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1.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 604, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037925

RESUMO

A novel ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based method was developed for the determination of hyaluronidase (HAase), which was based on hyaluronic acid-coated gold nanoparticles (HA-AuNPs) as a substrate, via a facile one-pot method. The detection mechanism is based on HAase which can hydrolyze HA on HA-AuNPs into hyaluronic acid oligomers, causing the originally uniformly dispersed HA-AuNPs to be disintegrated into many smaller HA-AuNPs. These oligomers in turn increase the surface shielding of AuNPs, resulting in high aggregation tendencies. As a result, the original SERS substrate was disassembled, leading to a weakening of the SERS signal at 1173 cm-1. Malachite green was also used as a Raman probe to detect the change of SERS peak intensity and to quantify HAase. Compared with other methods for the determination of HAase, this method is more convenient and efficient; its determination limit was 0.4 mU mL-1. The recoveries of HAase spiked into human urine samples ranged from 97.2 to 103.9%.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) have been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular effects, but its mechanism of protection against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who are under guideline-based therapy is not fully understood. Here, we used a metabolomic approach to systematically analyze the eicosanoid metabolites induced by ω-3 PUFA supplementation and investigated the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Participants with AMI after successful percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to 3 months of 2 g daily ω-3 PUFA and guideline-adjusted therapy (n = 30, ω-3 therapy) or guideline-adjusted therapy alone (n = 30, Usual therapy). Functional PUFA-derived eicosanoids in plasma were profiled by metabolomics. Clinical and laboratory tests were obtained before and 3 months after baseline and after the study therapy. RESULTS: By intent-to-treat analysis, the content of 11-HDoHE, 20-HDoHE and 16,17-EDP and that of epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs), derived from docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, respectively, were significantly higher with ω-3 group than Usual therapy, whereas that of prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) and leukotriene B4, derived from arachidonic acid, was significantly decreased. As compared with Usual therapy, ω-3 PUFA therapy significantly reduced levels of triglycerides (-6.3%, P < 0.05), apolipoprotein B (-4.9%, P < 0.05) and lipoprotein(a) (-37.0%, P < 0.05) and increased nitric oxide level (62.2%, P < 0.05). In addition, the levels of these variables were positively correlated with change in 16,17-EDP and EEQs content but negatively with change in PGJ2 content. CONCLUSIONS: ω-3 PUFA supplementation may improve lipid metabolism and endothelial function possibly by affecting eicosanoid metabolic status at a systemic level during convalescent healing after AMI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn. Unique identifier: ChiCTR1900025859.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046650

RESUMO

Influenza virus infections cause a wide variety of outcomes, from mild disease to 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness and ∼290,000 to 645,000 deaths annually worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying these disparate outcomes are currently unknown. Glycosylation within the human host plays a critical role in influenza virus biology. However, the impact these modifications have on the severity of influenza disease has not been examined. Herein, we profile the glycomic host responses to influenza virus infection as a function of disease severity using a ferret model and our lectin microarray technology. We identify the glycan epitope high mannose as a marker of influenza virus-induced pathogenesis and severity of disease outcome. Induction of high mannose is dependent upon the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, a pathway previously shown to associate with lung damage and severity of influenza virus infection. Also, the mannan-binding lectin (MBL2), an innate immune lectin that negatively impacts influenza outcomes, recognizes influenza virus-infected cells in a high mannose-dependent manner. Together, our data argue that the high mannose motif is an infection-associated molecular pattern on host cells that may guide immune responses leading to the concomitant damage associated with severity.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081467

RESUMO

Both Fe(III) and fatty acids are ubiquitous and important species in environmental waters. Because they are amphipathic, many fatty acids are surface active and prone to enrichment at the air-water interface. Here, we report that by using nonanoic acid (NA) as a model fatty acid, coexisting Fe(III), even at concentrations as low as 1 µM, markedly enhanced the photochemical release of NA-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as octanal and octane into the air. Further studies indicated that the surface-enriched fatty acids dramatically increase the local concentration of Fe(III) at the water surface, which enables Fe(III)-mediated photochemical reactions to take place at the air-water interface, and the VOCs facilely produced by fatty acid photooxidation can then be released into the air. Moreover, the product distribution in the Fe(III)-mediated reactions was largely different from that in other photochemical systems, and a mechanism based on photochemical decarboxylation is proposed. Considering that the coexistence of fatty acids and Fe(III) in the environment is common, the enhanced photochemical release of VOCs by surface-enriched fatty acids and Fe(III) may be an important channel for the atmospheric emission of VOCs, which are known to play an essential role in the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols.

6.
PeerJ ; 8: e9946, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083112

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors among women worldwide and has a high morbidity and mortality. This research aimed to identify hub genes and small molecule drugs for breast cancer by integrated bioinformatics analysis. After downloading multiple gene expression datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, 283 overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly enriched in different cancer-related functions and pathways were obtained using LIMMA, VennDiagram and ClusterProfiler packages of R. We then analyzed the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network with overlapping DEGs and further obtained six hub genes (RRM2, CDC20, CCNB2, BUB1B, CDK1, and CCNA2) from the network via STRING and Cytoscape. Subsequently, we conducted genes expression verification, genetic alterations evaluation, immune infiltration prediction, clinicopathological parameters analysis, identification of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory molecules, and survival analysis for these hub genes. Meanwhile, 29 possible drug candidates (e.g., Cladribine, Gallium nitrate, Alvocidib, 1ß-hydroxyalantolactone, Berberine hydrochloride, Nitidine chloride) were identified from the DGIdb database and the GSE85871 dataset. In addition, some transcription factors and miRNAs (e.g., E2F1, PTTG1, TP53, ZBTB16, hsa-miR-130a-3p, hsa-miR-204-5p) targeting hub genes were identified as key regulators in the progression of breast cancer. In conclusion, our study identified six hub genes and 29 potential drug candidates for breast cancer. These findings may advance understanding regarding the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer.

7.
J Proteome Res ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084340

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has impacted a large portion of the world population. From a virus genetic perspective, a recent study described what genomic data revealed about the origin and emergence of SARS-CoV-2, proposing stronger action against illegal wildlife trade. In the current "big data" era, an increasing number of large-scale, multidimensional omics data sets were publicly available. Herein, we review how human genetics tells us about the transmission, pathogenesis, susceptibility, severity, and drug prioritization of COVID-19. We further drafted a genetic roadmap of COVID-19, which was also expected to be applicable to other viruses with known receptors. Our review provides insights into the way of understanding a pandemic from a human genetic perspective.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4834, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004794

RESUMO

Atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs) influence global climate by altering cloud formation, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency. The role of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material as a source of INPs in the ambient atmosphere has not been well defined. Here, we demonstrate the potential for biogenic SOA to activate as depositional INPs in the upper troposphere by combining field measurements with laboratory experiments. Ambient INPs were measured in a remote mountaintop location at -46 °C and an ice supersaturation of 30% with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 70 L-1. Concentrations of depositional INPs were positively correlated with the mass fractions and loadings of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols. Compositional analysis of ice residuals showed that ambient particles with isoprene-derived SOA material can act as depositional ice nuclei. Laboratory experiments further demonstrated the ability of isoprene-derived SOA to nucleate ice under a range of atmospheric conditions. We further show that ambient concentrations of isoprene-derived SOA can be competitive with other INP sources. This demonstrates that isoprene and potentially other biogenically-derived SOA materials could influence cirrus formation and properties.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Butadienos/análise , Hemiterpenos/análise , Gelo/análise , Clima
10.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 81: 12-17, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain iron disequilibrium and dopaminergic dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). Rep1 polymorphism in the promotor region of SNCA is associated with risk of Parkinson's disease, however its association with RLS and iron status is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SNCA-Rep1 polymorphism in RLS and its phenotypes. METHODS: We recruited RLS patients as well as age and gender matched healthy controls. Demographic information and clinical features of RLS were recorded. Laboratory examinations were performed to exclude possible secondary causes. RESULTS: 215 RLS patients and 369 healthy controls were included. We found that the Rep1 allele 0 homozygosity significantly decreased RLS risk (OR: 0.345; P < 0.0001, and remained significant after the Bonferroni correction). Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that longer Rep1 alleles were associated with increased susceptibility to iron deficiency (53.0% vs 36.1%, P = 0.017), however had no phenotypic significant effects on age, gender, onset age, duration, RLS family history, severity, laterality, extra body involvement and seasonal fluctuation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed long Rep1 allele was associated with higher risk of iron deficiency in RLS after adjusting for potential confounding factors. In detail, Rep1 allele 2 homozygosity was prone to a higher risk of peripheral iron deficiency in RLS (OR: 4.550, P = 0.006, remained significant after the Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSION: The SNCA-Rep1 variability modified RLS risk and influenced peripheral iron deficiency in this group of Chinese RLS patients. Rep1 allele 0 homozygosity decreased the risk of RLS, while homozygous allele 2 increased the risk of nonanemic iron deficiency in RLS.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 19628-19640, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049710

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of second primary cancer among female breast cancer (BC) survivors, with emphasis on the prediction of the individual risk conditioned on the patient's characteristics. We identified 208,474 BC patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Subdistribution proportional hazard model and competing-risk nomogram were used to explore the risk factors of second primary BC and non-BC, and to predict the 5- and 10-year probabilities of second primary BC. Model performance was evaluated via calibration curves and decision curve analysis. The overall 3-, 5-, and 10-year cumulative incidences for second primary BC were 0.9%, 1.6% and 4.4%, and for second primary non-BC were 2.3%, 3.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Age over 70 years at diagnosis, black race, tumor size over 2 cm, negative hormone receptor, mixed histology, localized tumor, lumpectomy alone, and surgeries plus radiotherapy were significantly associated with increased risk of second BC. The risk of second non-BC was only related to age, race and tumor size. The proposed risk model as well as its nomogram was clinically beneficial to identify patients at high risk of developing second primary breast cancer.

12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 438, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059752

RESUMO

Lineage tracing is the most widely used technique to track the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of specific cells in vivo. The currently available gene-targeting technologies have been developing for decades to study organogenesis, tissue injury repairing, and tumor progression by tracing the fates of individual cells. Recently, lineage tracing has expanded the platforms available for disease model establishment, drug screening, cell plasticity research, and personalized medicine development in a molecular and cellular biology perspective. Lineage tracing provides new views for exploring digestive organ development and regeneration and techniques for digestive disease causes and progression. This review focuses on the lineage tracing technology and its application in digestive diseases.

13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1134: 34-40, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059864

RESUMO

Urinary 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) is a marker for diagnosis of patients with carcinoid tumors. In clinical practice, a simple colorimetric assay has widely been utilized for urinary 5-HIAA via its reaction with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (NNa) in nitrous acid medium. However, this colorimetric assay has been criticized for lack of specificity. Herein, we proposed a novel SERS-based method for selective detection of urinary 5-HIAA by the use of a modified nitrosonaphthol reaction, in which hydrochloric acid is substituted for nitric acid to control the reaction conditions. This slight modification is crucial to be able to detect the cationic products in the acidic reaction mixture, because the chloride-aggregated Ag colloids not only create enormous hot spots for SERS enhancement, but also improve the chemical stability of nanostructured Ag substrates in acidic environment. Under optimized conditions, the present method can detect 5-HIAA within 12 min at concentrations as low as 1.2 ng/mL, which is 1000 times lower than that of conventional colorimetric method. And more importantly, the present method exhibits specific response toward 5-HIAA against other metabolites with similar structures in the urine. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the present method is less than 5%, suggesting the acceptable reproducibility. The recoveries ranging from 89.6% to 106.3% were obtained for spiked human urine samples with RSD of 3.7-4.9%. Furthermore, several healthy person's urine samples were also analyzed using the present method, and experimental results are in compliance with the levels recorded in a healthy population. On the basis of these results we can conclude that the present SERS-based method can provide a valuable alternative to conventional colorimetric assay for clinical diagnosis, evaluating prognosis, and monitoring of treatment in carcinoid tumors.

14.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-4, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many reports on the role of the malleus handle in ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR). However, the effect of the presence of the malleus handle is not clear. AIM/OBJECTIVES: To compare the hearing outcomes of using a partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) to reconstruct the ossicular chain under otoendoscopy with and without a malleus handle. METHODS: Records of 57 patients requiring OCR were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into the malleus handle-present group (group 1) and the malleus handle-absent group (group 2). The audiometric results were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. A postoperative air-bone gap (ABG)≤20 dB was considered successful. RESULTS: The mean improvement in air conduction hearing thresholds was 19.80 dB in group 1 and 16.70 dB in group 2. The mean ABG improvement was 18.09 ± 12.79 dB for group 1 and 17.20 ± 16.44 dB for group 2. The malleus handle-present group achieved higher success (65.63%) than the malleus handle-absent group (52%; p> .05). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Improvements in hearing outcomes were similar for the two groups. However, the malleus handle-present group showed a better reconstruction success rate. Our results suggest that if there is no lesion in the malleus handle, it is recommended to be retained.

15.
Fertil Steril ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between couples' prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and time to pregnancy (TTP) among those with no prior gravidity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Local maternal/child health care or family-planning service institutions. PATIENT(S): A total of 2,301,782 eligible couples participating in the National Free Preconception Check-up Projects from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Time to pregnancy. RESULT(S): Underweight, overweight, or obese status in women and underweight status in men were associated with couples' prolonged TTP. The optimal BMI levels were 20.61-23.06 kg/m2 and 22.69-27.74 kg/m2 for women and men, respectively. Compared with couples in whom both partners had a normal BMI, the pregnancy rates were reduced by 10% (fecundability odds ratio [FOR] 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.92) and 19% (FOR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.78-0.84) for couples in whom both partners were underweight or obese, respectively. The combination of women with a normal BMI and overweight men had the greatest fertility (FOR 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03), and the combination of obese women and underweight men had the lowest fertility (FOR 0.70; 95% CI, 0.65-0.76). CONCLUSION(S): Abnormal prepregnancy BMIs in either women or men were associated with prolonged TTP among couples with no prior gravidity. Scientific management of couples' prepregnancy BMI could improve their fertility.

16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 469, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecological environments shape plant architecture and alter the growing season, which provides the basis for wheat genetic improvement. Therefore, understanding the genetic basis of grain yield and yield-related traits in specific ecological environments is important. RESULTS: A structured panel of 96 elite wheat cultivars grown in the High-yield zone of Henan province in China was genotyped using an Illumina iSelect 90 K SNP assay. Selection pressure derived from ecological environments of mountain front and plain region provided the initial impetus for population divergence. This determined the dominant traits in two subpopulations (spike number and spike percentage were dominance in subpopulation 2:1; thousand-kernel weight, grain filling rate (GFR), maturity date (MD), and fertility period (FP) were dominance in subpopulation 2:2), which was also consistent with their inheritance from the donor parents. Genome wide association studies identified 107 significant SNPs for 12 yield-related traits and 10 regions were pleiotropic to multiple traits. Especially, GY was co-located with MD/FP, GFR and HD at QTL-ple5A, QTL-ple7A.1 and QTL-ple7B.1 region. Further selective sweep analysis revealled that regions under selection were around QTLs for these traits. Especially, grain yield (GY) is positively correlated with MD/FP and they were co-located at the VRN-1A locus. Besides, a selective sweep signal was detected at VRN-1B locus which was only significance to MD/FP. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that extensive differential in allele frequency driven by ecological selection has shaped plant architecture and growing season during yield improvement. The QTLs for yield and yield components detected in this study probably be selectively applied in molecular breeding.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5130, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046702

RESUMO

Adenosine Deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that catalyze adenosine to inosine conversion in dsRNA, a common form of RNA editing. Mutations in the human ADAR1 gene are known to cause disease and recent studies have identified ADAR1 as a potential therapeutic target for a subset of cancers. However, efforts to define the mechanistic effects for disease associated ADAR1 mutations and the rational design of ADAR1 inhibitors are limited by a lack of structural information. Here, we describe the combination of high throughput mutagenesis screening studies, biochemical characterization and Rosetta-based structure modeling to identify unique features of ADAR1. Importantly, these studies reveal a previously unknown zinc-binding site on the surface of the ADAR1 deaminase domain which is important for ADAR1 editing activity. Furthermore, we present structural models that explain known properties of this enzyme and make predictions about the role of specific residues in a surface loop unique to ADAR1.

18.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 414, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is now seen as a significant factor in older people with diabetes, whose mortality and disability increased. This study aims to investigate the association between calf circumference (CC) with frailty in diabetic adults aged over 80 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the data of 426 diabetic adults aged over 80 years. On admission, demographic data and laboratory parameters were recorded. CC was measured on the lower right leg at the point of the maximal circumference. All participants accepted frailty assessments. Frailty was mainly defined using the Fried frailty phenotype criteria. RESULTS: The CC levels were significantly lower in the frail than the non-frail (26.7 ± 4.0 vs. 31.2 ± 4.0, P < 0.001). CC was negatively correlated with the Fried frailty phenotype index (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis of frailty revealed that age (Odds Ratio (OR), 1.368; 95% Confidential Interval (CI) 1.002-1.869; P = 0.049), CC (OR, 0.756; 95%CI 0.598-0.956; P = 0.019) were independent impact factors of frailty after adjusting all the potential confounders. Participants with low CC tertile had a significantly higher Fried frailty phenotype index than those with high CC tertiles. The best CC cut-off value for predicting frailty was 29.3 cm, its sensitivity was 75.0%, and the specificity was 78.6%, and areas under the curve (AUC) was 0.786 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CC was strongly related to frailty in diabetic adults aged over 80 years, suggesting that CC may be helpful for monitoring physical frailty in older adults in clinical and research settings.

19.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077360

RESUMO

Quorum sensing (QS) exists in bacteria to communicate with each other and regulate group behaviors in a cell density-dependent manner, which uses signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) to intra- and inter-species communication. Effects of exogenous AI-2 on biofilm formation and environmental tolerance in Lactobacillus plantarum are the focus of this review. The responses to the exogenous AI-2 cross multiple physiological metabolic behaviors involving the bacteria growth, morphological characterization, biofilm development, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) amount and related genes expression as well as the environmental stresses tolerance. The cell surface was smoother in the AI-2 supplemented treatments than without AI-2. Meanwhile, AI-2 had ability to promote the growth and formation of biofilm by increasing the yield of EPS, the main components of biofilm. The changes in lamC and ftsH gene expression point to altered regulation for hydrolysis process of polysaccharides as well as the potential for enhanced biofilm formation. The presence of AI-2 also significantly improved (p < 0.01) the tolerance of bile salts in L. plantarum, but the same results did not appear in acid tolerance. In conclusion, AI-2 supplementation could improve the biofilm formation and bile salts tolerance in L. plantarum, and this effect was likely modulated by facilitating EPS production and suppression polysaccharides hydrolysis.

20.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078805

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore the hepatoprotective potential of coix seed protein hydrolysates (CPP) against alcohol-induced liver injury, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. The hepatoprotective activity of CPP at 0, 10, 30, 50 mg per kg BW was demonstrated in vivo by using ICR male mice fed with 40% v/v alcohol (5 ml per kg body weight) daily to induce alcoholic liver injury. CPP could significantly improve the alcohol metabolism in liver as evidenced by the enhanced activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The overexpression of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-ß (IL-ß) by alcohol induced injury was altered by CPP administration. The lipid peroxidation was also retarded by CPP by suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increasing the activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD). The findings from the present study suggested that CPP produced significant hepatoprotection and showed potential to be used as a dietary supplement or the ingredient of functional food.

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