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1.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(8): 554-9, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) on intracellular Raf/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/ ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)/ cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signal pathway in the hippocampus of depression model rats, so as to explore its anti-depressive mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, auricular EA, PD98059(ERK inhibitor), DMSO (Dimethylsulfoxide), PD98059+EA groups (n=10 in each group). The rats in the control group were fed with normal diet without any treatment. The depression model was induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for consecutive 21 days. EA (20 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to bilateral auricular "Xin"(Heart) and "Shenmen" for 30 min, once daily for 28 days. Rats of the PD98059, DMSO and PD98059+EA groups received intracerebroventricular injection of PD98059(100 µmol/L), DMSO and PD98059 (dissolved by DMSO) solutions (5 µL/d), respectively, once daily for 28 days. Sucrose preference test (sucrose consumption) was conducted at the baseline, before and after the intervention. The expression of hippocampal Raf, phosphorylated (p)-Raf, ERK, p-ERK, RSK, CREB and p-CREB proteins were detected by Western blot after EA intervention. RESULTS: Following modeling, the sucrose consumption volume, and the expression levels of hippocampal Raf, p-Raf, ERK, p-ERK, RSK, CREB, p-CREB proteins were significantly lower in the model group than those in the control group (P<0.01). Following the treatment, the sucrose consumption and the expression levels of Raf, p-Raf, ERK, p-ERK, RSK, CREB, p-CREB in the auricular EA group and those of p-Raf, ERK and CREB in the PD98059+EA group were obviously increased in comparison with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01), the expression level of p-ERK in the PD98059 group was obviously decreased in comparison with the model group (P<0.05), suggesting an improvement of depression after auricular EA. Compared with auricular EA group, the expression level of p-ERK, p-CREB and RSK in the PD98059+EA group were significantly decreased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA of auricular "Xin" and "Shenmen" is able to improve depression in depression rats, which is probably related to its effect in promoting activities of hippocampal Raf/ERK/RSK/CREB signaling.

2.
Apoptosis ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485878

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, with consequent severe insulin deficiency. Thus, ß-cell protection may be a primary target in the treatment of T1DM. Evidence has demonstrated that defective mitochondrial function plays an important role in pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction and apoptosis; however, the fundamental effect of mitochondrial complex I action on ß-cells and T1DM remains unclear. In the current study, the pancreas protective effect of complex I inhibitor rotenone (ROT) and its potential mechanism were assessed in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of T1DM and in cultured mouse pancreatic ß-cell line, Min6. ROT treatment exerted a hypoglycemic effect, restored the insulin level, and decreased inflammation and cell apoptosis in the pancreas. In vitro experiments also showed that ROT decreased STZ- and inflammatory cytokines-induced ß-cell apoptosis. These protective effects were accompanied by attenuation of reactive oxygen species, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and upregulation of transcriptional coactivator PPARα coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-controlled mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings suggest that mitochondrial complex I inhibition may represent a promising strategy for ß-cell protection in T1DM.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485948

RESUMO

In recent years, BRICS countries have attached great importance to renewable energy development and actively promoted the shift of economic structure towards service industry, in order to achieve the decoupling of economic development from carbon emissions. However, relevant studies mostly neglect the cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity issues, which may cause biased results. Therefore, this paper selects the panel data of BRICS countries during 1996-2017 and employs the common correlated effects mean group (CCEMG) method, which are based on the cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity assumptions, to explore the influence of renewable energy consumption and service industry development on CO2 emissions in BRICS countries. Besides, we also use the random effects model and pooled estimated generalized least squares model, as well as fully modified OLS model for comparison. The results indicate that enhancing the proportion of renewable energy consumption in the total energy consumption is an effective measure to reduce CO2 emissions in BRICS countries. Moreover, the steadily rising contribution of service industry to economic growth in BRICS countries during the sample period does not necessarily contribute to reduce CO2 emissions.

4.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486693

RESUMO

Background: Inner gene therapy offers great promises as a potential treatment for hearing loss. Aims/objectives: One of the critical determinants of the success of inner ear gene therapy is to find a delivery method which results in consistent transduction efficiency of targeted cell types while minimizing hearing loss. Material and methods: Surgery was performed only in the right ear of each Bama miniature pig, and the left ear served as a control. The gene delivery to inner ear via round window membrane (RWM) and posterior semicircular canal (PSC) approach was performed with the viral vector AAV1-CMV-GFP. Results: The gene delivery through RWM and the PSC (canalostomy) is able to perfuse the inner ear. Conclusions and significance: The easy anatomic identification of the PSC, as to RWM, as well as minimal manipulation of the temporal bone required, make this surgical approach an attractive option for inner ear gene delivery in big animal model.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109612, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476450

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are small plastic pieces with size less than 5 mm that have entered and polluted the environment. While many investigations including several critical reviews on MPs in the environment have been conducted, most of them are focused on their occurrences in marine environment. Current understanding on the occurrences, behaviors, and impacts of MPs in the terrestrial environment is far from complete. A systematic review of the literature was thus conducted to promote the research on MPs in the environment. This work is designed to provide a comprehensive overview that summarizes current knowledge and research findings on environmental occurrences, fate and transport, and impacts of MPs. In addition to discussing the occurrences, characteristics, and sources of MPs in the ocean, freshwater, sediments, soils, and atmosphere, the review also summarizes both the experimental and modeling data of the environmental fate and transport of MPs. Research findings on the toxic effects, bioaccumulation, and bioavailability of MPs in the environment are also covered in this critical review. Future perspectives are discussed as well.

6.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(8): 571-577, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether low calf circumference (CC) could predict nutritional risk and the cutoff values of CC for predicting nutritional risk in hospitalized patients aged ⪖ 80 years. METHODS: A total of 1,234 consecutive patients aged ⪖ 80 years were enrolled in this study. On admission, demographic data, CC, and laboratory parameters were obtained. Patients with Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) total score ⪖ 3 were considered as having nutritional risk. RESULTS: CC values were significantly lower in patients with nutritional risk compared to those in patients without nutritional risk [27.00 (24.50-31.00) vs. 31.00 (29.00-33.50], P < 0.001]. CC was negatively correlated with age and nutritional risk scores. Logistic regression analysis of nutritional risk revealed that body mass index, albumin level, hemoglobin level, cerebral infarction, neoplasms, and CC (OR, 0.897; 95% confidence interval, 0.856-0.941; P < 0.001) were independent impact factors of nutritional risk. Nutritional risk scores increased with a decrease in CC. In men, the best CC cutoff value for predicting nutritional risk according to the NRS-2002 was 29.75 cm. In women, the cutoff value was 28.25 cm. CONCLUSION: CC is a simple, noninvasive, and valid anthropometric measure to predict nutritional risk for hospitalized patients aged ⪖ 80 years.

7.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488510

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular protozoan parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa. The parasite repeatedly goes through a cycle of invasion, division and induction of host cell rupture, which is an obligatory process for proliferation inside warm-blooded animals. It is known that the biology of the parasite is controlled by a variety of mechanisms ranging from genomic to epigenetic to transcriptional regulation. In this study, we investigated the global protein posttranslational lysine crotonylation and 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation of two T. gondii strains, RH and ME49, which represent distinct phenotypes for proliferation and pathogenicity in the host. Proteins with differential expression and modification patterns associated with parasite phenotypes were identified. Many proteins in T. gondii were crotonylated and 2-hydroxyisobutyrylated, and they were localized in diverse subcellular compartments involved in a wide variety of cellular functions such as motility, host invasion, metabolism and epigenetic gene regulation. These findings suggest that lysine crotonylation and 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation are ubiquitous throughout the T. gondii proteome, regulating critical functions of the modified proteins. These data provide a basis for identifying important proteins associated with parasite development and pathogenicity.

8.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110182, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481196

RESUMO

Lesion mimic mutants are ideal genetic materials to study programmed cell death and defense signaling in plants. However, the molecular basis of lesion mimic formation remains largely unknown. Here, we first used a proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins during dynamic lesion mimic formation in the rice oscul3a mutant, then electron microscope observation and physiological assays were used to analyze the mutant. The oscul3a mutant had disrupted cell metabolism balance, and the identified differentially expressed proteins were mainly located in the chloroplast and cytoplasm, which caused enhanced lipid metabolism, but suppressed carbon/nitrogen metabolism with reduced growth and grain quality. The oscul3a mutant had higher salicylic acid (SA) concentration in leaves, and H2O2 was shown to accumulate late in the formation of lesions. The secondary metabolite coumarin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and had rice blast resistance activity. Moreover, the cell death initiated lesion mimic formation of oscul3a mutant was light-sensitive, which might be associated with metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation. This study sheds light on the metabolic transition associated with cell death and defense response, which is under tight regulation by OsCUL3a and metabolism-related proteins, and the newly identified chemicals in the secondary metabolic pathway can potentially be used to control disease in crop plants.

9.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 3231-3238, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373232

RESUMO

RAS mutations are frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, targeting RAS or the downstream/upstream effectors, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), has been proved to be difficult. Here, we found that the stemness of KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells but not the KRAS-wild type NSCLC cells was promoted by TKIs treatment, as evident by the increase of ALDH1 activity, stemness marker expression and spheroid formation ability. Notably, SHP2 activation was found in KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells with TKIs treatment, as judged by the increase of tyrosine 542 phosphorylation (pSHP2 Y542), which activates the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway. On the contrary, inhibition of MEK was followed by a SHP2 activation in KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells. Additionally, inhibition of SHP2 attenuates the enhanced stemness of KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells induced by TKIs, characterized by decreasing ALDH1 activity, stemness marker expression and spheroid formation capacity, while had little effects on cell viability. Finally, we revealed that SHP2 inhibitor increased the sensitivity of TKIs and chemotherapy, which was potentiated by MEK inhibition. Our results suggest a possibility of using a combination of SHP2 inhibitor and TKIs for KRAS-mutant NSCLC treatment.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10139-10145, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389234

RESUMO

Heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on mineral dust is a significant source of sulfate in the atmosphere. Given that a large fraction of nitrate is deposited on the mineral aerosols, the determination of the effect of nitrate on the SO2 oxidation on mineral dust and its in-depth mechanism are much desired. In this work, we report nitrate-enhanced SO2 oxidation on authentic mineral dust. By comparing the SO2 uptake behaviors on Arizona test dust (ATD, a typical proxy of mineral dust) with or without nitrate, we found that although nitrate hinders the initial SO2 uptake, it substantially accelerates SO2 uptake and oxidation after a pronounced induction period. In other words, a hindering-then-accelerating feature in the SO2 uptake profile was observed on nitrate-containing ATD (N-ATD) particles. In addition, HONO was released in the accelerating period as the reduction product of nitrate. The accumulation of protons (H+) from SO2 oxidation during the induction period plays a key role in the acceleration of SO2 oxidation. Our work suggests that the nitrate-participating SO2 oxidation on mineral dust can be one of the important contributions of the sulfate source in the atmosphere.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425099

RESUMO

Asymmetric tensor fields have found applications in many science and engineering domains, such as fluid dynamics. Recent advances in the visualization and analysis of 2D asymmetric tensor fields focus on pointwise analysis of the tensor field and effective visualization metaphors such as colors, glyphs, and hyperstreamlines. In this paper, we provide a novel multi-scale topological analysis framework for asymmetric tensor fields on surfaces. Our multi-scale framework is based on the notions of eigenvalue and eigenvector graphs. At the core of our framework are the identification of atomic operations that modify the graphs and the scale definition that guides the order in which the graphs are simplified to enable clarity and focus for the visualization of topological analysis on data of different sizes. We also provide efficient algorithms to realize these operations. Furthermore, we provide physical interpretation of these graphs. To demonstrate the utility of our system, we apply our multi-scale analysis to data in computational fluid dynamics.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a non-persistent endocrine-disrupting chemical with nearly ubiquitous, involuntary exposure. Previous studies have shown that BPA causes reproductive dysfunction in animal models, but there are limited data regarding the effects of BPA exposure on time to pregnancy (TTP) in humans. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether peri-conceptional BPA exposure of women and men is associated with couples' TTP. METHODS: A total of 164 heterosexual couples (164 women; 163 men) who have available BPA information as well as time to pregnancy from the Home Observation of Peri-conceptional Exposures (HOPE) Study were included and were followed up to 12 months. Women collected first-morning urine samples starting at the beginning of the fertile window and continued until the onset of menses or 18 days after the estimated day of ovulation (EDO+18 days). The time to pregnancy (TTP) after the enrolment was self-reported and used for the analysis. Discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models were performed to generate fecundability odds ratio (FOR) between BPA and TTP after adjusting for education and age, accounting for right censoring and prior number of cycles trying to conceive. RESULTS: Among 164 couples, 125 couples became pregnant during the study. There was no association between TTP and peri-conceptional BPA exposure for both men (FOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.72, 1.47) and women (FOR 1.07, 95% CI 0.75, 1.53) after adjusting for education and age. CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between peri-conceptional BPA exposure and fecundability in this preconception cohort of relatively young, healthy pregnancy planners.

13.
Cell Signal ; 63: 109384, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394193

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a metabolism-related cell death. Stimulating ferroptosis in liver cancer cells is a strategy to treat liver cancer. However, how to eradicate liver cancer cells through ferroptosis and the obstacles to inducing ferroptosis in liver cancer remain unclear. Here, we observed that erastin suppressed the malignant phenotypes of liver cancer cells by inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation of c-Jun and further inhibited protein expression, transcription activity and nuclear accumulation of c-Jun. Overexpression of c-Jun-WT with simultaneous PuGNAc treatment conversely inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, whereas overexpression of c-Jun-WT alone or overexpression of c-Jun-S73A (a non-O-GlcNAcylated form of c-Jun) with PuGNAc treatment did not exert a similar effect. GSH downregulation induced by erastin was restored by overexpression of c-Jun-WT with simultaneous PuGNAc treatment. In addition, overexpression of c-Jun-WT, but not its S73A mutant, induced PSAT1 and CBS transcription via directly binding to their promoter regions, suggesting that GSH synthesis is regulated by O-GlcNAcylated c-Jun. A positive correlation between c-Jun O-GlcNAcylation and GSH was observed in clinical samples. Collectively, O-GlcNAcylated c-Jun represents an obstructive factor to ferroptosis, and targeting O-GlcNAcylated c-Jun might be helpful for treating liver cancer.

14.
Pharmacol Res ; 147: 104387, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408695

RESUMO

Topotecan (TPT), a semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin, has been used in cancer chemotherapy, but side effects and drug resistance limit its clinical application. Daidzein (DAI), a natural isoflavone and bioactive food component widely existing in fruits, nuts, soybeans and soy-based products, is a type of phytoestrogen. Combination treatment with DAI and TPT showed a strong synergistic effect on tumor cells, with a 0.10˜0.66 combined index, by increasing TPT inhibition on Topo Ⅰ, resulting in more cells arresting at the G2/M phase and inducing more cells to undergo apoptosis. In addition, the resistance of MCF7/ADR cells to TPT was reversed (the resistance index decreased from 7.17 to 0.77) by inhibiting the expression of ERα and BCRP to increase TPT accumulation intracellularly. Moreover, the combination of DAI and TPT showed a stronger inhibitory effect (P < 0.01) on tumor growth in both MCF7 and MCF7/ADR xenograft models than the 9 mg/kg TPT monotherapy group. Our results may provide a reasonable, new approach to develop safe and efficient nutrition components from foods for breast cancer combination treatment.

15.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433832

RESUMO

A decreased number of CD4+ T cells is a major feature of HIV infection. Here we detected high CD54 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected individuals, and demonstrate that upregulated CD54 is associated with disease progression in individuals infected with HIV. We also show that CD54 expression leads to the killing of CD4+ T cells by NK cells in vitro, and that this is modulated by NF-κB/p65 signaling. Further, we demonstrate that metformin can suppress CD54 expression on CD4+ T cells by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation; thus, our data suggest that further studies to evaluate the potential role of metformin as adjunctive therapy to reconstitute immune function in HIV-infected individuals are warranted.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(33): 13043-13048, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381311

RESUMO

The synthetically challenging, diverse chemical skeletons and promising biological profiles of the Daphniphyllum alkaloids have generated intense interest from the synthetic chemistry community. Herein, the first and enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-caldaphnidine O, a complex bukittinggine-type Daphniphyllum alkaloid, is described. The key transformations in this concise approach included an intramolecular aza-Michael addition, a ring expansion reaction sequence, a Sm(II)/Fe(III)-mediated Kagan-Molander coupling, and the rapid formation of the entire hexacyclic ring skeleton of the target molecule via a radical cyclization cascade reaction, which was inspired by an unexpected radical detosylation observed in our recent dapholdhamine B synthesis.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dislocation of shoulder joint is the most prone to occurrence in all joints of human body, which is common in young people and has a high recurrence rate. It is mainly treated by conservative treatment. External rotation and internal rotation fixation are 2 common conservative therapies in clinical practice. Therefore, we conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the 2 treatments. METHODS: Nine electronic databases, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov, CNKI, Wanfang Database and VIP Database, will be searched to find and include randomized controlled trials that meet inclusion criteria. RevMan5.3 will be used for data analysis and synthesis in this study. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will also be performed if necessary. In addition, GRADE will be used in the evaluation of evidence hierarchy. RESULTS: This study will analyze and integrate the original evidence so far for clinical efficacy and safety of immobilization in external rotation and internal rotation on shoulder dislocation. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this study will conclude higher evidence and suggestions for the treatment of shoulder dislocation, so as to further guide clinical decision making. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018106030.


Assuntos
Imobilização/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Luxação do Ombro/terapia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431733

RESUMO

In chronic infectious diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria, such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and periodontitis, osteoclastic activity is enhanced with elevated inflammation, which disturbs the bone homeostasis and results in osteolysis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a bacteria product, plays an important role in this process. Recent evidence shows that an antimalarial drug artesunate attenuates LPS-induced osteolysis independent of RANKL. In this study we evaluated the effects of artesunate on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and femur osteolysis in vivo, and explored the mechanisms underlying the effects of artesunate on LPS-induced osteoclast differentiation independent of RANKL. In preosteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, we found that artesunate (1.56-12.5 µM) dose dependently inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast formation accompanied by suppressing LPS-stimulated osteoclast-related gene expression (Fra-2, TRAP, Cathepsin K, ß3-integrin, DC-STAMP, and Atp6v0d2). We showed that artesunate (3.125-12.5 µM) inhibited LPS-stimulated nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) but not NF-κB transcriptional activity; artesunate (6.25, 12.5 µM) significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated NFATc1 protein expression. Furthermore, artesunate treatment markedly suppressed LPS-induced Ca2+ influx, and decreased the expression of PP2B-Aα (calcineurin) and pPLCγ1 in the cells. In addition, artesunate treatment significantly decreased the expression of upstream signals TLR4 and TRAF6 during LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. Administration of artesunate (10 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days effectively inhibited serum TNF-α levels and ameliorated LPS (5 mg/kg, ip)-induced inflammatory bone loss in vivo. Taken together, artesunate attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting the expression of TLR4/TRAF6 and the downstream PLCγ1-Ca2+-NFATc1 signaling pathway. Artesunate is a valuable choice to treat bone loss induced by gram-negative bacteria infection or inflammation in RANKL-independent pathway.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432065

RESUMO

Herein, a novel series of PMo12-TiO2 composites deposited with Pt nanoparticles (NPs), namely X%Pt/PMo12/TiO2 (PMo12 = H3PMo12O40; X stands for wt% of Pt to the PMo12/TiO2 sample and X = 3, 5, 8, and 10), were prepared through a simple electrospinning/calcination method, followed by photoreduction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that Pt NPs with an average size of 10 ± 5 nm are well dispersed on the PMo12/TiO2 nanofibers. Photocatalytic tests revealed that the as-prepared Pt/PMo12/TiO2 composite catalysts exhibited excellent and persistent photocatalytic activity for removing methyl orange, tetracycline, Bisphenol A and Cr(vi) under visible-light illumination (λ > 420 nm). Among the as-prepared composites, the 8%Pt/PMo12/TiO2 sample displayed the best photocatalytic activity with the rate constants of 0.011 min-1 (MO), 0.043 min-1 (TC), 0.00615 min-1 (Bisphenol A) and 0.053 min-1 (Cr(vi)). The addition of POM PMo12 to the composites enhanced the visible-light adsorption and redox ability of TiO2. Furthermore, Pt NPs exhibited localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption, therefore improving the absorption of visible light by PMo12/TiO2. Additionally, intense local electromagnetic fields resulted from LSPR, which greatly facilitated the separation of photo-produced charge carriers in Pt/PMo12/TiO2. The results of free radical- and hole-trapping tests suggested that ˙OH and ˙O2- were responsible for the degradation of MO/TC. Finally, the corresponding photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16562, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures (DRFs) is one of the most common bone injuries in children, which may lead to deformity and other complications if the treatment is not prompt or appropriate. Splints external fixation is a common conservative treatment for such fractures. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy, safety and cost benefits of splints in the treatment of DRFs in children. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Wanfang Database, and VIP Database were searched for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The methodological quality of the included studies and the level of evidence for results were assessed, respectively, using the risk bias assessment tool of Cochrane and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Statistical analysis was conducted with Revman 5.3. RESULTS: This study will analyze and integrate the existing evidence for effectiveness, safety and cost benefits of splints on DRFs in children. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this study will provide evidence to effectiveness, safety and cost benefits of splints on DRFs in children, which can further guide the selection of appropriate interventions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019123429.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Rádio/terapia , Contenções/efeitos adversos , Contenções/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Pediatria/instrumentação , Pediatria/métodos , Fraturas do Rádio/economia , Contenções/economia
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