Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.018
Filtrar
1.
Thorac Cancer ; 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337087

RESUMO

Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system can provide real-time 3D images and fluoroscopy images of the region of interest during the operation. Some systems can even offer augmented fluoroscopy and puncture guidance. The use of CBCT for interventional pulmonary procedures has grown significantly in recent years, and numerous clinical studies have confirmed the technology's efficacy and safety in the diagnosis, localization, and treatment of pulmonary nodules. In order to optimize and standardize the technical specifications of CBCT and guide its application in clinical practice, the consensus statement has been organized and written in a collaborative effort by the Professional Committee on Interventional Pulmonology of China Association for Promotion of Health Science and Technology.

2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1212, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331998

RESUMO

Polymerization of Y6-type acceptor molecules leads to bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with both high power-conversion efficiency and device stability, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the exciton recombination dynamics of polymerized Y6-type acceptors (Y6-PAs) strongly depends on the degree of aggregation. While the fast exciton recombination rate in aggregated Y6-PA competes with electron-hole separation at the donor-acceptor (D-A) interface, the much-suppressed exciton recombination rate in dispersed Y6-PA is sufficient to allow efficient free charge generation. Indeed, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that Y6-PAs have larger miscibility with the donor polymer than Y6-type small molecular acceptors, leading to D-A percolation that effectively prevents the formation of Y6-PA aggregates at the interface. Besides enabling high charge generation efficiency, the interfacial D-A percolation also improves the thermodynamic stability of the blend morphology, as evident by the reduced device "burn-in" loss upon solar illumination.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(3)2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338149

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is a global zoonotic parasitic disease caused by F. hepatica infection that is particularly harmful to cattle and sheep. A biotin-streptavidin signal amplification ELISA (streptavidin-ELISA/SA-ELISA) based on circulating antigens can allow for the early detection of F. hepatica-infected animals and is suitable for batch detection. It is considered to be a better means of detecting F. hepatica infection than traditional detection methods. In this study, using the serum of sheep artificially infected with F. hepatica, the cDNA expression library of F. hepatica was screened, 17 immunodominant antigen genes of F. hepatica were obtained, and glutathione s-transferase (GST) was selected as the candidate detection antigen. Firstly, the GST cDNA sequence was amplified from F. hepatica, followed by the preparation of recombinant protein GST (rFhGST). Then, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against rFhGST were prepared using the GST protein. Afterward, the immunolocalization of the target protein in the worm was observed via confocal microscopy, and it was found that the GST protein was localized in the uterus, intestinal tract, and body surface of F. hepatica. Finally, a double-antibody sandwich SA-ELISA based on the detection of circulating antigens was established. There was no cross-reaction with positive sera infected with Dicrocoelium lanceatum (D. lanceatum), Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus), Neospora caninum (N. caninum), or Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum). Forty serum and fecal samples from the same batch of sheep in Nong'an County, Changchun City, Jilin Province, China were analyzed using the established detection method and fecal detection method. The positive rate of the SA-ELISA was 17.5%, and the positive rate of the fecal detection method was 15%. The detection results of this method were 100% consistent with commercial ELISA kits. A total of 152 sheep serum samples were tested in Nong'an County, Changchun City, Jilin Province, and the positive rate was 5.92%. This study laid the foundation for the development of serological detection preparations for F. hepatica infection based on the detection of circulating antigens.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324715

RESUMO

The irrational utilization of an anionic electron often accompanies structural degradation with an irreversible cation migration process upon cycling in sodium-layered oxide cathodes. Moreover, the insufficient understanding of the anionic redox involved cation migration makes the design strategies of high energy density electrodes even less effective. Herein, a P3-Na0.67Li0.2Fe0.2Mn0.6O2 (P3-NLFM) cathode is proposed with the in-plane disordered Li distribution after an in-depth remolding of the Li ribbon-ordered P3-Na0.6Li0.2Mn0.8O2 (P3-NLM) layered oxide. The disordered Li sublattice in the transition metal slab of P3-NLFM leads to the dispersed |O2p orbitals, the lowered charge transfer gap, and the suppressed phase transition at high voltages. Then the enhanced Mn-O interaction and electronic stability are disclosed by the crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analysis at high voltage in P3-NLFM. Furthermore, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation suggests the order/disorder of the transition metal layer is highly correlated with the stability of the Li sublattice. The cross-layer migration and loss of Li in P3-NLM are suppressed in P3-NLFM to enable the high reversibility upon cycling. As a result, the P3-NLFM delivers a high capacity of 163 mAh g-1 without oxygen release and an enhanced capacity retention of 81.9% (vs 42.9% in P3-NLM) after 200 cycles, which constitutes a promising approach for sustainable oxygen redox in rechargeable batteries.

5.
Heliyon ; 10(2): e24765, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304830

RESUMO

The utilization of water energy through the Single Electrode Droplet-Based Electricity Generator (SE-DEG) represents a universal and high-efficiency method for water energy harvesting. Previous research has extensively elucidated the working principle of SE-DEG based on bulk effect. However, scant attention has been paid to the investigation of the electrical characteristics surrounding the SE-DEG. Remarkably, the electrical characteristics around the SE-DEG can be exploited to generate electricity and harvest corresponding energy. Here we evaluate the electrical characteristics around the SE-DEG by arranging extra electrodes. An interesting phenomenon is found that, on the premise of no contact between extra electrodes and the droplet, there is opposite electricity output from extra electrodes synchronously when the droplet contacts on the PTFE film and SE-DEG electrode and outputs the electricity. This phenomenon is comprehensively explained and verified from working mechanism, the impacts of different arrangements and the array design of extra electrodes. Significantly, utilizing the electrical characteristics could harvest additional kinetic energy with extra electrodes in SE-DEG. This investigation is expected to provide new insights into the future harnessing of water kinetic energy within the SE-DEG framework.

6.
Toxicol Sci ; 2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310363

RESUMO

Increasing environmental genotoxic chemicals have been shown to induce epigenetic alterations. However, the interaction between genetics and epigenetics in chemical carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. Here, we constructed an in vitro human lung carcinogenesis model (16HBE-T) by treating human bronchial epithelial cells with a typical significant carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We identified a novel circular RNA, circ0087385, which was overexpressed in 16HBE-T and human lung cancer cell lines, as well as in lung cancer tissues and serum exosomes from lung cancer patients. The upregulated circ0087385 after exposure to BaP promoted DNA damage in the early stage of chemical carcinogenesis and affected the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis of the malignantly transformed cells. Overexpression of circ0087385 enhanced the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), which is crucial for metabolically activating BaP. Interfering with circ0087385 or CYP1A1 reduced the levels of ultimate carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) and BPDE-DNA adducts. Interfering with CYP1A1 partially reversed the DNA damage induced by high expression of circ0087385, as well as decreased the level of BPDE and BPDE-DNA adducts. These findings provide novel insights into the interaction between epigenetics and genetics in chemical carcinogenesis which are crucial for understanding the epigenetic and genetic toxicity of chemicals.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1295478, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298813

RESUMO

Objective: To examine amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) combined with diffusion weighed (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI for early prediction of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive breast cancer. Materials: In this prospective study, 50 female breast cancer patients (49.58 ± 10.62 years old) administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were enrolled with MRI carried out both before NAC (T0) and at the end of the second cycle of NAC (T1). The patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor response according to the Miller-Payne Grading (MPG) system. Group 1 included patients with a greater degree of decrease in major histologic responder (MHR, Miller-Payne G4-5), while group 2 included non-MHR cases (Miller-Payne G1-3). Traditional imaging protocols (T1 weighted, T2 weighted, diffusion weighted, and DCE-MRI) and APTw imaging were scanned for each subject before and after treatment. APTw value (APTw0 and APTw1), Dmax (maximum diameter, Dmax0 and Dmax1), V (3D tumor volume, V0 and V1), and ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC0 and ADC1) before and after treatment, as well as changes between the two times points (ΔAPT, ΔDmax, ΔV, ΔADC) for breast tumors were compared between the two groups. Results: APT0 and APT1 values significantly differed between the two groups (p = 0.034 and 0.01). ΔAPTw values were significantly lower in non-MHR tumors compared with MHR tumors (p = 0.015). ΔDmax values were significantly higher in MHR tumors compared with non-MHR tumors (p = 0.005). ADC0 and ADC1 values were significantly higher in MHR tumors than in non-MHR tumors (p = 0.038 and 0.035). AUC (Dmax+DWI + APTw) = AUC (Dmax+APTw) > AUC (APTw) > AUC (Dmax+DWI) > AUC (Dmax). Conclusion: APTw imaging along with change of tumor size showed a significant potential in early prediction of MHR for NAC treatment in breast cancer, which might allow timely regimen refinement before definitive surgical treatment.

8.
J Med Screen ; : 9691413241228041, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Designing cancer screening trials for multi-cancer early detection (MCED) tests presents a significant methodology challenge, as natural histories of cell-free DNA-shedding cancers are not yet known. A microsimulation model was developed to project the performance and utility of an MCED test in cancer screening trials. METHODS: Individual natural history of preclinical progression through cancer stages for 23 cancer classes was simulated by a stage-transition model under a broad range of cancer latency parameters. Cancer incidences and stage distributions at clinical presentation in simulated trials were set to match the data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. One or multiple rounds of annual screening using a targeted methylation-based MCED test (GalleriⓇ) was conducted to detect preclinical cancers. Mortality benefit of early detection was simulated by a stage-shift model. RESULTS: In simulated trials, accounting for healthy volunteer effect and varying test sensitivity, positive predictive value in the prevalence screening round reached 48% to 61% in 6 natural history scenarios. After 3 rounds of annual screening, the cumulative proportions of stage I/II cancers increased by approximately 9% to 14%, the incidence of stage IV cancers was reduced by 37% to 46%, the reduction of stages III and IV cancer incidences was 9% to 24%, and the reduction of mortality reached 13% to 16%. Greater reductions of late-stage cancers and cancer mortality were achieved by five rounds of MCED screening. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation results guide trial design and suggest that adding this MCED test to routine screening in the United States may shift cancer detection to earlier stages, and potentially save lives.

9.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317579

RESUMO

Time scarcity has become one of the most ubiquitous phenomena in daily life worldwide. Five studies (total valid N = 1332) examined whether time scarcity elicits people's agentic orientation and dampens their communal orientation, thus increasing the likelihood of objectification towards others. Results suggested that people who perceived time scarcity were more likely to exhibit objectification towards others regardless of whether time scarcity was measured (Studies 1 and 3) or manipulated using either a scenario (Study 2a) or a recall task (Studies 2b and 4). Furthermore, agentic and communal orientations mediated the link between time scarcity and objectification (Studies 3 and 4). Additionally, the current research provided a nuanced understanding of these effects by differentiating the people being objectified into acquaintances and close friends (Study 2b) and by taking into consideration the trait-level prosociality of participants (Study 4). Results suggested that the effect persisted when people interacted with others who were close to them, and it was also applicable to people who were highly prosocial by nature. Overall, our findings highlighted the serious interpersonal consequence of time scarcity and highlighted the crucial role of value orientation in understanding this effect.

10.
Heliyon ; 10(3): e24671, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317973

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRs) play multiple roles during cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) progression. Previous studies suggest miR-124 could inhibit cancer development in CSCC. METHODS: Obtained 63 pairs of CSCC and adjacent tissues for analysis. Cultured HaCaT and two CSCC cell lines (A431 and SCL-1) in DMEM (10 % FBS). Transfected cells using Lipofectamine 2000 with various miR-124 mimics, inhibitors, or Snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAI2) expression plasmid. Performed a series of assays, including real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot, CCK8, wound healing, transwell, and luciferase reporter gene assay, to examine the effects of miR-124 on CSCC cells. RESULTS: An evident downregulation of miR-124 in CSCC tissues, which was related to advanced disease stage and nodal metastasis. Overexpressing miR-124 could reduce the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of CSCC cells. It was verified that miR-124 targets the SNAI2 in CSCC cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of SNAI2 rescued the suppressive effects on CSCC cells induced by miR-124 overexpression. Furthermore, miR-124 increased cell sensitivity to cisplatin. Besides, SNAI2 is a critical factor in the immune-related aspects of CSCC and its modulation may influence the response to immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that miR-124 inhibits CSCC progression through downregulating SNAI2, and thus it may be a molecular candidate for treating CSCC in the clinic.

11.
Opt Express ; 32(3): 3764-3778, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297590

RESUMO

For optical waveguides with a layered background which itself is a slab waveguide, a guided mode is a bound state in the continuum (BIC), if it coexists with slab modes propagating outwards in the lateral direction; i.e., there are lateral leakage channels. It is known that generic BICs in optical waveguides with lateral leakage channels are robust in the sense that they still exist if the waveguide is perturbed arbitrarily. However, the theory is not applicable to non-generic BICs which can be defined precisely. Near a BIC, the waveguide supports resonant and leaky modes with a complex frequency and a complex propagation constant, respectively. In this paper, we develop a perturbation theory to show that the resonant and leaky modes near a non-generic BIC have an ultra-high Q factor and ultra-low leakage loss, respectively. Recently, many authors studied merging-BICs in periodic structures through tuning structural parameters. It has been shown that resonant modes near a merging-BIC have an ultra-high Q factor. However, the existing studies on merging-BICs are concerned with specific examples and specific parameters. Moreover, we analyze an arbitrary structural perturbation given by δF(r) to waveguides supporting a non-generic BIC, where F(r) is the perturbation profile and δ is the amplitude, and show that the perturbed waveguide has two BICs for δ > 0 (or δ < 0) and no BIC for δ < 0 (or δ > 0). This implies that a non-generic BIC can be regarded as a merging-BIC (for almost any perturbation profile F) when δ is considered as a parameter. Our study indicates that non-generic BICs have interesting special properties that are useful in applications.

12.
Opt Lett ; 49(3): 550-553, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300056

RESUMO

Femtosecond laser filament-induced plasma spectroscopy (FIPS) demonstrates great potential in remote sensing for identifying atmospheric pollutant molecules. Due to the widespread aerosols in the atmosphere, remote detection based on FIPS would be affected by both the excitation and the propagation of fingerprint fluorescence, which still remain elusive. Here the physical model of filament-induced aerosol fluorescence is established to reveal the combined effect of Mie scattering and amplification spontaneous emission, which is subsequently proven by experimental results, the dependence of the backward fluorescence on the interaction length between filaments and aerosols. These findings provide an insight into the complicated aerosol effect in the overall physical process of FIPS including propagation, excitation, and emission, paving the way to its practical application in atmospheric remote sensing.

13.
Front Genet ; 15: 1277541, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38333620

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 3 (THRAP3) is of great significance in DNA damage response, pre-mRNA processing, and nuclear export. However, the biological activities of THRAP3 in pan-cancer remain unexplored. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of THRAP3 and validate its expression levels in lung cancer. Methods: A pan-cancer analysis was conducted to study the correlation of THRAP3 expression with clinical outcome and the tumor microenvironment based on the available bioinformatics databases. The protein levels of THRAP3 were explored in lung cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Single-cell sequencing (ScRNA-seq) analysis was employed to investigate the proportions of each cell type in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and adjacent normal tissues, along with the expression levels of THRAP3 within each cell type. Results: THRAP3 is upregulated in multiple cancer types but exhibits low expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). immunohistochemistry results showed that THRAP3 is a lowly expression in LUAD and LUSC. THRAP3 elevation had a poor prognosis in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma and a prolonged survival time in kidney chromophobe, brain lower-grade glioma and skin cutaneous melanoma, as indicated by the KM curve. Single-cell analysis confirmed that the proportions of T/B cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts were significantly elevated in LUAD tissues, and THRAP3 is specifically overexpressed in mast cells. Conclusion: Our findings uncover that THRAP3 is a promising prognostic biomarker and immunotherapeutic target in multiple cancers, but in LUAD and LUSC, it may be a protective gene.

14.
J Hepatol ; 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Men are more prone to develop and die from liver fibrosis than women. In this study, we aim to investigate how sex-determining region Y gene (SRY) in hepatocytes promotes liver fibrosis. METHODS: Hepatocyte-specific SRY knock-in (KI), SRY knockout (KO), and SRY KI with platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) KO mice were generated. Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by bile duct ligation (BDL) for 2 weeks or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment for 6 weeks. In addition, primary hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and immortalized cell lines were used for in vitro studies and mechanistic investigation. RESULTS: Similarly, male mice developed more severe toxin- or cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis than females in surgically castrated mice. Among all Y chromosome-encoded genes, SRY was the most significantly upregulated and consistently increased gene in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers in male patients and in mouse models. SRY KI mice developed exacerbated liver fibrosis, whereas SRY KO mice had alleviated liver fibrosis after BDL or administration of CCl4 than the age- and sex-matched control mice. Mechanistically, both our in vivo and in vitro studies illustrated that SRY in hepatocytes can transcriptionally regulate PDGFRα expression, and promote high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release and subsequent HSCs activation. Knockout of PDGFRα or treatment with the SRY inhibitor DAX1 in SRY KI mice abolished SRY-induced HMGB1 secretion and liver fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: SRY is a strong pro-fibrotic factor and accounts for the sex disparity of liver fibrosis, suggesting its critical role as a potentially sex-specific therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of the disease.

15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326520

RESUMO

The pathogenesis and development of Moyamoya disease are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of desmoglein-2 (DSG2) on Moyamoya disease and determine the inhibitory effect of DSG2 in vascular remodeling in Moyamoya disease.RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blotting were used to detect the expression of DSG2 in the superficial temporal artery (STA) tissues of Moyamoya disease. The association between DSG2 and endothelial cells' biological activities was investigated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), migration assay, tube formation assay, flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and TUNEL apoptotic cell detection kit. Pathways affected by overexpression or knockdown of DSG2 were identified in endothelial cells.The expression of DSG2 in the STA tissues of Moyamoya disease was lower than that in normal controls. Overexpression of DSG2 inhibits the proliferation and migration but promotes apoptosis in endothelial cells, and low DSG2 levels result in impaired angiogenesis. In addition, there was an interaction between DSG2 and MMP-9, and DSG2 acted through the PI3K signaling in endothelial cells.Our results indicate that DSG2 affects PI3K signaling in vascular endothelial cells, and MMP-9 is involved in DSG2-mediated vascular changes in Moyamoya disease.

16.
Heliyon ; 10(3): e24837, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314266

RESUMO

Background: Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) is a novel biomarker of growing interest in predicting stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate its predictive value and explore its effect modification on folic acid supplement for stroke primary prevention in a Chinese population with hypertension. Methods: A total of 10,013 participants from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial with available neutrophil, platelet and lymphocyte count were included, including 5,019 subjects in the enalapril group and 4,994 in the enalapril-folic acid group. SII was calculated as (platelet × neutrophil)/lymphocyte. The primary endpoint was first stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between SII and first stroke. Results: A U-shape association between SII and first stroke risk was observed in enalapril group. Compared with the reference group (Quartile 2: 335.1 to <443.9 × 109 cell/L), the adjusted HRs were 1.68 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.66, P = 0.027) in Quartile 1 (<335.1 × 109 cell/L), 1.43 (95 % CI: 0.90-2.27, P = 0.126) in Quartile 3 (443.9 to <602.6 × 109 cell/L), and 1.61 (95 % CI: 1.03-2.51, P = 0.035) in Quartile 4 (≥602.6 × 109 cell/L). There was no significant association between SII and first stroke in the enalapril-folic acid group, with adjusted HR of 0.92 (95%CI: 0.54-1.56, P = 0.749) in Quartile 1(<334.7 × 109 cell/L), 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.21, P = 0.208) in Quartile 3 (446.2 to <595.2 × 109 cell/L), and 1.41 (95%CI: 0.87-2.27, P = 0.163) in Quartile 4 (≥595.2 × 109 cell/L). A remarkable interaction between baseline SII and folic acid supplement for stroke prevention was observed, with particularly reduced risk by 44 % (HR: 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.34-0.90; P = 0.018) in the lowest SII group (P for interaction = 0.041). Conclusions: Among Chinese adults with hypertension, both low and high SII at baseline predicted increased first stroke risk. And compensatory folic acid particularly reduced first stroke risk in the lowest SII subgroup.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 363, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the global, regional, and national burden of liver cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases between 1990 and 2019, considering five etiologies (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol use, NAFLD and other causes), age, gender, and sociodemographic index (SDI). METHODS: Data on liver cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases mortality, incidence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were collected from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, liver cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases accounted for 1,472,011 (95% UI 1,374,608-1,578,731) deaths worldwide, compared to 1,012,975 (948,941-1,073,877) deaths in 1990. Despite an increase in absolute deaths, the age-standardized death rate declined from 24.43 (22.93-25.73) per 100,000 population in 1990 to 18.00 (19.31-16.80) per 100,000 population in 2019. Eastern sub-Saharan Africa exhibited the highest age-standardized death rate (44.15 [38.47-51.91] per 100,000 population), while Australasia had the lowest rate (5.48 [5.05-5.93] deaths per 100,000 population in 2019). The age-standardized incidence rate of liver cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases attributed to hepatitis B virus has declined since 1990, but incidence rates for other etiologies have increased. Age-standardized death and DALYs rates progressively decreased with higher SDI across different GBD regions and countries. Mortality due to liver cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases increased with age in 2019, and the death rate among males was estimated 1.51 times higher than that among females globally. CONCLUSION: Liver cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases continues to pose a significant global public health challenge. Effective disease control, prevention, and treatment strategies should account for variations in risk factors, age, gender, and regional disparities.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Morte Perinatal , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Hepatite C/complicações , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Incidência
18.
Biomark Res ; 12(1): 26, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355603

RESUMO

Systemic therapies using programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors have demonstrated commendable efficacy in some patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, other individuals do not respond favorably. Hence, identifying the biomarkers, the prognostic factors, and their underlying mechanisms is crucial. In this review, we summarized the latest advancements in this field. Within the tumor microenvironment, PD-L1 expression is commonly utilized to predict response. Moreover, the characteristics of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with the effectiveness of immunotherapy. Preclinical studies have identified stimulatory dendritic cells, conventional dendritic cells, and macrophages as potential biomarkers. The emergence of single-cell sequencing and spatial transcriptomics has provided invaluable insights into tumor heterogeneity through the lens of single-cell profiling and spatial distribution. With the widespread adoption of next-generation sequencing, certain genomic characteristics, including tumor mutational burden, copy number alterations, specific genes (TP53, CTNNB1, and GZMB), and signaling pathways (WNT/ß-catenin) have been found to correlate with prognosis. Furthermore, clinical features such as tumor size, number, and metastasis status have demonstrated prognostic value. Notably, common indicators such as the Child-Pugh score and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, which are used in patients with liver diseases, have shown potential. Similarly, commonly employed laboratory parameters such as baseline transforming growth factor beta, lactate dehydrogenase, dynamic changes in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and abnormal prothrombin, CRAFITY score (composed of C-reactive protein and AFP), and immune adverse events have been identified as predictive biomarkers. Novel imaging techniques such as EOB-MRI and PET/CT employing innovative tracers also have potential. Moreover, liquid biopsy has gained widespread use in biomarker studies owing to its non-invasive, convenient, and highly reproducible nature, as well as its dynamic monitoring capabilities. Research on the gut microbiome, including its composition, dynamic changes, and metabolomic analysis, has gained considerable attention. Efficient biomarker discovery relies on continuous updating of treatment strategies. Next, we summarized recent advancements in clinical research on HCC immunotherapy and provided an overview of ongoing clinical trials for contributing to the understanding and improvement of HCC immunotherapy.

19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(2): 28, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381414

RESUMO

Purpose: There are numerous reports of a distinctive maculopathy in adults exposed to pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), a drug prescribed to treat bladder discomfort associated with interstitial cystitis. We tested whether PPS treatment of mice injures RPE or retina to provide insight into the etiology of the human condition. Methods: Mice were fed PPS-supplemented chow over 14 months. RPE and retinal function was assessed by electroretinography (ERG) regularly. Following euthanasia, one eye was used for sagittal sectioning and histology, the contralateral for RPE flatmounting. ZO-1 positive RPE cell borders were imaged using confocal microscopy and cell morphology was analyzed using CellProfiler. Results: After 10 months of PPS treatment, we observed diminution of mean scotopic c-wave amplitudes. By 11 months, we additionally observed diminutions of mean scotopic a- and b-wave amplitudes. Analysis of flatmounts revealed altered RPE cell morphology and morphometrics in PPS-treated mice, including increased mean en face cell area and geometric eccentricity, decreased RPE cell solidity and extent, and cytosolic translocation of alpha-catenin, all markers of RPE cell stress. Sex and regional differences were seen in RPE flatmount measures. Shortened photoreceptor outer segments were also observed. Conclusions: PPS treatment reduced RPE and later retina function as measured by ERG, consistent with a primary RPE injury. Post-mortem analysis revealed extensive RPE pleomorphism and polymegathism and modest photoreceptor changes. We conclude that PPS treatment of mice causes slowly progressing RPE and photoreceptor damage and thus may provide a useful model for some retinal pathologies.


Assuntos
Poliéster Sulfúrico de Pentosana , Doenças Retinianas , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Retina , Eletrorretinografia , Causalidade
20.
Neurosci Lett ; 825: 137702, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral tissue biopsy in Parkinson's disease (PD) may be valuable for clinical care, biomarker validation, and as research enrollment criteria. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether submandibular gland pathologic alpha-synuclein (aSyn) density is symmetrical and whether previous needle biopsy caused tissue damage. METHODS: Thirty autopsy-confirmed PD cases having fixed submandibular gland tissue from one side and frozen submandibular gland tissue from the contralateral side were studied. Tissue was stained for phosphorylated aSyn and density (0-4 semiquantitative scale) was determined. Three previously biopsied cases were also assessed for tissue damage at subsequent autopsy. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 80.9 (5.5) years and disease duration 12.5 (9.3). Submandibular gland aSyn staining had a mean score of 2.13 for both the initially fixed and the initially frozen submandibular glands. The correlation between aSyn density of the two sides was r = 0.63. Correlation of aSyn density, in the originally fixed submandibular gland, with disease duration was good (r = 0.49, p =.006). No permanent tissue damage was found in the three previously biopsied cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study found good correlation between aSyn density in both submandibular glands of patients with PD and found no evidence of significant tissue damage in previously biopsied subjects.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...