 10 LTAP flaps were performed. Two postoperative complications of wound site erythema were encountered. 23 women were eligible for the BREAST-Q survey. Median (IQR) postoperative satisfaction with breasts and physical well-being chest (equivalent Rasch transformed score) was 100 (41) and 76 [18] respectively. We found high satisfaction with breasts and comparable physical well-being among Pakistani women after LPF surgeries. Conclusion: Local perforator flaps in oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery are a good option showing high satisfaction with breasts and physical well-being in Pakistani women.

15.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(3): S739-S741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414606

RESUMO

Background: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the earliest and most curable form of breast cancer. Patients who harbour this disease for quite some time usually have micro invasion by virtue of high-grade disease or big size. Herein, we report a case of 56-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with a one-year history of blood-stained nipple discharge from right breast. She was a known case of depression receiving oral anti-depressants containing lithium for 20 years. Her mammogram was performed followed by ultrasound breast. Mammogram identified suspicious clusters of micro calcifications hence subjected to stereotactic core biopsy which revealed two separate foci of high-grade DCIS. Therefore, based on her clinical, radiological, and pathological findings she was subjected to mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. Final histopathology showed big DCIS (10×8×3 cm in size) with immunohistochemical stains confirmed no invasive focus on extensive sampling. Therefore, we postulated that it might be correlated to the use of Lithium which has anti-cancer properties.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Lítio , Mastectomia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Compostos de Lítio
16.
Pak J Med Sci ; 38(8): 2345-2349, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415238

RESUMO

The earliest records of breast cancer (BC) date back to 3,000 - 2,500 B.C., ever since multiple curative options have been explored. First known wide margin excision was performed around 1st Century AD and a prototype of the modern-day BC surgery, Halsted radical mastectomy, was performed in the 20th Century. BC is the most common cancer in Pakistan accounting for up to 14.5% of the total cancer incidences. Accredited breast surgery fellowships were established in the UK and USA in 2002 and 2003, respectively. In Pakistan, the movement was delayed and the two-year College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP) accredited breast surgery fellowship program started in 2019. The increasing annual incidence and changes in demands have led to an increased percentage of General Surgery graduates taking up specialty training. PubMed search from 1990 to 2021 showed a rising trend in the number of breast cancer publications from Pakistan; from almost no papers before 1990 to 615 between 2012 to 2021. This remarkable surge in BC-related research can be explained by the commencement of fellowship programs in breast surgery and related fields. An increase in specialist training will yield better results in the management of patients, improve clinical trials and help produce more meaningful publications from the country.

17.
Cureus ; 14(7): e26997, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35989806

RESUMO

Introduction The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic left a profound and pervasive impact on the healthcare infrastructure on a global scale. Since its onset, the pattern of reported cases and its associated mortality had shown variability with intermittent peaks causing a significant effect on the psychological well-being of the surgeons of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental well-being of surgeons in Pakistan. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the psychological well-being of surgeons in Pakistan. The validated Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) tool was circulated electronically via Google Forms (Google, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA) in the practicing surgical fraternity across all five regions of Pakistan, i.e., Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Results This study showed that the female gender, having fewer years of working experience, non-satisfaction with the available personal protective equipment (PPE), and working in the public sector were the factors affecting the psychological well-being of surgeons during the pandemic. Conclusion Considering the continuous rise in new cases during the ongoing pandemic, the mental health of surgeons working in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) such as Pakistan has been significantly affected. There is an undeniable need to pay close attention to their psychological well-being. Measures need to be undertaken to ensure their physical and mental health and wellness.

18.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24504, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651400

RESUMO

Necrotizing infection (NI) of the breast associated with underlying malignancy is a rare phenomenon characterized by necrosis of breast parenchyma, causing a delay in diagnosis and even leading to sepsis. We present a case of a 42-year-old female with NI of the right breast while on homeopathic treatment for a right breast lump for six months. Tissue culture showed a polymicrobial infection and histopathology established the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. After treating the NI, her breast cancer was managed as per standard guidelines.

19.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract ; 20(1): 24, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, affecting over 1.5 million women every year, which accounts for the highest number of cancer-related deaths in women globally. Hereditary breast cancer (HBC), an important subset of breast cancer, accounts for 5-10% of total cases. However, in Low Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), the population-specific risk of HBC in different ethnicities and the correlation with certain clinical characteristics remain unexplored. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients who visited the HBC clinic and proceeded with multi-gene panel testing from May 2017 to April 2020. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze clinical characteristics of patients. Fisher's exact, Pearson's chi-squared tests and Logistic regression analysis were used for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for quantitative variables. For comparison between two independent groups, Mann-Whitney test was performed. Results were considered significant at a p value of < 0.05. RESULTS: Out of 273 patients, 22% tested positive, 37% had a VUS and 41% had a negative genetic test result. Fifty-five percent of the positive patients had pathogenic variants in either BRCA1 or BRCA2, while the remaining positive results were attributed to other genes. Patients with a positive result had a younger age at diagnosis compared to those having a VUS and a negative result; median age 37.5 years, IQR (Interquartile range) (31.5-48). Additionally, patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were almost 3 times more likely to have a positive result (OR = 2.79, CI = 1.42-5.48 p = 0.003). Of all patients with positive results, 25% of patients had a negative family history of breast and/or related cancers. CONCLUSIONS: In our HBC clinic, we observed that our rate of positive results is comparable, yet at the higher end of the range which is reported in other populations. The importance of expanded, multi-gene panel testing is highlighted by the fact that almost half of the patients had pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in genes other than BRCA1/2, and that our test positivity rate would have only been 12.8% if only BRCA1/2 testing was done. As the database expands and protocol-driven referrals are made across the country, our insight about the genetic architecture of HBC in our population will continue to increase.

20.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22670, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386144

RESUMO

Introduction Male breast cancer is uncommon and managed on the guidelines of female breast cancer due to tumor rarity. We sought to identify the incidence, clinicopathological features, and survival of all male breast cancer patients managed in our hospital. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan, from January 1986 to December 2018. Demographic data, treatment records, and follow-up data of all male breast cancer patients who were treated at AKUH was reviewed. Results Thirty-eight out of 42 patients who presented over a period of 32 years were included. The mean age was 63 years. The most common tumor type and subtype were invasive ductal carcinoma (89.5%) and luminal A (73.7%), respectively. The majority (36.8%) of the patients presented at stage III. Among 30 (78.9%) patients who underwent surgery, mastectomy was performed in 30 (78.9%), upfront axillary clearance in 24 (63.2%), axillary sampling in five (15.1%) cases, and sentinel lymph node biopsy in one (2.6%) case. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 10 (26.3%) patients, and adjuvant chemotherapy to eight (21.1%) patients. Adjuvant hormonal treatment was administered to 22 (57.9%) patients, and 13 (34%) patients received adjuvant radiation to the chest wall. The five-year overall survival was 38.2% and the median survival was 36 months. The five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was found to be 33.7%. Conclusion Breast cancer in males presents at an advanced stage with poor survival. Multicenter studies are required to accurately identify incidence, prognostic factors, and outcomes in order to have a better understanding of its management.

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