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1.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-556

RESUMO

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-557

RESUMO

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-559

RESUMO

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Tecnologia Educacional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico
4.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229226

RESUMO

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
5.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229227

RESUMO

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229229

RESUMO

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Tecnologia Educacional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico
7.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 44-53, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229026

RESUMO

La educación superior puede ser extremadamente transformadora para los estudiantes y tiene un papel importante en la formación del capital humano, en la innovación y en el desarrollo social, cultural y ambiental de la sociedad. La expansión de la educación superior promovió el acceso de una mezcla de estudiantes más heterogénea, pero garantizar el acceso no garantiza el éxito académico. Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los predictores de desempeño académico en 447 estudiantes de primer año en el 1er y 2do semestre, considerando variables como sexo, edad, nivel educativo de los padres y calificaciones al ingresar a la educación superior, junto con los niveles de compromiso académico e autoeficacia de los estudiantes tras algunas semanas en la universidad. Los resultados muestran trayectorias estadísticamente significativas para sexo, edad y GPA hasta el desempeño del primer semestre, para los niveles educativos de los padres hasta la autoeficacia percibida, para la implicación académica de los estudiantes hasta el desempeño del primer semestre y el desempeño del primer semestre hasta el desempeño del segundo semestre La participación académica de los estudiantes también tuvo un efecto indirecto en el desempeño del segundo semestre. La correlación entre compromiso académica y autoeficacia fue positiva, fuerte y estadísticamente significativa. El modelo explicó el 35.2% de la varianza del rendimiento académico en el segundo semestre y el 15.0% de la varianza del rendimiento académico en el primer semestre. El conocimiento sobre los predictores del rendimiento académico y la importancia del compromiso y la autoeficacia respaldará las intervenciones oportunas, promoviendo el éxito y previniendo el fracaso y el abandono.(AU)


Higher education can be hugely transformative for students and has an important role in empowering human capital, innovation, and socie-ty’s social, cultural, and environmental development. The expansion of higher education has promoted access for a more heterogeneous mix of students, but ensuring access does not guarantee academic success. This paper aims to analyse predictors of academic achievement in 447 first-year students in their 1stand 2ndsemesters, considering variables including sex, age, parents’ educational level and grades on entering higher education, along with levels of students’ academic engagement and self-efficacy after some weeks at university. Results show statistically significant paths for sex, age, and GPA to 1st-semester achievement, for parent’s educational levels to perceived self-efficacy, for students’ academic engagement to 1st-semester achievement, and 1st-semester achievement to 2nd-semester achievement. Students’ academic engagement also had an indirect effect on the 2nd-semester achievement. The correlation between academic engage-ment and self-efficacy was positive, strong, and statistically significant. The model explained 35.2% of the variance in 2nd-semester achievement and 15.0% of the variance in 1st-semester achievement. Knowledge about pre-dictors of academic achievement and the importance of engagement and self-efficacy will support timely interventions, promoting success and pre-venting failure and dropout.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autoeficácia , Universidades , Sucesso Acadêmico , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Psicologia Educacional
8.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 54-68, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229027

RESUMO

En la actualidad ha aumentado el desarrollo de programas de entrenamiento en habilidades socioemocionales en la infancia, debido a que se los considera como una herramienta válida para la adaptación y afrontamiento de una gran variedad de situaciones, tanto académicas como personales. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios que aporten una visión integral de las evidencias disponibles en el contexto de educación primaria. Se presenta una revisión sistemática de tipo paraguas basada en el método PRISMA, que incluye revisiones sobre programas de desarrollo socioemocional aplicados en educación primaria, con el objetivo de sintetizar sus características y recopilar los principales resultados reportados. Se utilizaron las bases de datos: ERIC, WOS, PSYCINFO, SCOPUS y COCHRANE. Tras un proceso por pares ciegos se seleccionaron y analizaron 15 revisiones. Utilizando las herramientas AMSTAR-2 y SANRA se encontró que el 60% de los estudios secundarios presenta una calidad críticamente baja o baja. Se identificaron 39 programas reportados en revisiones de buena calidad, un 51.2% presentaron evidencias moderadas o fuertes e informaron efectos significativos principalmente en ajuste del comportamiento, competencia social y emocional y habilidades académicas. Se discute el impacto de la calidad metodológica encontrada y las evidencias reportados en la interpretación y generalización de los hallazgos.(AU)


Currently, the development of training programs in socioemo-tional skills in childhood has increased because they are considered as a valid tool for adaptation and coping with a variety of situations, both aca-demic and personal. However, there are few studies that show a compre-hensive view of available evidences. This research presents an umbrella re-view based on PRISMA method guidelines. It includes reviews on socio-emotional development programs applied in Primary Education with the aim of synthesizing their characteristics and compiling the main results on their effectiveness. The following databases were used: ERIC, WOS, PSYCINFO, SCOPUS and COCHRANE. After a blind peer process, 15 reviews that met the inclusion criteria were selected and analysed. Using the AMSTAR-2 and SANRA tools, it was found that 60% of secondary studies have critically low or low quality. Thirty nine programs reported in good quality reviews were identified, 51.2% presented moderate or strong evidence and reported significant effectsmainly on behavioral adjustment, social and emotional competencies and academic skills. The impact of the methodological quality found and the evidences on the interpretation and generalization of the findings is discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Estudantes/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Ensino , Aprendizagem , Psicologia Educacional
9.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 9(1): 8, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global health activities (GHAs) reduce health disparities by promoting medical education, professional development, and resource sharing between high- and low- to middle-income countries (HICs and LMICs). Virtual global health activities facilitated continuity and bidirectionality in global health during the COVID-19 pandemic. While virtual engagement holds potential for promoting equity within partnerships, research on equitable access to and interest in virtual global health activities is limited. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, online, mixed-methods survey from January to February 2022 examining access to virtual activities before and during the pandemic across resource settings. Eligible participants were participants or facilitators of global health activities. Closed- and open-ended questions elicited participants' access to and interest in virtual global health engagement. RESULTS: We analyzed 265 surveys from respondents in 45 countries (43.0% LMIC vs. HIC 57.0%). HIC respondents tended to report greater loss of in-person access due to the pandemic at their own institutions (16 of 17 queried GHAs), while LMIC respondents tended to report greater loss of in-person activities at another institution (9 of 17 queried GHAs). Respondents from LMICs were more likely to gain virtual access through another organization for all 17 queried VGHAs. HIC respondents had significantly more access to global health funding through their own organization (p < 0.01) and more flexibility for using funds. There were significant differences and trends between respondent groups in different resource environments in terms of accessibility to and interest in different virtual global health activities, both during and after the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the need to examine accessibility to virtual global health activities within partnerships between high- and low- to middle-income countries. While virtual activities may bridge existing gaps in global health education and partnerships, further study on priorities and agenda setting for such initiatives, with special attention to power dynamics and structural barriers, are necessary to ensure meaningful virtual global health engagement moving forward.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , Saúde Global , Países em Desenvolvimento
10.
Med Educ Online ; 29(1): 2311481, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:  It is well established that provider lack of knowledge in the field of transgender and nonbinary health is as ignificant barrier to care and that training in this area is lacking. This study examined how family medicine residents' self-confidence and medical knowledge in providing gender-affirming care changed after completing a novel, online curriculum on transgender and nonbinary care. METHODS: Thirty-nine family medicine residents were invited to complete the curriculum. Change inself-confidence was determined by the difference in scores on a Likert scale on a pre- and post-survey. Change in medical knowledge was assessed by examining the difference between pre- and post-test scores on a novel multiple-choice examination. RESULTS: Only 7% of current residents agreed that their current training is adequate in order to provide comprehensive primary care to transgender and nonbinary people. After completion of the curriculum, 100% of participants felt at least somewhat confident providing primary care to transgender and nonbinary people, including hormone therapy. Average medical knowledge post-test scores trended higher than the pre-test results (mean (SD) at pre = 11.2 (1.4) vs post = 14.6 (2.8)). CONCLUSIONS: An online, self-directed curriculum on caring for transgender and nonbinary patients in the primary care setting, including management of gender-affirming hormone therapy, has the potential to increase confidence and knowledge in this field, decreasing barriers to care for this population.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Currículo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hormônios
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 116, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatology teaching is fundamental for the promotion of young colleagues in our specialty. However, traditional teaching methods are being scrutinized by students of the 'Generation Y and Z', which can pose new challenges for teaching institutions. We therefore aimed to assess the motivational impact and reception of a newly created four-week curriculum containing modernized teaching methods integrated into clinical routine. METHODS: In this single-center study, 67 medical students completed this curriculum composed of weekly learning objectives including knowledge of morphological terms, 10 common dermatoses, communication and presentation skills. The participants provided information on their level of interest in dermatology each week as well as positive and negative aspects of the curriculum. RESULTS: During the curriculum a significant median increase in interest in dermatology was reported with no differences between the genders. Low initial interest could be improved, high initial interest maintained. Participants with an interest in scientific work (20.9%) were more motivated during the curriculum. The variety, quality of teaching and structure were the main aspects rated positively. Suggestions for improvement included the need for more teaching by senior doctors, transfer of responsibility, and a working environment updated to the latest technology standards. CONCLUSION: The presented curriculum was well received by the participants and allowed to better define learning preferences of new generations which can be helpful to modernize traditional teaching methods. Interest in scientific work could be a factor to identify students with a particularly strong interest in dermatology.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dermatologia/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Currículo , Aprendizagem , Ensino
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 96, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many U.S. colleges and universities offer access to a healthcare center that provides sexual and reproductive health (SRH) resources, services, and products. The importance of health centers in college and university settings in reducing sexual health disparities in student populations cannot be stressed enough. This article evaluates a student-led, mutual-aid, grassroots health promotion strategy for students with limited access to healthcare services, supplies, and tools via an anonymous and discrete distribution of SRH resources without charge. METHODS: In partnership with faculty, undergraduate students worked to address their school's unmet SRH needs by increasing on-campus access to comprehensive, evidence-based, and sex-positive resources. Referred to as Just in Case, this student-led, grassroots health promotion program provided students with supply kits containing contraceptives, sexual health wellness products, basic hygiene supplies, and education materials. Students were surveyed in a pre- (n = 95) post- (n = 73) pilot study to identify contraception acquisition barriers, discern perceptions of on-campus SRH resources, and elucidate trends in this program's use and impact. Chi-square tests of independence were used to compare survey group responses, and association rule mining was employed in tandem to identify SRH items that students requested. RESULTS: Students identified cost and privacy as significant barriers to acquiring sexual health products on campus. Of the 182 Just in Case supply kits requested by students during the 2022-2023 academic year, condoms were requested most frequently in 75% of fulfilled kits, while emergency contraception and pregnancy tests were asked most often in 61% of kits. 50% of students reported access to contraceptives on campus before this program's implementation, growing to 75% (p < 0.001) 1 year later post-implementation. Similar jumps were observed for reported access to sexual health education (30 to 73%, p < 0.001) and services (36 to 73%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A student-led SRH supply and resource delivery strategy may immediately reduce SRH inequities and decrease barriers to contraceptive use for students with limited access to on-site SRH product availability.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Anticoncepcionais
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 119, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To map the landscape of contemporary surgical education through a competence framework by conducting a systematic literature review on learning outcomes of surgical education and the instructional methods applied to attain the outcomes. BACKGROUND: Surgical education has seen a paradigm shift towards competence-based training. However, a gap remains in the literature regarding the specific components of competency taught and the instructional methods employed to achieve these outcomes. This paper aims to bridge this gap by conducting a systematic review on the learning outcomes of surgical education within a competence framework and the instructional methods applied. The primary outcome measure was to elucidate the components of competency emphasized by modern surgical curricula. The secondary outcome measure was to discern the instructional methods proven effective in achieving these competencies. METHODS: A search was conducted across PubMed, Medline, ProQuest Eric, and Cochrane databases, adhering to PRISMA guidelines, limited to 2017-2021. Keywords included terms related to surgical education and training. Inclusion criteria mandated original empirical studies that described learning outcomes and methods, and targeted both medical students and surgical residents. RESULTS: Out of 42 studies involving 2097 participants, most concentrated on technical skills within competency-based training, with a lesser emphasis on non-technical competencies. The effect on clinical outcomes was infrequently explored. CONCLUSION: The shift towards competency in surgical training is evident. However, further studies on its ramifications on clinical outcomes are needed. The transition from technical to clinical competence and the creation of validated assessments are crucial for establishing a foundation for lifelong surgical learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Currículo , Competência Clínica
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 117, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the established need to prioritize professionalism-training in developing future physicians, very few medical programs in the Gulf Region embed in their curricula discrete contextualized courses aimed at developing the corresponding competencies, while fostering self-directed learning. This study aims at exploring the perception of undergraduate medical students in a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic setting regarding their understanding of, and personal experience with professionalism through their engagement with the content of an innovative curriculum-based professionalism course, offered at a Medical School in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. METHODS: The study used a qualitative phenomenological research design. Out of 33 students, 29 students had submitted reflective essays. The content of these essays was inductively analyzed following a six-step framework for conducting thematic analysis. The framework's steps include familiarizing oneself with the data, generating initial codes, searching for themes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and producing the report. FINDINGS: The inductive qualitative analysis generated the Professionalism Learning Journey model. This conceptual model includes four interconnected themes: Awareness, Acknowledgement, Realization, and Application. The generated model depicts the trajectory that the learners appear to experience while they are engaging with the content of the course. CONCLUSION: Integrating a professionalism-training course into an undergraduate medical curriculum is likely to be positively appraised by the learners. It raises their awareness, enables them to value the subject matter and the sophistication of its application, and empowers them to put into practice the taught principles, on an individual basis and collectively. This is especially true when the course is entrenched in constructivism experiential learning theory and designed to foster self-directed learning. The introduced conceptual model, in conjunction with the innovative professionalism-training course curriculum, can serve as a template for other competencies and other schools.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Profissionalismo , Currículo , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
15.
BMC Nurs ; 23(1): 99, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moral sensitivity is an essential criterion for nurses' professional competence, and it is effective in professional performance and the development of communication between nurse and patient. According to several definitions of moral sensitivity in nursing texts, each of them has examined moral sensitivity from a different aspect, and there are still uncertainties in the field of moral sensitivity of nursing students. Therefore, to clarify the characteristics and dimensions of the concept of moral sensitivity of nursing students, we used the method of concept analysis. GOAL: To clarify and define moral sensitivity of nursing students. METHOD: For this systematic review, ten databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Emerald, Springer, Proquest (open access), ERIC, SID, Irandoc, Magiran) were searched. They were published between 1990 and 2020. Inclusion criteria were having access to the full text of the article, types of studies (quantitative, qualitative, concept analysis, systematic review, and meta-analysis) related to the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of nursing students' moral sensitivity, medical students' moral sensitivity and Ethics education, articles being published in scientific journals in English or Persian language, texts published in non-peer-reviewed journals and letters to the editor were excluded from the data analysis. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool 2018 and Prisma ScR Checklist 2020. Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis was used to conduct this study. RESULTS: From 361 articles, 38 were included. The results showed moral sensitivity in nursing students improves through specialized ethical knowledge and presence in educational and professional settings. The attributes consist of honest and benevolent communication, compassionate professional practice, intuitive perceiving moral challenges, awareness of the responsibilities and moral consequences of decisions. The moral sensitivity of nursing students improves the quality of nursing care and the effective management of ethical challenges. CONCLUSION: Results can help develop nursing education theories and programs, design appropriate tools to evaluate this concept, and increase the quality of care and management of moral challenges in society and health systems. LIMITATION: This research has only examined Persian and English texts; also, accessing all the international databases was impossible, and more investigation in this field is required.

16.
BMC Nurs ; 23(1): 96, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurses play an important role in interprofessional pharmaceutical care. Curricula related to pharmaceutical care, however, vary a lot. Mapping the presence of pharmaceutical care related domains and competences in nurse educational programs can lead to a better understanding of the extent to which curricula fit expectations of the labour market. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the presence of pharmaceutical care oriented content in nursing curricula at different educational levels and 2) nursing students' perceived readiness to provide nurse pharmaceutical care in practice. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design was used. Nursing schools in 14 European countries offering educational programs for levels 4-7 students were approached between January and April 2021. Through an online survey final year students had to indicate to what extent pharmaceutical care topics were present in their curriculum. RESULTS: A total of 1807 students participated, of whom 8% had level 4-5, 80% level 6, 12% level 7. Up to 84% of the students indicated that pharmaceutical care content was insufficiently addressed in their curriculum. On average 14% [range 0-30] felt sufficiently prepared to achieve the required pharmaceutical care competences in practice. In level 5 curricula more pharmaceutical care domains were absent compared with other levels. CONCLUSIONS: Although several pharmaceutical care related courses are present in current curricula of level 4-7 nurses, its embedding should be extended. Too many students perceive an insufficient preparation to achieve pharmaceutical care competences required in practice. Existing gaps in pharmaceutical care should be addressed to offer more thoroughly prepared nurses to the labour market.

17.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 115, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321518

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medical undergraduate students receive limited education on scholarly publishing. However, publishing experiences during this phase are known to influence study and career paths. The medical bachelor Honours Program (HP) at Utrecht University initiated a hands-on writing and publishing course, which resulted in nine reviews published in internationally peer reviewed academic journals. We wanted to share the project set-up, explore the academic development of the participating students and determine the impact of the reviews on the scientific community. METHODS: Thirty-one out of 50 alumni completed a digital retrospective questionnaire on for example, development of skills and benefit for their studies and career. Publication metrics of the HP review papers were retrieved from Web of Science. RESULTS: This hands-on project provides a clear teaching method on academic writing and scholarly publishing in the bachelor medical curriculum. Participants were able to obtain and improve writing and publishing skills. The output yielded well-recognized scientific papers and valuable learning experiences. 71% of the participating students published at least one additional paper following this project, and 55% of the students indicated the project influenced their academic study and/or career path. Nine manuscripts were published in journals with an average impact factor of 3.56 and cited on average 3.73 times per year. DISCUSSION: This course might inspire other medical educators to incorporate similar projects successfully into their curriculum. To this end, a number of recommendations with regard to supervision, time investment and group size are given.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Universidades , Currículo , Editoração
18.
Saudi Pharm J ; 32(3): 101970, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322148

RESUMO

Introduction: Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs offer students' academic coursework and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). APPEs are crucial for students, providing hands-on training in practice settings and enhancing clinical skills and decision-making abilities. Nevertheless, successful APPEs relies mainly on preceptorship. Hence, this study aims to evaluate preceptorship during APPEs in one of the non-major cities in Saudi Arabia. Method: A Cross-Sectional survey study was conducted among 40 PharmD students at Taibah University's College of Pharmacy which involved two telephone interviews conducted seven months apart. The survey instrument consisted of 46 questions divided into eight sections which covered various aspects such as demographics, clarity of rotation objectives, clinical and communication skills, assessment of the training and learning opportunities, preceptors' feedback and evaluation, interaction with patients, healthcare providers, and preceptors. Descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were utilized to analyze the collected data and to assess the internal consistency of the multi-item Likert questions. Results: Preceptors were predominantly male, aged 26-35, with extensive experience in pharmacy practice and mentorship, yet they lacked specialized post-graduate training or education certification. Almost 50% of the preceptors exhibited competence in pharmacotherapy-related science, demonstrated a willingness to teach students and acknowledged the students' knowledge and skills. Furthermore, most of the students reported understanding of the APPEs objectives as the internship progressed. However, only 15% of late rotation participants strongly agreed on the safety of the learning environment, adequate time and regular contact with their preceptors. Starkly, only 3.0% of early rotation students and 6.1% of late rotation students strongly agreed with the improvement of their written and verbal communications. Conclusion: This study reported a noted decline in perceived learning support and environment safety as the APPEs' year progressed. Feedback and communication skills development were areas of concern, with limited satisfaction reported. The study highlights regional disparities in training quality, emphasizing the need for structured learning experiences and re-evaluation of preceptorship. Future research should aim to better understand the challenges associated with APPEs in non-major cities and rural areas, thereby making significant contributions to the enhancement of the pharmacy profession.

19.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606790, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322305

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to understand the public's expectations regarding type 2 diabetes prevention and to identify factors associated with willingness to participate in preventive activities among adults in Poland. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) on a representative sample of 1,046 adults in Poland. A non-probability quota sampling method was used. A study tool was a self-prepared questionnaire. Results: Most respondents (77.3%) declared willingness to participate in preventive activities. Consultation with a diabetologist (75.1%) or family doctor consultation (74.9%) were the most often selected. Lifestyle interventions in the form of dietary and culinary workshops (58.1%) were the least chosen. Having higher education (OR = 3.83, 1.64-8.94, p = 0.002), chronic diseases (OR = 1.36, 1.01-1.85, p = 0.04), and a history of diabetes in the family (OR = 1.67, 1.21-2.30, p = 0.002) were significantly associated with a higher interest in type 2 diabetes prevention. Conclusion: The adults in Poland are keen on participating in diabetes prevention programs, mostly those based on medical counselling rather than lifestyle-oriented interventions. Educational level was the most important factor associated with willingness to participate in type 2 diabetes prevention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Motivação , Polônia , Estilo de Vida
20.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 57(Pt 1): 181-186, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322722

RESUMO

The growing pressure on school curricula has meant crystals and the science of crystallography have been cut from or made optional for many educational programs. This omission is a serious disservice to the history and understanding of modern sciences, given that crystallography underpins many of the greatest advancements in science over the past century, is a critical component of many modern research papers and patents, and has 29 Nobel Prizes awarded in the field. This contribution describes a simple activity to target classroom and public engagement with crystallography, using marshmallows or equivalent sweets/candy to represent atoms and cocktail sticks to represent bonds, together with examples of how crystals are studied and how they are useful. Though it has a simple basis, this activity can be extended in numerous ways to reflect the aims of the demonstrator, and a few of these are described.

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