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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610352

RESUMO

Ultrasound is extremely efficient for wireless signal transmission through metal barriers due to no limit of the Faraday shielding effect. Echoing in the ultrasonic channel is one of the most challenging obstacles to performing high-quality communication, which is generally coped with by using a channel equalizer or pre-distorting filter. In this study, a deep learning algorithm called a dual-path recurrent neural network (DPRNN) was investigated for echo cancellation in an ultrasonic through-metal communication system. The actual system was constructed based on the combination of software and hardware, consisting of a pair of ultrasonic transducers, an FPGA module, some lab-made circuits, etc. The approach of DPRNN echo cancellation was applied to signals with a different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a 2 Mbps transmission rate, achieving higher than 20 dB SNR improvement for all situations. Furthermore, this approach was successfully used for image transmission through a 50 mm thick aluminum plate, exhibiting a 24.8 dB peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and a about 95% structural similarity index measure (SSIM). Additionally, compared with three other echo cancellation methods-LMS, RLS and PNLMS-DPRNN has demonstrated higher efficiency. All those results firmly validate that the DPRNN algorithm is a powerful tool to conduct echo cancellation and enhance the performance of ultrasonic through-metal transmission.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1346400, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628807

RESUMO

Background: Cardiac arrhythmias are very common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially atrial fibrillation (AF) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NVST). Cardiac autonomic dysfunction and structural remodeling caused by OSA provide the milieu for cardiac arrhythmia development. This study aimed to determine whether OSA is associated with various cardiac arrhythmias and investigate potential pathophysiologic pathways between them. Methods: The analysis covered 600 patients with clinical suspicion of OSA hospitalized in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between January 2020 and May 2023. After undergoing sleep apnea monitor, all subjects received laboratory tests, Holter electrocardiography, and Echocardiography. Results: Compared with those without OSA and adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with moderate OSA had three times the odds of AF (odds ratio [OR] 3.055; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002-9.316; p = 0.048). Subjects with severe OSA had three times the odds of AF (OR 3.881; 95% CI, 1.306-11.534; p = 0.015) and NSVT (OR 3.690; 95% CI, 0.809-16.036; p = 0.046). There were significant linear trends for the association between OSA severity with AF and NVST (p < 0.05). And this association was mediated by cardiac structural changes including left atrial diameter, left ventricular diastolic diameter, right atrial diameter and right ventricular diameter. In addition, the ratio of low-frequency and high-frequency individually mediated the association between severe OSA and NVST. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that severe OSA was independently associated with AF and NSVT, and this association was mediated by autonomic nervous system changes and cardiac structural remodeling.

3.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611728

RESUMO

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a pivotal role in cancer therapeutics, with small-molecule EGFR inhibitors emerging as significant agents in combating this disease. This review explores the synthesis and clinical utilization of EGFR inhibitors, starting with the indispensable role of EGFR in oncogenesis and emphasizing the intricate molecular aspects of the EGFR-signaling pathway. It subsequently provides information on the structural characteristics of representative small-molecule EGFR inhibitors in the clinic. The synthetic methods and associated challenges pertaining to these compounds are thoroughly examined, along with innovative strategies to overcome these obstacles. Furthermore, the review discusses the clinical applications of FDA-approved EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, and osimertinib across various cancer types and their corresponding clinical outcomes. Additionally, it addresses the emergence of resistance mechanisms and potential counterstrategies. Taken together, this review aims to provide valuable insights for researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical scientists interested in comprehending the current landscape of small-molecule EGFR inhibitors.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Humanos , Afatinib , Receptores ErbB , Cloridrato de Erlotinib
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603891

RESUMO

The specific enrichment of multi-phosphopeptides in the presence of non-phosphopeptides and mono-phosphopeptides was still a challenge for phosphoproteomics research. Most of these enrichment materials relied on Zn, Ti, Sn, and other rare precious metals as the bonding center to enrich multi-phosphopeptides while ignoring the use of common metal elements. The addition of rare metals increased the cost of the experiment, which was not conducive to their large-scale application in biomedical proteomics laboratories. In addition, multiple high-speed centrifugation steps also resulted in the loss of low-abundance multi-phosphopeptides in the treatment procedure of biological samples. This study proposed the use of calcium, a common element, as the central bonding agent for synthesizing magnetic calcium phosphate materials (designated as CaP-Fe3O4). These materials aim to capture multi-phosphopeptides and identifying phosphorylation sites. The current results demonstrate that CaP-Fe3O4 exhibited excellent selection specificity, high sensitivity, and stability in the enrichment of multi-phosphopeptides and the identification of phosphorylation sites. Additionally, the introduction of magnetic separation not only reduced the time required for multi-phosphopeptides enrichment but also prevented the loss of these peptides during high-speed centrifugation. These findings contribute to the widespread application and advancement of phosphoproteomics research.

5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 26(1): 86, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Little is known about long-term clinical outcomes or urate-lowering (ULT) therapy use following pegloticase discontinuation. We examined ULT use, serum urate (SU), inflammatory biomarkers, and renal function following pegloticase discontinuation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of gout patients who discontinued pegloticase using the Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness (RISE) registry from 1/2016 to 6/2022. We defined discontinuation as a gap ≥ 12 weeks after last infusion. We examined outcomes beginning two weeks after last dose and identified ULT therapy following pegloticase discontinuation. We evaluated changes in lab values (SU, eGFR, CRP and ESR), comparing on- treatment (≤ 15 days of the second pegloticase dose) to post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 375 gout patients discontinuing pegloticase, median (IQR) laboratory changes following discontinuation were: SU: +2.4 mg/dL (0.0,6.3); eGFR: -1.9 mL/min (- 8.7,3.7); CRP: -0.8 mg/L (-12.8,0.0); and ESR: -4.0 mm/hr (-13.0,0.0). Therapy post-discontinuation included oral ULTs (86.0%), restarting pegloticase (4.5%), and no documentation of ULT (9.5%), excluding patients with multiple same-day prescriptions (n = 17). Oral ULTs following pegloticase were: 62.7% allopurinol, 34.1% febuxostat. The median (IQR) time to starting/restarting ULT was 92.0 days (55.0,173.0). Following ULT prescribing (≥ 30 days), only 51.0% of patients had SU < 6 mg/dL. Patients restarting pegloticase achieved a median SU of 0.9 mg/dL (IQR:0.2,9.7) and 58.3% had an SU < 6 mg/dL. CONCLUSION: Pegloticase treats uncontrolled gout in patients with failed response to xanthine oxidase inhibitors, but among patients who discontinue, optimal treatment is unclear. Based on this analysis, only half of those starting another ULT achieved target SU. Close follow-up is needed to optimize outcomes after pegloticase discontinuation.


Assuntos
Gota , Polietilenoglicóis , Urato Oxidase , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Rim
6.
Carbohydr Res ; 538: 109094, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564900

RESUMO

Human diseases often correlate with changes in protein glycosylation, which can be observed in serum or plasma samples. N-glycosylation, the most common form, can provide potential biomarkers for disease prognosis and diagnosis. However, glycoproteins constitute a relatively small proportion of the total proteins in human serum and plasma compared to the non-glycosylated protein albumin, which constitutes the majority. The detection of microheterogeneity and low glycan abundance presents a challenge. Mass spectrometry facilitates glycoproteomics research, yet it faces challenges due to interference from abundant plasma proteins. Therefore, methods have emerged to enrich N-glycans and N-linked glycopeptides using glycan affinity, chemical properties, stationary phase chemical coupling, bioorthogonal techniques, and other alternatives. This review focuses on N-glycans and N-glycopeptides enrichment in human serum or plasma, emphasizing methods and applications. Although not exhaustive, it aims to elucidate principles and showcase the utility and limitations of glycoproteome characterization.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Glicopeptídeos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicosilação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polissacarídeos
7.
Food Funct ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563411

RESUMO

Fucoxanthin, a carotenoid exclusively derived from algae, exerts its bioactivities with the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice. However, mechanisms through which fucoxanthin regulates the gut microbiota and its derived metabolites/metabolism in humans remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoxanthin on the gut microbiota and metabolism of non-obese individuals using an in vitro simulated digestion-fermentation cascade model. The results showed that about half of the fucoxanthin was not absorbed in the intestine, thus reaching the colon. The gut microbiota from fecal samples underwent significant changes after 48 or 72 hours in vitro fermentation. Specifically, fucoxanthin significantly enhanced the relative abundance of Bacteroidota and Parabacteroides, leading to improved functions of the gut microbiota in its development, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism as well as in improving the digestive system, endocrine system and immune system. The recovery of fucoxanthin during fermentation showed a decreasing trend with the slight bio-conversion of fucoxanthinol. Notably, fucoxanthin supplementation significantly altered metabolites, especially bile acids and indoles in the simulated human gut ecosystem. Correlation analysis indicated the involvement of the gut microbiota in the manipulation of these metabolites by fucoxanthin. Moreover, all these altered metabolites revealed the improvement in the capacity of fucoxanthin in manipulating gut metabolism, especially lipid metabolism. Overall, fucoxanthin determinedly reshaped the gut microbiota and metabolism, implying its potential health benefits in non-obese individuals.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172168, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582120

RESUMO

Many cities face unprecedented high temperatures with increasing extreme events. Heatwaves pose significant health risks, including cardiovascular diseases, heatstroke, and dehydration. Mapping urban near-surface air temperature (Tair) is crucial for understanding thermal exposure and addressing climate change. Previous studies relied on satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST) and stationary monitoring, but high spaio-temporal Tair mapping is still a challenge. This study optimized a mobile sensing scheme using an electric bicycle platform with environmental and image sensors, and deep learning captured local-scale urban factors. A spatio-temporal data fusion model that consisted of three parts, temporal trend extraction, locality analysis, and neighborhood effect analysis, generated hyperlocal Tair maps. The Results from Beijing demonstrated the effectiveness of the framework, achieving the lowest MAE of 0.02 °C. Optimized data collection and the new model achieved accurate temperature predictions and thermal exposure assessment. Efficiency enhanced sensing strategy was also proposed. The study highlights local-scale factors and spatio-temporal dependencies in addressing heatwaves and climate change impacts in urban areas.

9.
Cytokine ; 179: 156598, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allograft rejection remains a major obstacle to long-term graft survival. Although previous studies have demonstrated that IL-37 exhibited significant immunomodulatory effects in various diseases, research on its role in solid organ transplantation has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the therapeutic effect of recombinant human IL-37 (rhIL-37) was evaluated in a mouse cardiac allotransplantation model. METHODS: The C57BL/6 recipients mouse receiving BALB/c donor hearts were treated with rhIL-37. Graft pathological and immunohistology changes, immune cell populations, and cytokine profiles were analyzed on postoperative day (POD) 7. The proliferative capacities of Th1, Th17, and Treg subpopulations were assessed in vitro. Furthermore, the role of the p-mTOR pathway in rhIL-37-induced CD4+ cell inhibition was also elucidated. RESULTS: Compared to untreated groups, treatment of rhIL-37 achieved long-term cardiac allograft survival and effectively alleviated allograft rejection indicated by markedly reduced infiltration of CD4+ and CD11c+ cells and ameliorated graft pathological changes. rhIL-37 displayed significantly less splenic populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as matured dendritic cells. The percentages of Tregs in splenocytes were significantly increased in the therapy group. Furthermore, rhIL-37 markedly decreased the levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, but increased the level of IL-10 in the recipients. In addition, rhIL-37 inhibited the expression of p-mTOR in CD4+ cells of splenocytes. In vitro, similar to the in vivo experiments, rhIL-37 caused a decrease in the proportion of Th1 and Th17, as well as an increase in the proportion of Treg and a reduction in p-mTOR expression in CD4+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that rhIL-37 effectively suppress acute rejection and induce long-term allograft acceptance. The results highlight that IL-37 could be novel and promising candidate for prevention of allograft rejection.

10.
Curr Biol ; 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574729

RESUMO

Plants establish symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to facilitate nutrient uptake, particularly in nutrient-limited conditions. This partnership is rooted in the plant's ability to recognize fungal signaling molecules, such as chitooligosaccharides (chitin) and lipo-chitooligosaccharides. In the legume Medicago truncatula, chitooligosaccharides trigger both symbiotic and immune responses via the same lysin-motif-receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs), notably CERK1 and LYR4. The nature of plant-fungal engagement is opposite according to the outcomes of immunity or symbiosis signaling, and as such, discrimination is necessary, which is challenged by the dual roles of CERK1/LYR4 in both processes. Here, we describe a LysM-RLK, LYK8, that is functionally redundant with CERK1 for mycorrhizal colonization but is not involved in chitooligosaccharides-induced immunity. Genetic mutation of both LYK8 and CERK1 blocks chitooligosaccharides-triggered symbiosis signaling, as well as mycorrhizal colonization, but shows no further impact on immunity signaling triggered by chitooligosaccharides, compared with the mutation of CERK1 alone. LYK8 interacts with CERK1 and forms a receptor complex that appears essential for chitooligosaccharides activation of symbiosis signaling, with the lyk8/cerk1 double mutant recapitulating the impact of mutations in the symbiosis signaling pathway. We conclude that this novel receptor complex allows chitooligosaccharides activation specifically of symbiosis signaling and helps the plant to differentiate between activation of these opposing signaling processes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes are implanted using a variety of stereotactic technologies to treat refractory epilepsy. The value of SINO-robot for SEEG electrode implantation is rarely reported. The aim of the current study was to assess the value of SINO-robot in conjunction with Angio Render technology, in SEEG electrode implantation. We also assess its efficacy by examining factors such as localization error, operation time, and complications. METHODS: Between June 2018 and October 2020, we retrospectively reviewed 58 patients who underwent SEEG implantation to resect or ablate their epileptogenic zone (EZ) while minimizing the risk of hemorrhage. SINO-robot combined with Angio Render technology-assisted SEEG electrode implantation was used to visualize each patient' blood vessel in a 3D plane. The 3D view functionality was used to increase the safety and accuracy of the implantation, and reducing the risk of hemorrhage by avoiding said blood vessel. RESULTS: In this study, 634 SEEG electrodes were implanted in 58 patients. The mean 10.92(range 5- 18) leads per patient. The mean entry point localization error (EPLE) was 0.94 ± 0.23 mm (range: 0.39- 1.63 mm), and the mean target point localization error (TPLE) was 1.49 ± 0.37 mm (range: 0.80-2.78 mm). The mean operating time per lead (MOTPL) was 6. 18 ± 1.80 min (range: 3.02- 14.61 min). And the mean depth of electrodes was 56.96± 3.62 mm (range:27.23-124.85 mm). At a follow-up of at least one year, totally 81.57% (47/58) of patients achieved an Engel class I of seizure freedom. There were 2 patients with asymptomatic brain hematomas following SEEG placement, and no late complications or mortality in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: SINO-robot in conjunction with Angio Render technology assist, in SEEG electrode implantation is safe and accurate in mitigating the risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy.

12.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578483

RESUMO

The mechanism of arsenic-induced liver toxicity is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of LINC00942 in arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating miR-214-5p. As the exposure dose of NaAsO2 gradually increases, cell viability, intracellular GSH content, ΔΨm, and the protein levels of GCLC and GCLM were reduced significantly. Apoptosis rate, ROS, and expression of apoptosis-related and NF-κB pathway proteins increased. The expression of LINC00942 was increased, while the expression of miR-214-5p was decreased. After suppressing LINC00942 levels, NaAsO2 exposure further decreased cell viability, intracellular GSH content, ΔΨm, GCLC protein, and miR-214-5p expression. The apoptosis rate, ROS, and apoptosis-related and NF-κB pathway proteins further increased. miR-214-5p is targeted and negatively regulated by LINC00942. After miR-214-5p was overexpressed, NaAsO2 further decreased cell viability, intracellular GSH content, ΔΨm, and GCLC protein expression compared to NaAsO2 exposure. The apoptosis rate, ROS, apoptosis-related and NF-κB pathway proteins p65, and IKKß were higher than those exposed to NaAsO2. LINC00942 inhibitor along with miR-214-5p inhibitor combined with NaAsO2 treatment resulted in increased cell viability, GSH, Bcl-2, and GCLC protein expression and decreased apoptosis rate, apoptosis related, p65, IKKß protein, and ΔΨm, as compared to the combined NaAsO2 and si LINC00942 group. NaAsO2 exposure induces oxidative damage and apoptosis in LX-2 cells by activating NF-κB and inhibiting GSH synthesis. During this process, the expression level of LINC00942 increases, targeting to reduce the level of miR-214-5p, then weakening the effect of NaAsO2 on NF-κB, thereby alleviating cellular oxidative damage and playing a protective role.

13.
Plant Physiol ; 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507615

RESUMO

Polyploid hybrid rice (Oryza sativa) has great potential for increasing yields. However, hybrid rice depends on male fertility and its regulation, which is less well studied in polyploid rice than in diploid rice. We previously identified a MYB transcription factor, MORE FLORET1 (MOF1), whose mutation causes male sterility in neo-tetraploid rice. MOF1 expression in anthers peaks at anther Stage 7 (S7) and progressively decreases to low levels at S10. However, it remains unclear how the dynamics of MOF1 expression contribute to male fertility. Here, we carefully examined anther development in both diploid and tetraploid mof1 rice mutants, as well as lines ectopically expressing MOF1 in a temporal manner. MOF1 mutations caused delayed degeneration of the tapetum and middle layer of anthers and aberrant pollen wall organization. Ectopic MOF1 expression at later stages of anther development led to retarded cytoplasmic reorganization of tapetal cells. In both cases, pollen grains were aborted and seed production was abolished, indicating that precise control of MOF1 expression is essential for male reproduction. We demonstrated that five key tapetal genes, CYP703A3 (CYTOCHROME P450 HYDROXYLASE 703A3), OsABCG26 (Oryza sativa ATP BINDING CASSETTE G26), PTC1 (PERSISTENT TAPETAL CELL1), PKS2 (POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE 2), and OsABCG15 (Oryza sativa ATP BINDING CASSETTE G15), exhibit expression patterns opposite to those of MOF1 and are negatively regulated by MOF1. Moreover, DNA affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq), luciferase activity assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that MOF1 binds directly to the PKS2 promoter for transcriptional repression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for the regulation of male reproduction by MOF1 in both diploid and tetraploid rice. This study will facilitate the development of polyploid male sterile lines, which are useful for breeding of polyploid hybrid rice.

14.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1357491, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435364

RESUMO

With growing restrictions on the use of antibiotics in animal feed, plant extracts are increasingly favored as natural feed additive sources. Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide (GP), known for its multifaceted biological benefits including growth promotion, immune enhancement, and antioxidative properties, has been the focus of recent studies. Yet, the effects and mechanisms of GP on broiler growth and meat quality remain to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GP on growth, serum biochemistry, meat quality, and gene expression in broilers. The broilers were divided into five groups, each consisting of five replicates with six birds. These groups were supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 mg/kg of GP in their basal diets, respectively, for a period of 42 days. The results indicated that from day 22 to day 42, and throughout the entire experimental period from day 1 to day 42, the groups receiving 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg of GP showed a significant reduction in the feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) compared to the control group. On day 42, an increase in serum growth hormone (GH) levels was shown in groups supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg GP or higher, along with a significant linear increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration. Additionally, significant upregulation of GH and IGF-1 mRNA expression levels was noted in the 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg GP groups. Furthermore, GP significantly elevated serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and globulin (GLB) while reducing blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In terms of meat quality, the 1,500 and 2,000 mg/kg GP groups significantly increased fiber density in pectoral muscles and reduced thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. GP also significantly decreased cooking loss rate in both pectoral and leg muscles and the drip loss rate in leg muscles. It increased levels of linoleic acid and oleic acid, while decreasing concentrations of stearic acid, myristic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. Finally, the study demonstrated that the 1,500 mg/kg GP group significantly enhanced the expression of myogenin (MyoG) and myogenic differentiation (MyoD) mRNA in leg muscles. Overall, the study determined that the optimal dosage of GP in broiler feed is 1,500 mg/kg.

15.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 33: 2279-2292, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478437

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose an anycost network quantization method for efficient image super-resolution with variable resource budgets. Conventional quantization approaches acquire discrete network parameters for deployment with fixed complexity constraints, while image super-resolution networks are usually applied on mobile devices with frequently modified resource budgets due to the change of battery levels or computing chips. Hence, exhaustively optimizing quantized networks with each complexity constraint results in unacceptable training costs. On the contrary, we construct a hyper-network whose parameters can efficiently adapt to different resource budgets with negligible finetuning cost, so that the image super-resolution networks can be feasibly deployed in diversified devices with variable resource budgets. Specifically, we dynamically search the optimal bitwidth for each patch in convolution according to feature maps and complexity constraints, which aims to achieve the best efficiency-accuracy trade-off in image super-resolution given the resource budget. To acquire the hyper-network that can be efficiently adapted to different bitwidth settings, we actively sample the patch-wise bitwidth during training and adaptively ensemble gradients from hyper-network in different precision for faster convergence and higher generalization ability. Compared with existing quantization methods, experimental results demonstrate that our method significantly reduces the cost of adapting models in new resource budgets with comparable efficiency-accuracy trade-offs.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520525

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of fresh fruit, dried fruit, raw vegetables, and cooked vegetables on type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression trajectory. METHODS: We included 429,886 participants in the UK Biobank who were free of diabetes and diabetes complications at baseline. Food groups were determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Outcomes were T2D incidence, complications, and mortality. Multi-state model was used to analyze the effects of food groups on T2D progression. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 12.6 years, 10,333 incident T2D cases were identified, of whom, 3961 (38.3%) developed T2D complications and 1169 (29.5%) died. We found that impacts of four food groups on T2D progression varied depending on disease stage. For example, compared to participants who ate less than one piece of dried fruit per day, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for those who ate ≥ 2 pieces of dried fruit per day were 0.82 (0.77, 0.87), 0.88 (0.85, 0.92), and 0.86 (0.78, 0.95) for transitions from diabetes-free state to incident T2D, from diabetes-free state to total death, and from incident T2D to T2D complications, respectively. Higher intake of fresh fruit was significantly associated with lower risk of disease progression from diabetes-free state to all-cause death. Higher intake of raw and cooked vegetables was significantly associated with lower risks of disease progression from diabetes-free state to incident T2D and to total death. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that higher intake of fresh fruit, dried fruit, raw vegetables, and cooked vegetables could be beneficial for primary and secondary prevention of T2D.

17.
Food Funct ; 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512280

RESUMO

Steviol glycosides (SGs) are recognized as safe natural sweeteners; however, evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed an inconclusive effect of SGs on glucose metabolism in adult participants. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to assess the effect of SGs on glucose metabolism. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE to include eligible RCTs. Our primary outcomes were differences between SGs and the control group with respect to changes in blood glucose from the baseline to the end of intervention (including fasting blood glucose [FBG], and HbA1c measurements). A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for data synthesis to calculate the pooled mean difference (MD). There were twelve RCTs included for analyses with a total of 871 participants (48% females). A significant effect of SGs on FBG (MD = -4.10 mg dl-1, 95% CI -6.55 to -1.65) was found, while no significant difference in HbA1c (MD = 0.01%, 95% CI -0.12% to 0.13%) was observed between SGs and controls. The whole quality of evidence was rated as low. Subgroup analyses demonstrated favorable effects of SGs on FBG in participants aged ≤50 years, those without diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension at the baseline, and overweight and obese adults. Sensitivity analyses yielded results largely similar to the main findings. To conclude, SGs are found to produce significant improvement in glucose metabolism in adult participants when compared with the control. More evidence is required to further clarify and support the benefit of SGs as a sugar substitute for glucose metabolism.

18.
Transpl Immunol ; 84: 102037, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cladribine, an analogue of deoxyadenosine, is used for therapy of hematological malignancies. Cladribine-containing regimen has been recommended as a rescue therapy for relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Its combination with busulfan plus cyclophosphamide (BuCy), as an intensive conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), requires more clinical evidence. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of cladribine plus BuCy administered as an intensive conditioning regimen before allo-HSCT in R/R AML patients. METHODS: Twenty-three R/R AML patients, who underwent cladribine plus BuCy intensive conditioning regimen before allo-HSCT, were retrospectively analyzed. The median (range) follow-up duration time of observation was 0.73 (0.08-2.69) years. RESULTS: The median (range) returned levels of mononuclear cells were 11.5 (6.1-18.5) x 108/kg and CD34+ cells were 5.5 (3.5-9.3) x 106/kg. The median (range) time of platelet reconstitution was 13.0 (9.0-21.0) days and neutrophil reconstitution was 14.0 (11.0-26.0) days. The incidence of conditioning regimen related toxicity (CRRT) affected 69.6% of patients; all CRRT-affected patients had grade I-II symptoms, including gastrointestinal tract (39.1%), oral cavity (26.1%), liver (8.7%), and kidney (4.3%) CRRTs. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVDH) included 30.4% among all patients with 4.3% of grade III-IV acute GVHD, and 34.8% of chronic GVHD. During the follow-up period, 4 (17.4%) patients relapsed, and 6 (26.1%) patients died (cause of death: disease relapse, n = 3; infection, n = 2; GVHD, n = 1). The 1-year and 2-year accumulating event-free survival rates were 66.3% and 53.1%, respectively. The 1-year accumulating overall survival rate was 74.7% and 2-year survival rate was 64.0%. CONCLUSION: Cladribine plus BuCy intensive conditioning regimen before allo-HSCT exhibits favorable treatment efficacy with acceptable toxicity in R/R AML patients.

19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2300797, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549456

RESUMO

SCOPE: l-Theanine (l-Thea) is an amino acid which is naturally present in tea leaves. It has been associated with possible health advantages, including obesity prevention, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multiomics approach is utilized to examine the mechanism by which l-Thea exerts its antiobesity effects. This study reveals that l-Thea administration significantly ameliorates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats by improving body weight and hyperlipidemia. l-Thea mitigates HFD-induced inflammation and reverses hepatic and colonic damage, and intestinal barrier. This research verifies that the preventive effect of l-Thea on obesity in rats induced by an HFD with colitis is accomplished by suppressing the phosphorylation of important proteins in the NF-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Metabolome analysis reveals that l-Thea regulates HFD-induced metabolic disorders, specifically through modulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis. Microbiome analysis reveals that l-Thea mitigates HFD-induced dysbiosis by increasing the relative abundance of obesity-associated probiotic bacteria, including Blautia coccoides and Lactobacillus murinus, while simultaneously suppressing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: l-Thea alleviates colitis generated by an HFD by restoring the integrity of the intestinal barrier, suppressing inflammation through regulation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways, and enhancing microbial metabolism in colon.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 107, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have increased in China recently, causing some evidence of familial clustering. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of parents and children in cases of familial clustering of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the cases of familial clustering of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, and the clinical characteristics of parents and children were compared. RESULTS: We identified 63 families, of these, 57 (65.5%) adults and 65 (94.2%) children required hospitalization. Fifty-seven adults (mean age 35.1 ± 4.6 years, 80.7% female) and 55 children (mean age 6.3 ± 3.9 years, 54.5% female) were included in the analysis. The incidence of mycoplasma infection in adults had increased gradually over the past year, while the rate in children had spiked sharply since June 2023. The clinical symptoms were similar in the two groups, mainly fever and cough. The peak temperature of children was higher than that of adults (39.1 ± 0.7℃ vs 38.6 ± 0.7℃, p = 0.004). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase was more common in children than in adults (77.8% vs 11.3%, p < 0.001). Bronchial pneumonia and bilateral involvement were more common in children, while adults usually had unilateral involvement. Three (60%) adults and 21 (52.5%) children were macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infected. Children were more likely to be co-infected (65.5% vs 22.8%, p < .001). Macrolides were used in most children and quinolones were used in most adults. Ten (18.2%) children were diagnosed with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, whereas all adults had mild disease. Children had a significantly longer fever duration than adults ((5.6 ± 2.2) days vs (4.1 ± 2.2) days, p = 0.002). No patient required mechanical ventilation or died. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection shows a familial clustering epidemic trend at the turn of summer and autumn, with different clinical characteristics between parents and children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Quinolonas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico
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