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1.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535345

RESUMO

Objectives: To present a simple form of vocal and breathing conditioning for voice professionals based on concepts from vocal science. The vocal conditioning program called Voice Athletes Conditioning uses the principles of exercise physiology to gradually improve vocal and respiratory overload to achieve endurance, power, and flexibility. Methods: Due to our personal experience with high voice users, we synthesized a vocal conditioning program (AVCP) that combines voice science, exercise physiology, sports science and physical therapy principles. This is an 8-week program of daily vocal and breathing exercises with overload enhancement each week using different types of breathing devices and semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, designed and developed according to the specific requirements and performance of the voice professional. Reflections: Professional voice users often experience episodes of vocal fatigue that can directly affect their performance and vocal health. As with physical training for athletes, voice exercises can also contribute to improving vocal conditioning, preventing voice disorders, as well as helping to obtain better performance, greater tolerance to fatigue and shorter recovery time. Conclusions: AVCP is an approach that considers the principles of muscle training aimed objectively at the respiratory and vocal muscles, carried out with a variety of breathing devices and specific vocal exercises in search of greater performance time, less physiological stress, and shorter recovery time in the professional use of the voice.


Objetivos: Presentar una forma sencilla de acondicionamiento vocal y respiratorio para profesionales de la voz, basada en conceptos de la ciencia vocal. El programa de acondicionamiento vocal denominado Voice Athletes Conditioning utiliza los principios de la fisiología del ejercicio para mejorar gradualmente la sobrecarga vocal y respiratoria, con el fin de lograr resistencia, potencia y flexibilidad. Métodos: Debido a nuestra experiencia personal con usuarios de voz aguda, sintetizamos un programa de acondicionamiento vocal (AVCP) que combina principios de la ciencia de la voz, la fisiología del ejercicio, las ciencias del deporte y la fisioterapia. Se trata de un programa de 8 semanas de ejercicios vocales y respiratorios diarios con realce de sobrecarga cada semana utilizando diferentes tipos de dispositivos respiratorios y ejercicios semioclusivos del tracto vocal, diseñado y desarrollado de acuerdo con los requerimientos específicos y el rendimiento del profesional de la voz. Reflexiones: Los usuarios profesionales de la voz experimentan a menudo episodios de fatiga vocal que pueden afectar directamente su rendimiento y salud vocal. Al igual que ocurre con el entrenamiento físico de los deportistas, los ejercicios vocales también pueden contribuir a mejorar el acondicionamiento vocal, prevenir trastornos de la voz, además de ayudar a obtener un mejor rendimiento, una mayor tolerancia a la fatiga y un menor tiempo de recuperación. Conclusiones: El AVCP es un enfoque que considera los principios del entrenamiento muscular dirigido objetivamente a la musculatura respiratoria y vocal, realizado con diversos aparatos respiratorios y ejercicios vocales específicos en busca de un mayor tiempo de actuación, menor estrés fisiológico y menor tiempo de recuperación en el uso profesional de la voz.

2.
Phys Act Nutr ; 28(1): 7-19, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of blood flow restriction with low-intensity resistance training (BFR + LIRT) on pain, adverse events, muscle strength, and function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: This study adhered to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses 2020 (PRISMA 2020) and applied the A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR2) standards to ensure the high quality of the systematic review. A comprehensive literature search was conducted until August 2023 using four selected keywords (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, blood flow restriction training, and resistance training) across five search engines (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and PEDro). RESULTS: Ten studies were analyzed. The results showed that BFR + LIRT had similar effects on pain, risk of adverse events, muscle strength, self-reported function, and physical function compared with resistance training (RT). CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis further support the potential of BFR + LIRT in the disease management of patients with OA or RA. According to this analysis, BFR + LIRT had a lower risk of adverse events than high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) and may be a safer training modality. BFR + LIRT offers greater advantages in improving physical function than LIRT and was able to provide similar benefits to HIRT without increasing the training load. These findings suggest that BFR + LIRT is a safe and effective strategy for treating patients with OA or RA. However, owing to the limited number of studies covered in this analysis, additional higher-quality studies are needed to strengthen this conclusion.

3.
Front Physiol ; 15: 1372020, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711952

RESUMO

Background: The use of elastomeric technology in sports garments is increasing in popularity; however, its specific impact on physiological and psychological variables is not fully understood. Thus, we aimed to analyze the physiological (muscle activation of the pectoralis major, triceps brachii, anterior deltoid, and rectus abdominis, capillary blood lactate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) and psychological (global and respiratory rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) responses during an incremental treadmill test wearing a new sports garment for the upper body that incorporates elastomeric technology or a placebo garment. Methods: Eighteen physically active young adults participated in two randomized sessions, one wearing the elastomeric garment and the other wearing a placebo. Participants performed in both sessions the same treadmill incremental test (i.e., starting at 8 km/h, an increase of 2 km/h each stage, stage duration of 3 min, and inclination of 1%; the test ended after completing the 18 km/h Stage or participant volitional exhaustion). The dependent variables were assessed before, during, and/or after the test. Nonparametric tests evaluated differences. Results: The elastomeric garment led to a greater muscle activation (p < 0.05) in the pectoralis major at 16 km/h (+33.35%, p = 0.01, d = 0.47) and 18 km/h (+32.09%, p = 0.02, d = 0.55) and in the triceps brachii at 10 km/h (+20.28%, p = 0.01, d = 0.41) and 12 km/h (+34.95%, p = 0.04, d = 0.28). Additionally, lower lactate was observed at the end of the test (-7.81%, p = 0.01, d = 0.68) and after 5 min of recovery (-13.71%, p < 0.001, d = 1.00) with the elastomeric garment. Nonsignificant differences between the garments were encountered in the time to exhaustion, cardiovascular responses, or ratings of perceived exertion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that elastomeric garments enhance physiological responses (muscle activation and blood lactate) during an incremental treadmill test without impairing physical performance or effort perception.

4.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 17: 1917-1934, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745911

RESUMO

Objective: Given the recognized benefits of resistance exercise on both physical and cognitive domains, elucidating how to maximize its benefit is pivotal. This study aims to evaluate these effects in terms of their timing and intensity on cognitive performance. Methods: This was a four-arm, crossover randomized controlled trial. Healthy college-aged male adults with recreational resistance training experience participated in this study. Participants completed three separate sessions of circuit barbell resistance exercises, including back squat, press, and deadlift. Each session corresponded to a different intensity level: 65% 1RM, 72% 1RM, and 78% 1RM. Each session consisted of 5 repetitions across 3 sets, with a 3-minute rest between exercises and sets. For the control condition, participants engaged in a reading activity for the same duration. The subjective exercise intensity was measured using the rating of perceived exertion and repetitions in reserve immediately after each set. The primary outcome was the temporal effect of acute resistance exercise on inhibition, measured by the Stroop color-word task. The secondary outcome was the effect of different intensities. Results: 30 out of 31 recruited participants were randomized, with 28 completing all experiment sessions. Using repeated measures correlation (rrm), a linear temporal effect was observed on accuracy-adjusted congruent reaction time: rrm = 0.114, p = 0.045, 95% CI [0.002, 0.223]. Participants responded 19.1 ms faster than the control condition approximately 10 minutes post-intervention. This advantage, however, gradually declined at a rate of 4.3 ms every 15 minutes between 10-55 minutes post-intervention. In contrast, no significant effects were detected for incongruent trials or the Stroop effect. When examining the linear relationship across exercise intensities, no significant correlations emerged for congruent trials. Conclusion: Resistance exercise demonstrates a temporal effect on cognitive performance, particularly in reaction speed for congruent trials, without significant changes in incongruent trials or the overall Stroop effect. The findings highlight the importance of timing in leveraging the cognitive benefits of acute resistance exercise, suggesting a window of enhanced cognitive performance following exercise. However, this study has a limitation regarding Type I error inflation, due to multiple measurements of cognitive performance being undertaken, suggesting caution in interpreting the observed temporal effects. Practically, scheduling crucial, cognitively demanding tasks within 10-60 minutes post-exercise may maximize benefits, as positive effects diminish after this period.

5.
Sports Med Health Sci ; 6(2): 101-110, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708322

RESUMO

Proprioception is significantly impaired in knee osteoarthritis (KOA), contributing to reduced functionality. Strength training (ST) is essential in KOA by improving muscle strength, although it may also be effective in improving proprioception. The purpose was to determine the effect of ST on knee proprioception in KOA patients. Pubmed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and PEDro were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (inception to March 2023). Comparisons for ST were physical exercise different from ST, non-exercise-based interventions, and no intervention. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale, and risk of bias (RoB) using the Cochrane tool. Meta-analyses were performed by comparison groups using the standardized mean difference (SMD) (Hedge's g) with random effects models, also considering subgroups by proprioception tests. Finally, six RCTs were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.3, and the highest proportion of biases corresponds to performance, selection, and detection. The meta-analysis indicated that only when compared with non-intervention, ST significantly improved knee proprioception for the joint position sense (JPS) (active + passive), JPS (passive), and threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) subgroups (g â€‹= â€‹-1.33 [-2.33, -0.32], g = â€‹-2.29 [-2.82, -1.75] and g â€‹= â€‹-2.40 [-4.23, -0.58], respectively). However, in the knee JPS (active) subgroup, ST was not significant (g â€‹= â€‹-0.72 [-1.84, 0.40]). In conclusion, ST improves knee proprioception compared to non-intervention. However, due to the paucity of studies and diversity of interventions, more evidence is needed to support the effectiveness of ST. Future RCTs may address the limitations of this review to advance knowledge about proprioceptive responses to ST and contribute to clinical practice.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710640

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the treatment effect of resistance training in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in young people. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMed for articles published in English from January 1980 to September 2023 for randomized controlled trials (RCT) that included at least 4 weeks of resistance training, with participants aged 26 years or younger with clinically elevated anxiety and depression symptoms. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled effect size of resistance training pre-and post-intervention compared to control groups. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias 2 (RoB 2) and Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. RESULTS: Ten RCTs involving 376 participants (209 females and 127 males) across educational, clinical, and community based setting were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Resistance training was associated with a significant reduction in depressive (Hedge's g = -1.06, 95% CI -1.61 to -0.51, p < .001) and anxiety (Hedge's g = -1.02, 95% CI -1.50 to -0.54, p < .001) symptoms. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in the analysis of depression symptoms (I2 = 79%) and anxiety symptoms (I2 = 66%). Six trials had a low risk of bias, four trials showed some concerns. The GRADE analysis demonstrated a high level of certainty for depressive symptoms and a moderate level for anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Resistance training is an effective intervention in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in young people, delivered across a range of settings. Future trials exploring the effect resistance training interventions with long-term follow up are warranted to understand the outcomes.

7.
Res Sports Med ; : 1-14, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715371

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of resistance training (RT), Tai Chi (TC) and combination intervention (RT & TC) on the oxidative stress, blood glucose and lipid metabolism and quality of life of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-four elderly patients with T2DM were randomly divided into an RT group (RTG, n = 23), TC group (TCG, n = 24), combination intervention group (CIG, n = 24) and control group (CG, n = 23). All participants were given nutrition and medication. On this basis, RTG, TCG and CIG were administered for 24 weeks (3 times/week, 40 minutes/time). Observation indicators were malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetes specific quality of life (DSQL). RT, TC and joint intervention can reduce the oxidative stress damage on elderly patients with T2DM to different degrees, control the levels of blood sugar and blood lipid and improve the quality of life. Compared with single intervention, combination intervention can further reduce the level of oxidative stress but has no additional benefits on blood glucose and lipid control and quality of life.

8.
J Hum Kinet ; 91(Spec Issue): 19-31, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689579

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of a six-week strength training intervention on the physical fitness of female high school athletes, with a focus on training frequency. Twenty-three female high school basketball athletes were recruited and split into two groups: one group participated in strength training once per week (S1), while the other participated in two training sessions per week (S2). The groups were not random as training sessions were voluntary, and some participants were only able to train once per week. Participants were tested before and after the intervention, and the data included: age, body height, body mass, body fat percentage, grip strength, leg/back dynamometer (LBD) strength, a seated medicine ball throw (MBT), a vertical jump (VJ), 505 tests from each foot, 0-5, 0-10, and 0-20 sprint times, and multistage fitness test shuttles. Data were analyzed by a two (time) x two (group) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA; p < 0.05). When significant F ratios were detected in any ANOVA calculations, post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted using the Bonferroni adjustment procedure. There were significant main effects for time that indicated the following: increased body height, body mass, grip strength, LBD strength, MBT distance, and VJ height, faster 505 times, and slower 0-5 and 0-10 m sprint times (p ≤ 0.021). There were no significant time by group ANOVAs or between-group main effects. These performance changes occurred irrespective of training frequency. High school girls who participate in at least one strength training session per week can improve their strength (grip, LBD), power (MBT, VJ), and change-of-direction speed (505).

9.
J Hum Kinet ; 91(Spec Issue): 47-60, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689585

RESUMO

The current study compared the spatial excitation of the primary muscles during the lat pull-down exercise with the bar passing in front (front-LPD) or behind the neck (back-LPD) using high-density electromyography. Fourteen resistance trained men performed a front-LPD or a back-LPD within a non-fatiguing set with 8-RM as the external load. The muscle excitation centroid of latissimus dorsi, middle trapezius, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and posterior deltoid muscles were recorded during the ascending and the descending phase. During the descending phase, the front-LPD showed superior excitation of the latissimus dorsi (ES = 0.97) and the pectoralis major (ES = 1.17), while in the ascending phase, the back-LPD exhibited superior excitation of the latissimus dorsi (ES = 0.63), and the front-LPD showed superior excitation of the biceps brachii (ES = 0.41) and the posterior deltoid (ES = 1.77). During the descending phase, the front-LPD showed a more lateral centroid of the latissimus dorsi (ES = 0.60), the biceps brachii (ES = 0.63) and the triceps brachii (ES = 0.98), while the centroid was more medial for the middle trapezius (ES = 0.58). The centroid of the middle trapezius was also more medial in the front-LPD during the ascending phase (ES = 0.85). The pectoralis major centroid was more cranial in the front-LPD for both the descending (ES = 1.58) and the ascending phase (ES = 0.88). The front-LPD appears to provide overall greater excitation in the prime movers. However, distinct spatial excitation patterns were observed, making exercise suitable for the training routine.

10.
J Hum Kinet ; 91(Spec Issue): 175-188, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689591

RESUMO

We examined the effectiveness of two different jump-squat (JS) loading ranges on the physical performance of rugby players. Twenty-eight elite male rugby players were divided into two JS training groups: a light-load JS group ("LJS"; JS at 40% of the one-repetition maximum [1RM] in the half-squat (HS) exercise) and a heavy-load JS group ("HJS"; JS at 80% HS-1RM). Players completed the distinct training programs over four weeks, three times per week, during the initial phase of the competitive period. Pre- and post-training tests were conducted in the following sequence: vertical jumps, a 30-m speed test, peak power in the JS and the HS, and maximum isometric force in the HS. Additionally, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed at the end of all training sessions throughout the intervention. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by the Tukey's post-hoc test, was employed to analyze differences between groups. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Effect sizes were used to assess the magnitude of differences between pre- and post-training data. Except for the RPE values (which were lower in the LJS group), no significant changes were detected for any other variable. In summary, using either a light- (40% HS-1RM) or a heavy-load (80% HS-1RM) JS during the initial phase of the competitive period is equally effective in maintaining physical performance levels attained during the preceding training period (pre-season), with the significant advantage of the light-load protocol resulting in lower levels of the RPE. This finding may have important implications for resistance training programming, especially in disciplines where acute and chronic fatigue is always a problematic issue.

11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 19: 745-760, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736563

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a preoperative combined with postoperative moderate-intensity progressive resistance training (PRT) of the operative side in patients with hip osteoarthritis (HOA) who are undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). The study seeks to evaluate the impact of this combined intervention on muscle strength, gait, balance, and hip joint function in a controlled, measurable, and objective manner. Additionally, the study aims to compare the outcomes of this combined intervention with those of preoperative or postoperative muscle strength training conducted in isolation. Methods: A total of 90 patients with HOA scheduled for unilateral primary THA were randomly assigned to three groups: Pre group (preoperative PRT), Post group (postoperative PRT), and Pre& Post group (preoperative combined with postoperative PRT) focusing on hip flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction of operated side. Muscle strength, gait parameters, balance, and hip function were assessed at specific time points during a 12-month follow-up period. Results: All three groups showed significant improvements in muscle strength, with the Pre& Post group demonstrating the most pronounced and sustained gains. Gait velocity and cadence were significantly improved in the Pre& Post group at 1-month and 3-month postoperative follow-ups compared to the other groups. Similarly, the Pre& Post group exhibited superior balance performance at 3-month and 12-month postoperative follow-ups. The Harris Hip Score also showed better outcomes in the Pre& Post group at all follow-up intervals. Conclusion: Preoperative combined with postoperative moderate-intensity PRT in HOA patients undergoing THA led to superior improvements in muscle strength, gait, balance, and hip joint function compared to preoperative or postoperative PRT alone. This intervention shows significant promise in optimizing postoperative rehabilitation and enhancing patient outcomes following THA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Marcha , Força Muscular , Osteoartrite do Quadril , Equilíbrio Postural , Treinamento Resistido , Humanos , Artroplastia de Quadril/reabilitação , Masculino , Feminino , Treinamento Resistido/métodos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório
12.
J Hum Kinet ; 92: 227-238, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736592

RESUMO

This study's objective was to investigate the impact of a 10-week in season contrast rubber band training program on athletic performance in young female handball players. Youth athletes (15.8 ± 0.2 years) were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 16) or a control group (n = 14). The intervention group performed contrast rubber band training (20 sessions over two weeks), while the control group maintained regular in-season training. The modified T-test, squat jump, countermovement jump, standing long jump, repeated sprint ability, 1-RM bench press and half squat, along with upper and lower limb force-velocity tests were performed. The intervention group experienced significantly larger performance enhancements than the control group in the modified T-test [p < 0.001; d = 1.45%Δ (intervention = -7.1, control = -0.8)], vertical jump [p ≤ 0.009; d ≥ 0.72; %Δ (8.4 < intervention < 19.8, 4.1 < control < 12.2)], 1-RM strength [p ≤ 0.04, d ≥ 0.80; %Δ (37.1 < intervention < 39.7, 7.2 < control < 11.2)], all force-velocity scores for the upper limbs [p ≤ 0.009; d ≥ 0.72; %Δ (21 < intervention < 82, 0.1 < control < 11.6)], three of four force-velocity scores for the lower limb performance [p ≤ 0.02; d ≥ 0.64; %Δ (6.4 < intervention < 31.3, 0.8 < control < 11.1)] and all repeated sprint times [p < 0.001; d ≥ 1.15; %Δ (-3.4 < intervention < -3.1, -1.9 < control < -0.5)]. It was concluded that ten weeks of contrast rubber band training positively affected most motor abilities in youth female handball athletes. Therefore, coaches and practitioners should consider utilizing contrast rubber band strength training as a time and resource-efficient means of improving physical fitness of youth handball players.

13.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(5): 325, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700712

RESUMO

People with advanced cancer and cachexia experience significant body weight loss, adversely impacting physical function and quality of life (QOL). Effective, evidence-based treatments for cancer cachexia are lacking, leaving patients with unmet needs. Exercise holds promise to improve patient QOL. However, information on patients' experiences of exercise, including their ability to cope with structured exercise, is limited. PURPOSE: To explore patient experiences completing a structured, supervised exercise program for people with cachexia due to advanced cancer. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants enrolled in a phase II feasibility, randomized controlled trial to explore their experiences of an 8-week virtually supervised exercise program delivered via videoconference technology. Interviews were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen participants completed interviews (female n = 9, 53%). Main interview themes included the following: (1) Deciding to exercise involves balancing concerns and expectations, (2) the exercise program is a positive experience, and (3) moving forward after the exercise program. While some participants initially held doubts about their physical capabilities and exercise safety, most wanted to exercise to enhance their wellbeing. Participants described the exercise program as a positive experience, offering diverse benefits. Some would have preferred in-person exercise, but all agreed the virtual format increased convenience. Participants emphasized the need to recommend the program to others in similar circumstances. They underscored the necessity and desire for ongoing support to sustain their new exercise habits. CONCLUSION: Based on patient experiences, virtually supervised exercise programming appears to be feasible and meaningful to people with advanced cancer and cachexia.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/terapia , Feminino , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Idoso , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Entrevistas como Assunto
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(8): 6631-6651, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643460

RESUMO

The skeletal muscle proteome alterations to aging and resistance training have been reported in prior studies. However, conventional proteomics in skeletal muscle typically yields wide protein abundance ranges that mask the detection of lowly expressed proteins. Thus, we adopted a novel deep proteomics approach whereby myofibril (MyoF) and non-MyoF fractions were separately subjected to protein corona nanoparticle complex formation prior to digestion and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). Specifically, we investigated MyoF and non-MyoF proteomic profiles of the vastus lateralis muscle of younger (Y, 22±2 years old; n=5) and middle-aged participants (MA, 56±8 years old; n=6). Additionally, MA muscle was analyzed following eight weeks of resistance training (RT, 2d/week). Across all participants, the number of non-MyoF proteins detected averaged to be 5,645±266 (range: 4,888-5,987) and the number of MyoF proteins detected averaged to be 2,611±326 (range: 1,944-3,101). Differences in the non-MyoF (8.4%) and MyoF (2.5%) proteomes were evident between age cohorts, and most differentially expressed non-MyoF proteins (447/543) were more enriched in MA versus Y. Biological processes in the non-MyoF fraction were predicted to be operative in MA versus Y including increased cellular stress, mRNA splicing, translation elongation, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. RT in MA participants only altered ~0.3% of MyoF and ~1.0% of non-MyoF proteomes. In summary, aging and RT predominantly affect non-contractile proteins in skeletal muscle. Additionally, marginal proteome adaptations with RT suggest more rigorous training may stimulate more robust effects or that RT, regardless of age, subtly alters basal state skeletal muscle protein abundances.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Músculo Esquelético , Proteômica , Treinamento Resistido , Humanos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Adulto , Feminino
15.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 9(2)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38651426

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze lower leg muscle forces during strength exercises such as back squats, good mornings and split squats, with a particular emphasis on females. By focusing on females, who are more vulnerable to anterior cruciate ligament injuries, we aimed to better understand muscle engagement and its role in injury prevention. Eight participants were monitored during exercises with a barbell load of 25% of body weight and, during the back squat, an additional 50% load. The analysis was conducted using personalized musculoskeletal models, electromyography (EMG) and Vicon motion capture systems to assess various muscle groups, including the m. gluteus maximus and m. gluteus medius, as well as the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. The back squat produced the highest forces for the quadriceps muscles, particularly the rectus femoris (>25 N/kg), as well as in the back leg during the split squat (>15 N/kg). The gluteal muscles were most active during good mornings and in the front leg of the split squat, especially the m. gluteus maximus medial part (>20 N/kg). The hamstrings generated the highest muscle forces in the front leg of the split squat, with the greatest forces observed in the m. semimembranosus. Our research highlights how musculoskeletal modeling helps us to understand the relationship among muscles, joint angles and anterior cruciate ligament injury risks, especially in strength training females. The results emphasize the need for personalized exercise guidance and customized models to make strength training safer and more effective.

16.
Sports (Basel) ; 12(4)2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668579

RESUMO

The effect of electromyographic (EMG) activity on agonist muscles during exercises performed on stable and unstable surfaces remains uncertain. We aimed to review the literature regarding the comparison of the EMG activity of the agonist muscles of exercises performed on stable and unstable surfaces. Eighty-six studies that evaluated the EMG activity of 1783 individuals during exercises for the lower limbs, upper limbs, and core were included. The EMG activities of the pectoralis major (SMD = 0.28 [95% CI 0.09, 0.47]) and triceps brachii muscles (SMD = 0.45 [95% CI 0.25, 0.66]) were significantly increased when the unstable device was added to the exercise. Likewise, the EMG activity of all core muscles showed a significant increase with the unstable surface during the exercises, such as the rectus abdominis (SMD = 0.51 [95% CI 0.37, 0.66]), external oblique (SMD = 0.44 [95% CI 0.28, 0.61]), internal oblique (SMD = 1.04 [95% CI 0.02, 2.07]), erector spinae (SMD = 0.37 [95% CI 0.04, 0.71]), and lumbar multifidus (SMD = 0.35 [95% CI 0.08, 0.61]). However, the lower limb muscles did not show greater EMG activity during the exercise with unstable surfaces compared to the stable surface. In conclusion, unstable conditions increase the EMG activity of some upper limb and core muscles compared to a stable surface.

17.
Foods ; 13(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611334

RESUMO

In addition to maintaining good exercise and dietary habits, recent studies have shown that probiotics may have potential benefits for muscle mass and strength. It is worth noting that the effects may vary depending on the specific strains used. To date, no studies have analyzed the effects of Lactiplantibacillus brevis in this context. Here, we combine the L. brevis strain GKEX with resistance training to further understand its effects on muscle mass, thickness, performance, and fat loss. In a six-week intervention for a double-blind randomized trial, 52 healthy subjects were divided into two groups (10 male and 16 female participants in each group): a placebo group (two capsules/day, containing 0 CFU of GKEX per capsule) and a GKEX group (two capsules/day, containing 1 × 1010 CFU of GKEX per capsule). Before the intervention, no differences were observed between the two groups in any of the tests (body composition, muscle thickness, exercise performance, and blood parameters). However, supplementation with GKEX significantly improved muscle mass and thickness, as well as grip strength, muscle strength, and explosive performance, when compared to the associated parameters before the intervention. Additionally, GKEX supplementation promoted a reduction in the body fat percentage (p < 0.05). Through analysis of the change amount, we observed that GKEX supplementation yielded significantly improved benefits when compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). In summary, our findings support the notion that a six-week resistance exercise training program combined with L. brevis GKEX supplementation has superior additive effects that enhance muscle mass and strength performance, while also reducing body fat percentage. This intervention can promote muscle gain and fat loss.

18.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 10(1): 65, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty, a syndrome characterized by decreased reserve and resistance to stressors across multiple physiologic systems, is highly prevalent in people living with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), independent of age or disability level. Frailty in MS is strongly associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as falls, and may aggravate MS-related symptoms. Consequently, there is a pressing necessity to explore and evaluate strategies to reduce frailty levels in pwMS. The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a multimodal exercise training program to reduce frailty in pwMS. METHODS: A total of 24 participants will be randomly assigned to 6 weeks of multimodal exercise or to a waitlist control group with a 1:1 allocation. PwMS aged 40-65 years and living with frailty will be eligible. The multimodal exercise program will consist of cognitive-motor rehabilitation (i.e., virtual reality treadmill training) combined with progressive, evidence-based resistance training. At baseline and post-intervention, participants will complete the Evaluative Frailty Index for Physical Activity (EFIP), measures of fall risk, and quality of life. Frailty-related biomarkers will also be assessed. In addition, the feasibility of the multimodal exercise program will be systematically and multidimensionally evaluated. DISCUSSION: To date, no RCT has yet been conducted to evaluate whether targeted exercise interventions can minimize frailty in MS. The current study will provide novel data on the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of multimodal exercise training as a strategy for counteracting frailty in pwMS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT06042244 (registered in September 2023).

19.
J Exerc Sci Fit ; 22(4): 278-287, 2024 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618555

RESUMO

Background: /Objective. An explosion in global obesity epidemic poses threats to the healthcare system by provoking risks of many debilitating diseases, including cognitive dysfunction. Physical activity has been shown to alleviate the deleterious effects of obesity-associated cognitive deficits across the lifespan. Given the strong neuroprotective role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and exercise training as a known modulator for its elevation, this systematic review sought to examine the strength of the association between exercise and BDNF levels in healthy people with overweight and obesity. Methods: Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid Nursing Database, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from their inceptions through December 2022. The primary outcome of interest was BDNF levels. Interventional studies (randomized and quasi-experimental) with English full text available were included. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale. Data were extracted for meta-analyses by random-effects models. Results: Thirteen studies (n = 750), of which 69.2% (9/13) had low risk of bias, were included. In the meta-analysis, exercise interventions had no significant effect on resting BDNF levels (standardized mean difference: -0.30, 95% CI -0.80 to 0.21, P = 0.25). Subgroup analyses also indicated no effects of age and types of control groups being compared on moderating the association. Conclusion: To further inform the role of BDNF in obesity-related cognitive functioning, rigorous studies with larger samples of participants and raw data available were imperatively deserved.

20.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil ; 16(1): 85, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Throwing is one of the most important movement in handball. Throwing performance is crucial for success in handball. OBJECTIVE: Τo investigate the level of evidence for the effect of resistance training (RT) on throwing performance in handball players. METHODS: Systematic searches of Pubmed, Medline complete, Cinahl, Sport Discus and Scopus were undertaken for peer reviewed articles published between 18 March 1995 to 18 March 2023. Randomized, controlled, clinical studies, written in English, aiming to investigate the effect at least one modality of RT on throwing performance (velocity or/and accuracy) in handball players were considered for inclusion in the study. The eligible studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDRO) scale. The Best Evidence Synthesis (BES) approach was used for synthesizing and reporting the results. Furthermore, the random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis and the Q-statistic was used to test the null hypothesis that all studies in the analysis share a common effect size. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-eight studies were identified, of which 30 were included. A total of 727 handball players (males = 388, females = 292) were included. 28 of the 30 studies were rated as high methodological quality studies (PEDRO score > 70%) while the rest of the studies were rated as moderate methodological quality studies (PEDRO score ≤ 60%). The mean effect size for the effectiveness of resistance training (RT) in improving jumping throw, running throw, and standing throw velocity were 1.128 (95% CI 0.457 - 1.798), 1.756 (95% CI 1.111 - 2.400), and 1.098 (95% CI 0.689 - 1.507) correspondingly. Traditional weight training using barbells in mostly compound lifts yielded the most significant and robust results. Other RT modalities such as elastic bands, medicine balls, core training and ballistic training showed no significant results or positive effects due to the limited number of the studies. CONCLUSION: Strong evidence exists only for the effectiveness of RT using barbells in increasing throwing velocity. In contrast, the remaining RT modalities, while yielding positive results, have limited support due to limited number of studies and the high heterogeneity between studies. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence to support various forms of RT in increasing throw distance. Finally, medicine ball training and elastic band training demonstrated no benefits in improving throwing accuracy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO ID: CRD42023393574.

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