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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591475

RESUMO

The creep deformation behavior and age strengthening behavior of 304 stainless steel under high stress levels were systematically studied by uniaxial creep test, tensile test, XRD diffraction test and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the total creep strain and the initial creep strain rate increase with the increase in stress level, and the creep strain in the whole aging process is mainly produced in the initial creep stage. The calculated stress exponent shows that the main mechanism of creep deformation of 304 stainless steel at 453 K is dislocation slip. The strength and plasticity of 304 stainless steel after creep aging are improved simultaneously. Microstructural observations indicate an increase in dislocation density and martensite content, as well as austenite and twins, leading to an improvement in strength and plasticity, respectively. In addition, considering the influence of dislocation density on creep behavior, the relative dislocation density increase is introduced into the hyperbolic sine creep model, and a simple mechanism-based creep aging constitutive model is established. The creep strain predicted by the model is in good agreement with the experimental data of 304 stainless steel. The findings can provide theoretical support for the application of creep age forming in 304 stainless steel parts.

2.
Small ; : e2309302, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372497

RESUMO

Metal-organic framework materials are ideal materials characterized by open frameworks, adjustable components, and high catalytic activity. They are extensively utilized for catalysis. Due to decomposition and structural collapse under high temperatures and an oxygen-rich environment, the potential of thermal catalysis is greatly limited. In this research, Co-rich hollow spheres (Co-HSs) with a gradient composition are designed and synthesized to investigate their thermal catalytic properties in the ammonium perchlorate(AP)system. The results demonstrate that Co-HSs@AP exhibits good thermal catalytic activity and a high-temperature decomposition of 292.5 °C, which is 121.6 °C lower than pure AP. The hierarchical structure confers structural stability during the thermal decomposition process. Thermogravimetry-infrared indicates that the inclusion of Co-HSs successfully boosts the level of reactive oxygen species and achieves thorough oxidation of NH3 . Based on the above phenomenon, macro dynamics calculations are carried out. The results show that Co-HSs can promote the circulation of lattice oxygen and reactive oxygen species and the multidimensional diffusion of NH3 in an oxygen-rich environment. This material has significant potential for application in the fields of thermal catalysis and ammonia oxidation.

3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 960, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307885

RESUMO

Merging structural variations (SVs) at the population level presents a significant challenge, yet it is essential for conducting comprehensive genotypic analyses, especially in the era of pangenomics. Here, we introduce PanPop, a tool that utilizes an advanced sequence-aware SV merging algorithm to efficiently merge SVs of various types. We demonstrate that PanPop can merge and optimize the majority of multiallelic SVs into informative biallelic variants. We show its superior precision and lower rates of missing data compared to alternative software solutions. Our approach not only enables the filtering of SVs by leveraging multiple SV callers for enhanced accuracy but also facilitates the accurate merging of large-scale population SVs. These capabilities of PanPop will help to accelerate future SV-related studies.


Assuntos
Genômica , Software , Humanos , Algoritmos , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Genótipo , Genoma Humano
4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 29, 2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma represents a serious clinical challenge due to its widespread genomic alterations, tendency for drug resistance and distant metastasis. New treatment methods are urgently needed to address those treatment difficulties in osteosarcoma to improve patient prognoses. In recent years, small-molecule based anion transporter have emerged as innovative and promising therapeutic compound with various biomedical applications. However, due to a lack of efficient delivery methods, using ion transporters as therapeutic drugs in vivo remains a major challenge. RESULT: Herein, we developed self-assembled supramolecular drugs based on small-molecule anion transporters, which exhibited potent therapeutic effect towards osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. The anion transporters can disrupt intracellular ion homeostasis, inhibit proliferation, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition process, and lead to osteosarcoma cell death. RNA sequencing, western blot and flow cytometry indicated reprogramming of HOS cells and induced cell death through multiple pathways. These pathways included activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which avoided the development of drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells. Functionalized with osteosarcoma targeting peptide, the assembled supramolecular drug showed excellent targeted anticancer therapy against subcutaneous xenograft tumor and lung metastasis models. Besides good tumor targeting capability and anti-drug resistance, the efficacy of the assembly was also attributed to its ability to regulate the tumor immune microenvironment in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that small-molecule anion transporters are capable of killing osteosarcoma cells through multiple pathways. The assemblies, OTP-BP-L, show excellent targeting and therapeutic effect towards osteosarcoma tumors. Furthermore, the supramolecular drug shows a strong ability to regulate the tumor immune microenvironment in vivo. This work not only demonstrated the biomedical value of small-molecule anion transporters in vivo, but also provided an innovative approach for the treatment of osteosarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Osteossarcoma , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Apoptose , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
J Chem Phys ; 159(18)2023 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937935

RESUMO

Nuclear spin hyperpolarization derived from parahydrogen is a technique for enhancing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensitivity. The key to hyperpolarization experiments is to achieve rapid transfer and detection to minimize relaxation losses, while also avoiding bubbles or turbulence to guarantee high spectral resolution. In this article, we describe an experimental approach for the interleaved joint modulation of parahydrogen-induced polarization and NMR. We provide schematic diagrams of parahydrogen-based polarizer with in situ high-pressure detection capability and low-field polarization transfer. This approach can help to control the experimental process and acquire experimental information, one example of which is the attainment of the highest hyperpolarization signal intensity at 3.6 s after closing the valve. The polarizer demonstrates in situ detection capability, allowing sample to be restabilized within 0.3 ± 0.1 s and high-resolution NMR sampling under a pressure of 3 bars. Moreover, it can transfer polarized samples from the polarization transfer field to the detection region of NMR within 1 ± 0.3 s for completing signal amplification by reversible exchange experiments.

6.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 906, 2023 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37667004

RESUMO

Subnival glasshouse plants provide a text-book example of high-altitude adaptation with reproductive organs enclosed in specialized semi-translucent bracts, monocarpic reproduction and continuous survival under stress. Here, we present genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses for one such plant, the Noble rhubarb (Rheum nobile). Comparative genomic analyses show that an expanded number of genes and retained genes from two recent whole-genome duplication events are both relevant to subnival adaptation of this species. Most photosynthesis genes are downregulated within bracts compared to within leaves, and indeed bracts exhibit a sharp reduction in photosynthetic pigments, indicating that the bracts no longer perform photosynthesis. Contrastingly, genes related to flavonol synthesis are upregulated, providing enhanced defense against UV irradiation damage. Additionally, anatomically abnormal mesophyll combined with the downregulation of genes related to mesophyll differentiation in bracts illustrates the innovation and specification of the glass-like bracts. We further detect substantial accumulation of antifreeze proteins (e.g. AFPs, LEAs) and various metabolites (e.g. Proline, Protective sugars, procyanidins) in over-wintering roots. These findings provide new insights into subnival adaptation and the evolution of glasshouse alpine plants.


Assuntos
Rheum , Rheum/genética , Multiômica , Aclimatação/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Regulação para Baixo
7.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 5617, 2023 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37726270

RESUMO

Yak has been subject to natural selection, human domestication and interspecific introgression during its evolution. However, genetic variants favored by each of these processes have not been distinguished previously. We constructed a graph-genome for 47 genomes of 7 cross-fertile bovine species. This allowed detection of 57,432 high-resolution structural variants (SVs) within and across the species, which were genotyped in 386 individuals. We distinguished the evolutionary origins of diverse SVs in domestic yaks by phylogenetic analyses. We further identified 334 genes overlapping with SVs in domestic yaks that bore potential signals of selection from wild yaks, plus an additional 686 genes introgressed from cattle. Nearly 90% of the domestic yaks were introgressed by cattle. Introgression of an SV spanning the KIT gene triggered the breeding of white domestic yaks. We validated a significant association of the selected stratified SVs with gene expression, which contributes to phenotypic variations. Our results highlight that SVs of different origins contribute to the phenotypic diversity of domestic yaks.


Assuntos
Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Oncogenes , Humanos , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Filogenia , Cruzamento , Domesticação
8.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 867, 2023 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612424

RESUMO

Rhubarb is the collective name for various perennial plants from the genus Rheum L. and the Polygonaceae family. They are one of the most ancient, commonly used, and important herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Rhubarb is a major source of anthraquinones, but how they are synthesized remains largely unknown. Here, we generate a genome sequence assembly of one important medicinal rhubarb R. tanguticum at the chromosome level, with 2.76 Gb assembled into 11 chromosomes. The genome is shaped by two recent whole-genome duplication events and recent bursts of retrotransposons. Metabolic analyses show that the major anthraquinones are mainly synthesized in its roots. Transcriptomic analysis reveals a co-expression module with a high correlation to anthraquinone biosynthesis that includes key chalcone synthase genes. One CHS, four CYP450 and two BGL genes involved in secondary metabolism show significantly upregulated expression levels in roots compared with other tissues and clustered in the co-expression module, which implies that they may also act as candidate genes for anthraquinone biosynthesis. This study provides valuable insights into the genetic bases of anthraquinone biosynthesis that will facilitate improved breeding practices and agronomic properties for rhubarb in the future.


Assuntos
Rheum , Rheum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Antraquinonas , Cromossomos
9.
ACS Nano ; 17(14): 13917-13937, 2023 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37429012

RESUMO

Inflammatory infiltration and bone destruction are important pathological features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which originate from the disturbed niche of macrophages. Here, we identified a niche-disrupting process in RA: due to overactivation of complement, the barrier function of VSIg4+ lining macrophages is disrupted and mediates inflammatory infiltration within the joint, thereby activating excessive osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. However, complement antagonists have poor biological applications due to superphysiologic dose requirements and inadequate effects on bone resorption. Therefore, we developed a dual-targeted therapeutic nanoplatform based on the MOF framework to achieve bone-targeted delivery of the complement inhibitor CRIg-CD59 and pH-responsive sustained release. The surface-mineralized zoledronic acid (ZA) of ZIF8@CRIg-CD59@HA@ZA targets the skeletal acidic microenvironment in RA, and the sustained release of CRIg-CD59 can recognize and prevent the complement membrane attack complex (MAC) from forming on the surface of healthy cells. Importantly, ZA can inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and CRIg-CD59 can promote the repair of the VSIg4+ lining macrophage barrier to achieve sequential niche remodeling. This combination therapy is expected to treat RA by reversing the core pathological process, circumventing the pitfalls of traditional therapy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Reabsorção Óssea , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Humanos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Ácido Zoledrônico/farmacologia
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1132074, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37377477

RESUMO

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe public health concern, and most of the children with ASD experience a substantial delay in FMS. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of exercise interventions in improving FMS in children with ASD, and provide evidence to support the scientific use of exercise interventions in practice. Methods: We searched seven online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, Clinical Trials, and The Cochrane Library) from inception to May 20, 2022. We included randomized control trials of exercise interventions for FMS in children with ASD. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale. Stata 14.0 software was used for meta-analysis, forest plotting, subgroup analysis, heterogeneity analysis, and meta-regression. Results: Thirteen studies underwent systematic review (541 participants), of which 10 underwent meta-analysis (297 participants). Overall, exercise interventions significantly improved overall FMS in children with ASD. Regarding the three categories of FMS, exercise interventions significantly improved LMS (SMD = 1.07; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.41, p < 0.001), OCS (SMD = 0.79; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.26, p = 0.001), and SS (SMD = 0.72; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.98, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: exercise interventions can effectively improve the FMS of children with ASD. The effects on LMS are considered as large effect sizes, while the effects on OCS and SS are considered as moderate effect sizes. These findings can inform clinical practice. Systematic review registration: https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2022-12-0013/.

12.
Small ; 19(20): e2207023, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642801

RESUMO

The design of highly dispersed active sites of hollow materials and unique contact behavior with the components to be catalyzed provide infinite possibilities for exploring the limits of catalyst capacity. In this study, the synthesis strategy of highly open 3-dimensional frame structure Prussian blue analogues (CoFe-PBA) was explored through structure self-transformation, which was jointly guided by template mediated epitaxial growth, restricted assembly and directional assembly. Additionally, good application prospect of CoFe-PBA as combustion catalyst was discussed. The results show that unexpected thermal decomposition behavior can be achieved by limiting AP(ammonium perchlorate) to the framework of CoFe-PBA. The high temperature decomposition stage of AP can be advanced to 283.6 °C and the weight loss rate can reach 390.03% min-1 . In-situ monitoring shows that CoFe-PBA can accelerate the formation of NO and NO2 . The calculation of reaction kinetics proved that catalytic process was realized by increasing the nucleation factor. On this basis, the catalytic mechanism of CoFe-PBA on the thermal decomposition of AP was discussed, and the possible interaction process between AP and CoFe-PBA during heating was proposed. At the same time, another interesting functional behavior to prevent AP from caking was discussed.

13.
Anal Chem ; 95(2): 1002-1007, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579454

RESUMO

Diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY) plays a vital role in mixture studies. However, its applications to complex mixture samples are generally limited by spectral congestion along the chemical shift domain caused by extensive J coupling networks and abundant compounds. Herein, we develop the in-phase multidimensional DOSY strategy for complex mixture analyses by simultaneously revealing molecular self-diffusion behaviors and multiplet structures with optimal spectral resolution. As a proof of concept, two pure shift-based three-dimensional (3D) DOSY protocols are proposed to record high-resolution 3D spectroscopic view with separated mixture components and their resolved multiplet coupling structures, thus suitable for analyzing complex mixtures that contain abundant compounds and complicated molecular structures, even under adverse magnetic field conditions. Therefore, this study shows a promising tool for component analyses and multiplet structure studies on practical mixture samples.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Difusão , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Biometrics ; 79(3): 1934-1946, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416173

RESUMO

In biomedical science, analyzing treatment effect heterogeneity plays an essential role in assisting personalized medicine. The main goals of analyzing treatment effect heterogeneity include estimating treatment effects in clinically relevant subgroups and predicting whether a patient subpopulation might benefit from a particular treatment. Conventional approaches often evaluate the subgroup treatment effects via parametric modeling and can thus be susceptible to model mis-specifications. In this paper, we take a model-free semiparametric perspective and aim to efficiently evaluate the heterogeneous treatment effects of multiple subgroups simultaneously under the one-step targeted maximum-likelihood estimation (TMLE) framework. When the number of subgroups is large, we further expand this path of research by looking at a variation of the one-step TMLE that is robust to the presence of small estimated propensity scores in finite samples. From our simulations, our method demonstrates substantial finite sample improvements compared to conventional methods. In a case study, our method unveils the potential treatment effect heterogeneity of rs12916-T allele (a proxy for statin usage) in decreasing Alzheimer's disease risk.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Medicina de Precisão , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Simulação por Computador , Pontuação de Propensão
15.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 15(1)2023 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38276840

RESUMO

SAW devices with a multi-layered piezoelectric substrate have excellent performance due to advantages such as a high quality factor, Q, low loss insertion, large bandwidth, etc. Prior to manufacturing, a comprehensive analysis and proper design are essential to evaluating the device's key performance indicators, including the Bode Q value, bandwidth, and transverse mode suppression. This study explored the performance of SAW resonators employing a 42°Y-X LiTaO3 (LT) thin-plate-based multi-layered piezoelectric substrate. The thicknesses for each layer of the 42°Y-X LT/SiO2/poly-Si/Si substrate were optimized according to the index of phase velocity, Bode Q value, and bandwidth. The effect of the device structure parameters on the dispersion curve and slowness curve was studied, and a flat slowness curve was found to be favorable for transverse mode suppression. In addition, the design of the dummy configuration was also optimized for the suppression of spurious waves. Based on the optimized design, a one-port resonator on the 42°Y-X LT/SiO2/poly-Si/Si substrate was fabricated. The simulation results and measurements are presented and compared, which provides guidelines for the design of new types of SAW devices configured with complex structures.

16.
Ecol Evol ; 12(12): e9611, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36540075

RESUMO

Studying the evolution of genomic divergence between lineages is a topical issue in evolutionary biology. However, the evolutionary forces that shape the heterogeneous divergence of the genomic landscape are still poorly understood. Here, two wind-pollinated sister-species (Ostrya japonica and O. chinensis) are used to explore what these potential forces might be. A total of 40 individuals from 16 populations across their main distribution areas in China were sampled for genome-wide resequencing. Population demography analyses revealed that these two sister-species diverged at 3.06-4.43 Mya. Both population contraction and increased gene flow were detected during glacial periods, suggesting secondary contact at those times. All three parameters (D XY, π, and ρ) decreased in those regions showing high levels of differentiation (F ST). These findings indicate that linked selection and recombination played a key role in the genomic heterogeneous differentiation between the two Ostrya species. Genotype-environment association analyses showed that precipitation was the most important ecological factor for speciation. Such environmentally related genes and positive selection genes may have contributed to local adaptation and the maintenance of species boundaries.

17.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1208, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424539

RESUMO

Exosomes are a new way of the communication between the tumor cell and macrophage in the micro-environment. The macrophage can be induced to different phenotypes according to the different tumors. In the present study, long-chain noncoding RNA HOTAIR (lncRNA HOTAIR) was highly expressed in LSCC and exosomes. The pathway of exosomal lncRNA HOTAIR inducing macrophage to M2 polarization in the LSCC was investigated. The carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues were collected from 104 LSCC cases, and the positive relationship between CD163-/CD206-M2 macrophage infiltration and clinical phase, lymph node spreading and pathological phase in LSCC was observed. To examine the role of exosomal lncRNA HOTAIR, macrophages were co-cultured with LSCC-exosomes of high lncRNA HOTAIR expression or transferred with HOTAIR mimics. It was suggested that exosomal lncRNA HOTAIR can induce macrophages to M2 polarization by PI3K/p-AKT/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, exo-treated M2 macrophages facilitate the migration, proliferation, and EMT of LSCC.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Laríngeas , RNA Longo não Codificante , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Evol Appl ; 15(11): 1875-1887, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426122

RESUMO

For many clonally propagated species, the accumulation of somatic mutations is the principal driver of declines in yield and quality. However, somatic mutations may also promote genetic diversification. Thus, elucidating somatic mutation rates and patterns is important to understand the genetic basis undergirding the emergence of commercially valuable traits and developmental processes. In this study, we studied the effect of short-time clonal domestication of Populus alba var. pyramidalis, a species that has been propagated by cutting for the last 67 years. We found that: (1) the somatic mutation rate for P. alba var. pyramidalis is 9.24 × 10-9, which is higher than rates observed in related species; (2) there were more mutations near heterozygous regions, and a larger proportion of CpG and CHG sites were associated with somatic mutations, which may be related to the blocking of DNA repair by methylation; and (3) deleterious mutations were not shared by multiple individuals, and all occurred in heterozygous states, demonstrating the strong selective pressures that act against deleterious mutations. Taken together, the results of our study provide a global view of somatic mutation that will aid efforts to understand the genetic basis of commercially valuable traits and to improve clonally breeding species.

19.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 54(8): 1068-1079, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929596

RESUMO

Osteoporosis deteriorates bone mass and biomechanical strength and is life-threatening to the elderly. In this study, we show that methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDHB), an antioxidant small-molecule compound extracted from natural plants, inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, MDHB attenuates the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB pathways by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to downregulated protein expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). We also confirm that MDHB upregulates the protein expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an important transcription factor involved in ROS regulation, by inhibiting the ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation of Nrf2. Next, animal experiments show that MDHB has an effective therapeutic effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and ovariectomized (OVX)-induced bone loss in mice. Our study demonstrates that MDHB can upregulate Nrf2 and suppress excessive osteoclast activity in mice to treat osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteólise , Osteoporose , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Osteólise/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/farmacologia
20.
Mol Ecol ; 31(18): 4782-4796, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869662

RESUMO

Understanding how populations diverge and new species arise is a central question in evolutionary biology. "Allopatric" divergence through geographical isolation is considered to be the commonest mechanism generating species biodiversity in mountain ecosystems. However, the underlying genomic dynamics, especially genomic islands of elevated divergence and genes that are highly diverged as a result of lineage-specific selection, remain poorly understood. Stellera chamaejasme has a wide geographical range across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and northern China, making it a good model with which to explore genomic divergence during speciation in mountain ecosystems. We assembled a high-quality, chromosome-level genome for this species and resequenced the genomes of 24 populations across its major distribution. Our population genomic analyses recovered four distinct genetic lineages corresponding to geographical distributions with contrasting environments. However, we revealed continuous gene flow during the historical divergences of these four lineages. Interlineage hybrids and plastome introgressions were frequently found in regions of contact, which further increased gene flow between two contacting lineages in the recent past. The elevated divergences were highly heterogeneous across the genome and selection of ancestral polymorphisims and divergence hitchhiking contributed greatly to the formation of genomic islands. The highly diverged and lineage-specific positively selected genes within and outside genomic islands were annotated to be mainly involved in local adaptation. Our results suggest that genomic divergence in S. chamaejasme is likely to have been triggered and maintained by local selection together with geographical isolation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Genoma , China , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Genômica , Seleção Genética , Tibet
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