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Arch Argent Pediatr ; : e202310281, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787914


Introduction. During adolescence, individuals start to make autonomous decisions about their health. Vaccination involves contextual, group, and vaccine-specific dimensions. We sought to know the information, trust, and decision to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among adolescents who attended a healthcare center in Buenos Aires. Objectives. To identify settings and channels through which adolescents accessed information about the COVID-19 vaccine at a healthcare center in Buenos Aires. To describe their opinions about the different statements on vaccination. To describe their participation in COVID-19 vaccination. To identify barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination in this population. Population and methods. Qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews with adolescents who attended this healthcare facility. The sample was heterogeneous; the sample size was estimated by theoretical saturation. A thematic analysis of data was done. Results. A total of 14 interviews were conducted. Interviewees obtained information about the COVID-19 vaccine from their families, TV, and social media. All received information from both official campaigns and anti-vaccine communications. They analyzed the information they received and formed their own opinion. Their decision about the vaccine was not always respected. Hesitancy, a low perception of risk, fear of needles, administrative and geographic barriers were reasons for not receiving the vaccine. Conclusions. Communication strategies targeted at adolescents are required that encourage their involvement in access to vaccination.

Introducción. En la adolescencia, se comienzan a tomar decisiones autónomas sobre la salud. En la vacunación intervienen dimensiones contextuales, grupales y relativas a cada vacuna. Se busca conocer el proceso de información, confianza y decisión de vacunarse contra COVID-19 en adolescentes usuarios de un centro de salud en Buenos Aires. Objetivos. Identificar ámbitos y canales a través de los cuales los adolescentes accedieron a información sobre la vacuna contra COVID-19 en un centro de salud de Buenos Aires. Describir sus opiniones respecto a los distintos discursos sobre vacunación. Describir su participación en la vacunación contra COVID-19. Identificar barreras y facilitadores respecto del acceso a la vacunación contra COVID-19 en esta población. Población y métodos. Investigación cualitativa. Se hicieron entrevistas semiestructuradas a adolescentes usuarios del efector. La muestra fue heterogénea; su tamaño se definió por saturación teórica. Se realizó un análisis temático de los datos. Resultados. Se realizaron 14 entrevistas. Los entrevistados recibieron información sobre la vacuna contra COVID-19 de sus familias, la televisión y las redes sociales. Todos recibieron tanto publicidad oficial como discursos reticentes a la vacunación. Analizaron la información recibida y formaron opinión autónoma. Su decisión sobre vacunarse no siempre fue respetada. La desconfianza, la baja percepción del riesgo, el temor a las inyecciones, las barreras administrativas y geográficas fueron motivos de no vacunación. Conclusiones. Se requieren estrategias de comunicación destinadas a adolescentes que promuevan su participación en el acceso a la vacunación.

J Law Med ; 31(1): 185-200, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761396


The realisation of the right to health is vulnerable to the interventions of strangers, acting on the belief that certain health care should not be permissible under the law or accessible in practice. In Australia, the key arena for such interventions has been abortion services. Drawing on empirical research undertaken by the authors, this article examines the impact of these interventions and the effectiveness of "safe access zone" laws that now operate nationwide to constrain them. After examining the unsuccessful constitutional challenge to these laws in the High Court of Australia, it considers whether safe access zones may have utility in other health care contexts.

Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Austrália , Humanos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Gravidez , Direito à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência
J Migr Health ; 9: 100230, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707968


The absence of the right to health of migrants in transit has evolved into a significant global health concern, particularly in the border regions thus, this study aims to improve knowledge in this area by exploring the effects of the spatio-temporal liminal characteristics at borders in the achievement of the right to health of migrants in transit moving across two of the most transited and dangerous borders in Latin America: Colchane (Chile-Bolivia) and the Darién Gap (Colombia-Panamá). Through a qualitative descriptive multi-case study, we implemented 50 semi-structured interviews (n = 30 in Chile and n = 20 in the Darién/Necoclí) involving national, regional, and local stakeholders. The findings highlight that the fulfilment of the right to health of migrants in transit is hindered by liminal dynamics at the borders. These dynamics include closure of borders, (in)securities, uncertainty and waiting, lack of economic resources, lack of protection to all, liminal politics, and humanitarian interventions. These findings surface how the borders' liminality exacerbates the segregation of migrants in transit by placing them in a temporospatial limbo that undermines their right to health. Our study concludes that not just the politics but also the everyday practices, relationships and social infrastructure at borders impedes the enjoyment of the right to health of distressed migrants in transit. The short-term humanitarian response; illicit dynamics at borders; migratory regulations; and border and cross-border political structures are some of the most significant determinants of health at these borderlands.

Bioethics ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718271


Poland has faced two waves of migration: the first was of irregular asylum seekers, which led to the humanitarian crisis on the eastern EU-Belarusian border since 2021; the second was of Ukrainians fleeing the Russian invasion. Although there are noticeable differences between these situations, and between the different reactions of the Polish authorities, it is possible to juxtapose them in terms of the right to health. The normative content of refugee and human rights law is the starting point for reconstructing the meaning of the terms 'refugee' and 'right to health'. A refugee is a person who needs international protection because of a well-founded fear of harm, which is not limited to persecution as defined by the Refugee Convention but also includes situations of international and non-international armed conflict. The right to health, which includes, inter alia, entitlements to a 'system of health protection' and 'underlying determinations of health', is reconstructed on the basis of human rights law and refugee and migration law. There are no legal and moral grounds to grant the right to health differentially to different groups of refugees. Nondiscriminatory health policy requires that refugees have the same access to health care as nationals, although their specific health needs resulting from past experiences and refugee situation require special treatment, that is, an appropriate refugee health policy. The broad understanding of the underlying determinants of health demonstrates the importance of overall migration policy for refugees' health, which can jeopardise the fragile good of refugee health.

Am J Bioeth ; : 1-12, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635451


As the price of pharmaceuticals and biologicals rises so does the number of patients who cannot afford them. In this article, we argue that physicians have a moral duty to help patients access affordable medicines. We offer three grounds to support our argument: (i) the aim of prescribing is to improve health and well-being which can only be realized with secure access to treatment; (ii) there is no morally significant difference between medicines being unavailable and medicines being unaffordable, so the steps physicians are willing to take in the first case should extend to the second; and (iii) as the primary stakeholder with a duty to put the individual patient's interests first, the medical professional has a duty to address cost-barriers to patient care. In articulating this duty, we take account of important epistemic and control conditions that must be met for the attribution of this duty to be justified.

Front Genet ; 15: 1381172, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38638119


In December 2023, the US Food and Drug Administration and the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency granted the first regulatory approval for genome therapy for sickle cell disease. This approval brings hope to those suffering from this debilitating genetic disease. However, several barriers may hinder global patient access, including high treatment costs, obtaining informed consent for minors, inadequate public health infrastructure, and insufficient regulatory oversight. These barriers reflect the structural inequalities inherent in global health governance, where patient access often depends on social and institutional arrangements. This article addresses concerns around informed consent, treatment costs, and patient access, and proposes corresponding policy reforms. We argue that these discussions should be framed within a broader global context that considers social and institutional structures, global research priorities, and a commitment to health equity.

Rev. bioét. derecho ; (60): 75-89, Mar. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-230473


O presente artigo está voltado às questões referentes aos direitos reprodutivos e ao parto cesárea das mulheres em Moçambique. O objetivo foi analisar as ações/estratégias governamentais e não governamentais que visem a efetivação dos direitos reprodutivos das mulheres submetidas ao parto cesárea em Moçambique, discutindo sobre as fragilidades que configuram a violação desses direitos. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados Elsevier, GALE, PubMed, Web of Science e DOAJ a partir da combinação dos descritores cesarean section OR reproductive rights AND Mozambique. Depois de aplicadas as estratégias de inclusão e exclusão, resultaram 13 artigos elegíveis para elaboração do presente estudo. Os resultados apontam para a falta de aplicabilidade das ações governamentais que, apesar de existirem, ainda são ineficazes para que as mulheres de Moçambique tenham seus direitos reprodutivos garantidos e assistidos.(AU)

Aquest article es centra en qüestions relacionades amb els drets reproductius i el part per cesària de les dones a Moçambic. L'objectiu era analitzar les accions/estratègies tant governamentalscom no governamentals que busquen l'efectivitat dels drets reproductius de les dones sotmeses a cesària a Moçambic, discutint les debilitats que constitueixen la violació d'aquests drets. Per fer-ho, es va realitzar una revisió integradora de la literatura a les bases de dades Elsevier, GALE, PubMed, Web of Science i DOAJ a partir de la combinació dels descriptors cesarean section OR reproductive rights AND Mozambique. Després d'aplicar les estratègies d'inclusió i exclusió, es van obtenir 13 articles elegibles per a l'elaboració del present estudi. Els resultats assenyalen la manca d'aplicabilitat de les accions governamentals que, malgrat existir, encara són ineficaços per garantir i atendre els drets reproductius de les dones a Moçambic.(AU)

El presente artículo se centra en cuestiones relacionadas con los derechos reproductivos y el parto por cesárea de las mujeres en Mozambique. El objetivo fue analizar las acciones/estrategias gubernamentales y no gubernamentales que buscan la efectividad de los derechos reproductivos de las mujeres sometidas a cesárea en Mozambique, discutiendo las debilidades que constituyen la violación de estos derechos. Para ello, se realizó una revisión integradora de la literatura en las bases de datos Elsevier, GALE, PubMed, Web of Science y DOAJ a partir de la combinación de los descriptores cesarean section OR reproductive rights AND Mozambique. Después de aplicar las estrategias de inclusión y exclusión, se obtuvieron 13 artículos elegibles para la elaboración del presente estudio. Los resultados señalan la falta de aplicabilidad de las acciones gubernamentales que, a pesar de existir, aún son ineficaces para garantizary atender los derechos reproductivos de las mujeres en Mozambique.(AU)

This article addresses issues related to reproductive rights and cesarean delivery for women in Mozambique. The objective was to analyze governmental and non-governmental actions / strategies aimed at the realization of the reproductive rights of women submitted to cesarean delivery in Mozambique, discussing the weaknesses that constitute the violation of these rights. To this end, an integrative literature review was carried out in the Elsevier, GALE, PubMed, Web of Science and DOAJ databases based on the combination of the descriptors cesarean section OR reproductive rights AND Mozambique. After applying the inclusion and exclusion strategies, 14 articles were eligible for the preparation of this study. The results point to the lack of applicability of government actions that, although they exist, are still ineffective for women in Mozambique to have their reproductive rights fully guaranteed and assisted.(AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Cesárea , 17627 , Bioética , Moçambique
Belitung Nurs J ; 10(1): 96-104, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425679


Background: Men's health is influenced by a complex interplay of social, economic, and cultural determinants. Understanding how these aspects affect the health of adult cisgender men in medium and high-complexity healthcare settings is essential for improving healthcare services and promoting better health outcomes. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the health status of adult cisgender men in medium and high-complexity healthcare settings based on social determinants and conditioners. Methods: This study employed a qualitative design involving 45 adult cisgender men receiving care in medium/high complexity services in Bahia, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from July 2019 to February 2020, and data were interpreted based on Dahlgren and Whitehead's Model of Social Determinants of Health using deductive thematic analysis. Results: Proximal determinants included biological aspects, preventive behaviors, lifestyle/social life, and aging processes. Intermediate factors included work conditions, access/utilization of healthcare services/medications, and psychosocial factors. Macro determinants involved income distribution, power dynamics, resource allocation, health inequalities/iniquities, morbidity, culture, political decisions, environmental factors, and structural elements. Conclusion: The health status of men in medium/high complexity care was profoundly influenced by structural social determinants. These determinants impacted healthcare attention, service organization, cultural influences, the reproduction of hegemonic masculinity patterns, lifestyle, social support, and socioeconomic conditions necessary to realize the right to health. Nursing practices should conduct comprehensive assessments that extend beyond physical health indicators.

Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 13(1): 11-23, jan.-mar.2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538335


Objetivo: discutir el derecho a la protección de la salud en España y su no inclusión en la categoría de derecho fundamental. Metodología: Revisión crítica de documentos normativos españoles e internacionales - Constitución, leyes y tratados internacionales - desde la perspectiva del análisis de la salud como un derecho fundamental. Resultados: La garantía y efectividad del derecho a la salud en España no son satisfactorias, ya que a partir de la regulación legislativa y, a menudo, administrativa del tema, surgen reclamaciones jurídicas bien definidas y exigibles ante los órganos jurisdiccionales, como derechos subjetivos individuales. Esto faculta al legislador introducir retrocesos significativos en la determinación del alcance del derecho a la salud. Conclusión: Se impone una reforma constitucional que signifique la reconfiguración de un derecho y su inclusión en la lista de aquellos considerados fundamentales en la Sección 1ª del Capítulo II del Título I de la Constitución, a fin de dotarlo de un contenido esencial, vinculante para el legislador y para que él mismo sea beneficiario de una garantía jurisdiccional directa y máxima, tanto ordinaria como extraordinaria ante el Tribunal Constitucional.

Objetivo: discutir o direito à proteção da saúde na Espanha e o seu não enquadramento na categoria de direito fundamental. Metodologia: revisão crítica de documentos normativos espanhóis e internacionais ­ Constituição, Leis e tratados internacionais na perspectiva de análise da saúde como um direito fundamental. Resultados: a garantia e efetividade do direito à saúde na Espanha não são satisfatórios visto que a partir da regulamentação legislativa e, muitas vezes, administrativa do tema, surgem reivindicações jurídicas bem definidas e exigíveis perante os órgãos judiciais, como direitos subjetivos individuais. Isso permite ao legislador introduzir retrocessos significativos na determinação do alcance do direito à saúde. Conclusão: Impõe-se uma reforma constitucional que signifique a reconfiguração de um direito e sua inclusão na lista daqueles considerados fundamentais na Seção 1ª do Capítulo II do Título I da Constituição, a fim de dotá-lo de um conteúdo essencial, vinculativo para o legislador e para que ele mesmo seja beneficiário de uma garantia jurisdicional direta e máxima, tanto ordinária quanto extraordinária perante o Tribunal Constitucional.

Objective: to discuss the right to health protection in Spain and its non-inclusion in the category of fundamental rights. Methodology: Critical review of Spanish and international normative documents - Constitution, laws, and international treaties - from the perspective of analyzing health as a fundamental right. Results: The guarantee and effectiveness of the right to health in Spain are not satisfactory, as from the legislative and often administrative regulation of the topic, well-defined and enforceable legal claims arise before judicial bodies, as individual subjective rights. This allows the legislator to introduce significant setbacks in determining the scope of the right to health. Conclusion: A constitutional reform is necessary to reconfigure a right and include it in the list of those considered fundamental in Section 1 of Chapter II of Title I of the Constitution, in order to endow it with an essential content, binding for the legislator, and so that it itself benefits from direct and maximum jurisdictional guarantee, both ordinary and extraordinary, before the Constitutional Court.

Direito Sanitário
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 13(1): 36-50, jan.-mar.2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538362


Objetivo: analisar os processos de saúde, de medicamentos e de medicamentos antineoplásicos em Minas Gerais, em 2014 a 2020, a partir da comparação de diferentes bases de dados. Metodologia: foram utilizadas técnicas de pareamento de bases de dados entre os processos existentes no Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de Minas Gerais e os processos recebidos pela Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Minas Gerais, descreveram-se as dificuldades encontradas na identificação e quantificação desses processos, e os resultados encontrados foram comparados com informações provenientes de outras fontes. Resultados: nas bases do Tribunal de Justiça de Minas Gerais foram identificados 564.763 processos de saúde. Houve um aumento significativo do número de processos até 2017 e uma estabilização, em patamares altos, a partir de 2017. Ao comparar com os resultados obtidos pelo Instituto Superior de Ensino e Pesquisa e pelo Laboratório de Inovação, Inteligência e Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável, houve uma importante divergência nos números de processos. Tomando como exemplo a judicialização de saúde contra o estado de Minas Gerais, não foi possível encontrar de forma direta todos os processos recebidos pela Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Minas Gerais nas diversas bases fornecidas pelo Tribunal de Justiça de Minas Gerais, tendo sido necessária uma integração entre as diferentes bases de dados e uma busca adicional para identificar todos os processos. Conclusão: recomendam-se a padronização e organização dos dados dos processos judiciais em saúde, já na entrada de dados, para facilitar a realização de estudos quantitativos sobre a judicialização da saúde.

Objective: to analyze the health, drug, and antineoplastic drug lawsuits in Minas Gerais, in 2014 to 2020, from the comparison of different databases. Methodology: database pairing techniques were used to link lawsuits from the Minas Gerais State Court of Justice with the processes received by the Minas Gerais Health State Department, the difficulties encountered in identifying and quantifying these processes were described, and the results found were compared with information from other sources. Results: in the Minas Gerais State Court of Justice databases, 564,763 health lawsuits were identified in the studied period. There was a significant increase in the number of processes until 2017 and a stabilization, at high levels, from 2017 onwards. In comparison with the results obtained by the Institute of Higher Education and Research and the Laboratory of Innovation, Intelligence and Sustainable Development Goals there was a great divergence in the number of processes found. Conclusion: taking the health judicialization against Minas Gerais state as an example, it was not possible to directly find all the processes received by Minas Gerais Health State Department in the various databases provided by the Minas Gerais State Court of Justice, requiring integration between the different databases and an additional search to identify all processes.

Objetivo: analizar los juicios de salud, drogas y medicamentos antineoplásicos en Minas Gerais, en 2014 a 2020, a partir de la comparación de diferentes bases de datos. Metodología: técnicas de emparejamiento de bases de datos fueron utilizadas para vincular los juicios existentes en el Tribunal de Justicia del Estado de Minas Gerais con los procesos recibidos por la Secretaría de Estado de Salud de Minas Gerais, las dificultades encontradas en la identificación y cuantificación de esos procesos fueron descritas, y los resultados encontrados fueron comparados con informaciones de otras fuentes. Resultados: en las bases del Tribunal de Justicia del Estado de Minas Gerais se identificaron 564.763 procesos de salud. Hubo un aumento significativo en el número de procesos hasta 2017 y una estabilización, en niveles altos, a partir de 2017. Sin embargo, al comparar con los resultados obtenidos por el Instituto Superior de Educación e Investigación y por el Laboratorio de Innovación, Inteligencia y Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible hubo una divergencia importante en el número de procesos. Conclusión: tomando como ejemplo la judicialización de la salud contra el estado de Minas Gerais, no era posible encontrar directamente todos los procesos recibidos por la Secretaría de Estado de Salud de Minas Gerais en las diversas bases de datos proporcionadas por el Tribunal de Justicia del Estado de Minas Gerais, lo que requería una integración entre las diferentes bases de datos y una búsqueda adicional a identificar todos los procesos.

Direito Sanitário
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 13(1): 69-82, jan.-mar.2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538385


Objetivo: identificar se a situação pandêmica interferiu na extensão e no modo como as questões referentes ao direito à saúde foram apreciadas pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal. Metodologia: foi realizada pesquisa documental, que, após consulta na base de dados do Supremo Tribunal Federal, com o filtro pelo termo "saúde", retornou um total de 1.178 acórdãos, sendo 447 do período pré-pandêmico e 731 do período pandêmico, os quais foram analisados e classificados conforme a pertinência temática. Após os descartes da etapa de classificação, identificaram-se 70 acórdãos no período pré-pandêmico e 167 acórdãos no pandêmico que versam efetivamente sobre o direito à saúde. Resultados: a pandemia impôs inúmeros desafios ao sistema de saúde, de modo que o Poder Judiciário foi instado a se manifestar ante às controvérsias ora instauradas. Nessas manifestações, identificou-se que houve aumento nas demandas de controle concentrado e no quantitativo absoluto de decisões envolvendo o direito à saúde, bem como que qualitativamente, em geral, o padrão decisório anterior foi mantido, embora novos temas tenham surgido. Conclusão: o estudo concluiu que a tendência da Suprema Corte permanece favorável ao reconhecimento de direitos sanitários, tendo, para tal, argumentos como a não ofensa à separação de poderes e a impossibilidade de arguir a reserva do possível para impedir sua concessão.

Objective: to identify whether the pandemic situation interfered with the extent and way in which issues relating to the right to health were assessed by the Federal Supreme Court. Methodology: documentary research was carried out, which, after consulting the Federal Supreme Court database, with the filter using the term "health", returned a total of 1,178 rulings, 447 from the pre-pandemic period and 731 from the pandemic period, which were analyzed and classified according to thematic relevance. After the classification stage discards, 70 rulings were identified in the pre-pandemic period and 167 rulings in the pandemic that effectively deal with the right to health. Results: the pandemic imposed numerous challenges on the health system, so that the Judiciary was urged to speak out in the face of the now established controversies. In these manifestations, it was identified that there was an increase in demands for concentrated control and in the absolute quantity of decisions involving the right to health, as well as that qualitatively, in general, the previous decision-making pattern was maintained, although new themes have emerged. Conclusion: the study concluded that the Supreme Court's tendency remains in favor of the recognition of health rights, using arguments such as the non-offense of the separation of powers and the impossibility of arguing on the possible reservation to prevent their granting.

Objetivo: identificar si la situación de pandemia interfirió en el alcance y la forma en que las cuestiones relativas al derecho a la salud fueron evaluadas por el Supremo Tribunal Federal. Metodología: se realizó una investigación documental que, consultada la base de datos del Supremo Tribunal Federal, con el filtro del término "salud", arrojó un total de 1.178 sentencias, 447 del período prepandemia y 731 del período pandémico, que fueron analizados y clasificados según relevancia temática. Descartada la etapa de clasificación, se identificaron 70 sentencias en el período prepandemia y 167 sentencias en la pandemia que abordan efectivamente el derecho a la salud. Resultados: la pandemia impuso numerosos desafíos al sistema de salud, por lo que se instó al Poder Judicial a pronunciarse ante las controversias ahora establecidas. En estas manifestaciones se identificó que hubo un aumento en las demandas de control concentrado y en la cantidad absoluta de decisiones que abordan el derecho a la salud, así como que cualitativamente, en general, se mantuvo el patrón de toma de decisiones anterior, aunque han surgido nuevos temas. Conclusión: el estudio concluyó que se mantiene la tendencia de la Corte Suprema a favor del reconocimiento de los derechos a la salud, utilizando argumentos como la no infracción de la separación de poderes y la imposibilidad de argumentar la reserva de lo posible para impedir su otorgamiento.

Direito Sanitário
Clin Ter ; 175(1): 7-10, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358470


Abstract: The first act of assisted suicide in Italy was recently carried out. This event is an absolute novelty for the country, affected by recent legislative changes aimed only at introducing the right to interrupt health treatments and, therefore, carry out exclusively omissive end-of-life acts. These normative provisions lay their foundations in a cultural context centered on the protection of the right to life and health; however, the cases that have occurred over time, including the famous story of DJ Fabo, have led the Constitutional Court to re-evaluate these dictates, introducing in 2019 the right to resort to assisted suicide procedures within well-defined areas, including incurability of the condition, the serious suffering of the individual and the retained ability to stand trial. The case addressed concerns a quadriplegic subject who was the victim of a road accident. Following consultation with a specialized institution, the subject made the decision to undergo an assisted sui-cide procedure in Italy. Having obtained the authorization from the competent authorities, he started a fundraiser to finance the devices and drugs required and, finally, he died. The opening by Italy towards the assisted suicide procedure represents a great step towards a broad context, as well as a decisive act for the purpose of protecting the right to self-determination of the individual. However, the current legislative framework presents significant criticalities and shortcomings. In first place, the dissonance between the laws in force and the judicial sentences is likely to generate problems of uneven application of the rules in a country dominated by the principle of Civil Law. Furthermore, the need for the applicant to fully self-finance the procedure clearly clashes with the constitutional principle of free access to care. Then emerges the need for a guideline document regarding the completion of the procedure itself, the times, methods and drugs implied, in order to significantly reduce the decision-making process by the ethics committees that still weighs on each individual case. Finally, conside-ring what has been observed on the subject of voluntary termination of pregnancy, it is necessary to ask what will be the general orientation of the doctors called to perform the act and whether they will be given the opportunity to express their refusal. The case analyzed could represent the beginning of a new era for Italian culture, but the large-scale application of assisted suicide procedures requires the introduction of legislative provisions that definitively eliminate the critical issues that have emerged so far.

Suicídio Assistido , Humanos , Masculino , Morte , População Europeia , Itália , Autonomia Pessoal , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência
J Pediatr Nurs ; 76: 106-113, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368732


PURPOSE: Children's rights must be realized in all children-related settings, such as hospitals. This study aimed to assess children's rights in hospital settings in Afghanistan in 2021. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using the World Health Organization questionnaire was conducted. It was distributed among the randomly selected healthcare providers in the studied hospital. One hundred forty-two hospital managers, physicians, and nurses participated in the study. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the results in SPSS. RESULTS: In this study, 54.2% of participants were men, 59.9% had a bachelor's degree, and most were 20-30 years old (56.7%). The total score of the hospital in fulfilling children's rights was 1.71 ± 0.46. Among different children's rights, "equality and non-discrimination" received the highest score (2.01 ± 0.59), and the lowest was for "play and learning" (1.1 ± 0.46). There was a meaningful relationship between education level, years of work experience, and the scores given to children's rights. Various dimensions of the rights had significant relationships (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The hospital has taken action to fulfill children's rights. The main gaps include the lack of adolescent-friendly health services, opportunities to play and learn, and child protection. Hospital managers, staff, and the public should be educated on children's rights. Moreover, protocols for improving children's rights and a monitoring system are needed. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Children's rights should receive special attention in hospitals. Educating children, parents, service providers, health policymakers, and society about children's rights is essential. They should know their responsibilities regarding children.

Criança , Direito à Saúde , Humanos , Afeganistão , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(2)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275555


The aim of this research is to explore nurses' experiences in caring for migrants, regular and non-regular, within outpatient clinics in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen nurses have been interviewed through online semi-structured interviews, conducted with the support of a questionnaire, made by researchers, consisting of open-ended questions on legislative issues, cultural issues, and regarding best practices. Purposive sampling has been used, along with phone and email recruitment. The audio recordings of the interviews were verbatim transcribed, then examined. This study is a qualitative descriptive fundamental research project. RESULTS: Interviewees highlight migrants' difficulties in accessing care, critical points of legislation, transcultural skills crucial to nurses, and good practices. A total of 105 labels were developed and grouped into 23 categories under 7 themes (Italian legislation and migrants; structural difficulties in assistance; the influence of politics; the work of NGOs and associations; nursing care; winning strategies; and the role of the Family and Community Nurse). CONCLUSION: The research highlights how access to care for migrants is hindered by legislative, structural, and cultural barriers, with consequences on the NHS (improper accesses to the emergency room, increased workload, and economic expenditure). For the full realization of the right to health, as enshrined by Art. 32 of the Constitution, changes are needed with respect to regulations and professionals' training.

J Aging Phys Act ; 32(3): 360-369, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262407


Physical activity improves the well-being of persons living with dementia but few exercise programs include them. The Dementia-Inclusive Choices for Exercise (DICE) toolkit aims to improve exercise providers' understanding of dementia and ability to support persons living with dementia in physical activity. We evaluated the co-designed DICE toolkit with exercise providers using a mixed-methods approach comprising pre/post questionnaires and interviews and reflection diaries. Among 16 participants, self-efficacy for exercise delivery to persons living with dementia and both knowledge and attitudes toward dementia significantly improved. Thematic analysis suggested participants (a) had a deeper understanding of the variability of dementia, (b) were planning for equitable access for persons living with dementia, (c) planned to promote social connection through exercise, and (d) were optimistic for future engagement with persons living with dementia. The DICE toolkit may improve exercise providers' knowledge and confidence to plan proactively to support persons living with dementia in programs and services.

Demência , Exercício Físico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Demência/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Idoso
Am J Bioeth ; 24(3): 71-85, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876959


This paper problematizes the precision medicine approach embraced by the All of Us Research Program (US) and by Genomics England (UK) in terms of benefits distribution, by arguing that current "diversity and inclusion" efforts do not prevent exclusiveness, unless the framing and scope of the projects are revisited in public health terms. Grounded on document analysis and fieldwork interviews, this paper analyzes efforts to address potential patterns of exclusion upstream (from participating in precision medicine research) and downstream (from benefitting from precision medicine outputs). It argues that efforts for inclusion upstream are not corresponded downstream, and this unbalance jeopardizes the equitable capacities of the projects. It concludes that enhanced focus on socio-environmental determinants of health and aligned public health interventions as precision medicine outputs would be to the benefit of all and especially of those who are most at risk of (upstream as well as downstream) exclusion.

Saúde da População , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Saúde Pública , Inglaterra , Genômica
Med Law Rev ; 32(1): 1-19, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37414525


Asylum-seekers, like any population, need healthcare services, yet national laws sometimes restrict access to such services. The European Social Charter (revised) protects the right to health and medical services. However, the Charter has a complex application, and its scope is limited concerning foreigners. This article analyses to what extent the provisions of the Charter on the right to health and medical assistance apply to adult asylum-seekers. It shows that the Charter may apply to various degrees to asylum-seekers depending on several circumstances, such as the national definition of residence or regular work, grounds for seeking asylum, citizenship or lack thereof. Depending on these factors, some asylum-seekers may receive full healthcare services, whereas others may have only limited rights. The article shows that the migrant statuses created by national and EU law do not fit in the system of statuses in the Charter, which might produce legal hindrances to accessing health-related rights for asylum-seekers. The article also discusses the possible ways for the European Committee of Social Rights to further expand the scope of the Charter's application.

Refugiados , Direito à Saúde , Adulto , Humanos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 39(1): 9-21, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37740542


Public funding of assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) is a controversial issue. Some health systems have proposed public funding of ARTs. In recent years, there has been evidence of a change in the line of jurisprudence and legislation in Colombia about this topic. This article analyzes the tension between the recognition of individual sexual and reproductive rights and the common good, in terms of the sustainability of the health system and the reasonable use of limited resources to meet the health needs of the population. This article concludes that, despite regulatory progress, there has been a lack of corresponding progress in their effective implementation and the recognition of reproductive rights.

Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Humanos , Colômbia , Comportamento Sexual
Audiol., Commun. res ; 29: e2728, 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533840


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o impacto da judicialização na realização da cirurgia de implante coclear no Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil, incluindo o serviço público e a saúde suplementar. Métodos Foi realizado um levantamento documental de acórdãos de todos os tribunais nacionais e a jurisprudência dominante, voltados à cirurgia do implante coclear no Sistema Único de Saúde, no período de 2007 a 2019, por meio da Plataforma Jusbrasil, utilizando o termo "implante coclear" para realização da busca. Também foi realizado um levantamento na plataforma DATASUS (Departamento de Informação do Sistema Único de Saúde) sobre quantos procedimentos de implante coclear unilateral e bilateral foram realizados no mesmo período. Resultados De acordo com o DATASUS, no período de 2008 a 2019 foram realizados 8.857 procedimentos de cirurgia de implante coclear pelos entes públicos ou pelas operadoras dos planos de saúde no país. Com relação à judicialização para solicitação da cirurgia do implante coclear, unilateral ou bilateral, foram encontrados 216 processos, representando 2,43% dos casos. Conclusão A judicialização da saúde, quando se considera a cirurgia do implante coclear, tem representado uma parcela mínima dos casos, o que demonstra baixo impacto no orçamento público e não tem expressiva ação na organização do Sistema Único de Saúde.

ABSTRACT Purpose To describe the impact of Judicialization on the performance of Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), including the public service and supplementary health. Methods A documentary survey of judgments of all National Courts and the Dominant Jurisprudence focused on CI surgery in the SUS from 2007 to 2019 was carried out through the Jusbrasil Platform using the term "cochlear implant" to carry out the search. A survey was also carried out on the DATASUS platform on how many uni and bilateral CI procedures were performed in the same period. Results According to DATASUS, from 2008 to 2019, 8,857 CI surgery procedures were performed by Public Entities or Health Plan Operators in the country. With regard to Judicialization, for requesting unilateral or bilateral CI surgery, a total of 216 processes were found, representing a total of 2.43% of Judicialization of Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery. Conclusion In view of the data, it is possible to perceive that the Judicialization of Health when we consider the CI surgery has represented a small portion of the cases, which does not demonstrate a large impact on the public budget and does not have an impact on the organization of the SUS.

Humanos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Implante Coclear/legislação & jurisprudência , Implante Coclear/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Suplementar , Judicialização da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(2): e18462022, 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528371


Resumo O surgimento de associações civis em prol da cannabis se iniciou na década de 2010. Diante da inércia do Estado, essas organizações têm atuado no acolhimento, apoio, informação, capacitação e facilitação do acesso de pacientes e familiares a medicamento produzido à base de maconha, substância proibida no Brasil. Este estudo visa analisar como o ativismo canábico promovido pelas associações brasileiras se fundamenta em conhecimentos científicos ou adquiridos pela vivência dos associados. A metodologia englobou entrevistas com participantes das associações ACuCa, Ama+me e Apepi e análise de conteúdo dos perfis dessas instituições no Instagram. Verificou-se que o ativismo canábico no Instagram apresenta semelhanças com aquele praticado presencialmente, no entanto, o ativismo nas mídias sociais prioriza a divulgação do conhecimento pela informação e capacitação de seus seguidores, tendo o cuidado de tratar o conteúdo para se adequar às diretrizes da plataforma. Além disso, as principais linhas de atuação do associativismo canábico (acolhimento e distribuição de óleos medicinais) aparecem de forma velada nas publicações, sendo que em sua maioria ocorrem em conversas privadas nos meios de comunicação com as associações.

Abstract The emergence of civil associations in favor of cannabis began in the 2010s. Faced with the inertia of the State, these organizations have acted in the reception, support, information, training, and facilitation of access for patients and their families to the medicine produced from marijuana, a prohibited substance in Brazil. This study aims to analyze how cannabis activism promoted by Brazilian associations is based on scientific knowledge or knowledge acquired through the experience of members. The methodology included interviews with participants from the ACuCa, Ama+me, and Apepi associations, as well as the Content Analysis of the profiles of these institutions on Instagram. It was found that cannabis activism on Instagram is similar to that practiced in person; however, activism on social media prioritizes the dissemination of knowledge through information and training of its followers, being careful to treat the content in order to suit the guidelines of the platform. In addition, the main lines of action of cannabis associations (reception and distribution of medicinal oils) appear in a veiled way in the publications, most of which occur through private conversations in the media with the associations.