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1.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 189-204, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229950

RESUMO

Delayed wound healing is an urgent clinical issue. Cellular communication involving exosome-borne cargo such as miRNA is a critical mechanism involved in wound healing. This study isolated and identified human adipose tissue-derived exosomes (Exo-ATs). The specific effects of Exo-ATs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts were examined. Enriched miRNAs in Exo-ATs were analyzed, and miR-92a-3p was selected. The transfer of Exo-ATs-derived miR-92a-3p to keratinocytes and fibroblasts was verified. miR-92a-3p binding to LATS2 was examined and the dynamic effects of the miR-92a-3p/LATS2 axis were investigated. In a dorsal skin wound model, the in vivo effects of Exo-ATs on wound healing were examined. Exo-AT incubation increased keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. miR-92a-3p, enriched in Exo-ATs, could be transferred to keratinocytes and fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation. Large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) was a direct target of miR-92a-3p. miR-92a-3p inhibitor effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be partially reversed by LATS2 knockdown. In a dorsal skin wound model, Exo-ATs accelerated wound healing through enhanced cell proliferation, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and YAP/TAZ activation. In conclusion, Exo-ATs improve skin wound healing by promoting keratinocyte and fibroblast migration and proliferation and collagen production by fibroblast, which could be partially eliminated by miR-92a inhibition through its downstream target LATS2 and the YAP/TAZ signaling. (AU)


Assuntos
Exossomos , Cicatrização , Proliferação de Células
2.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 189-204, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-576

RESUMO

Delayed wound healing is an urgent clinical issue. Cellular communication involving exosome-borne cargo such as miRNA is a critical mechanism involved in wound healing. This study isolated and identified human adipose tissue-derived exosomes (Exo-ATs). The specific effects of Exo-ATs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts were examined. Enriched miRNAs in Exo-ATs were analyzed, and miR-92a-3p was selected. The transfer of Exo-ATs-derived miR-92a-3p to keratinocytes and fibroblasts was verified. miR-92a-3p binding to LATS2 was examined and the dynamic effects of the miR-92a-3p/LATS2 axis were investigated. In a dorsal skin wound model, the in vivo effects of Exo-ATs on wound healing were examined. Exo-AT incubation increased keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. miR-92a-3p, enriched in Exo-ATs, could be transferred to keratinocytes and fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation. Large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) was a direct target of miR-92a-3p. miR-92a-3p inhibitor effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be partially reversed by LATS2 knockdown. In a dorsal skin wound model, Exo-ATs accelerated wound healing through enhanced cell proliferation, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and YAP/TAZ activation. In conclusion, Exo-ATs improve skin wound healing by promoting keratinocyte and fibroblast migration and proliferation and collagen production by fibroblast, which could be partially eliminated by miR-92a inhibition through its downstream target LATS2 and the YAP/TAZ signaling. (AU)


Assuntos
Exossomos , Cicatrização , Proliferação de Células
3.
J Physiol Biochem ; 80(1): 189-204, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041784

RESUMO

Delayed wound healing is an urgent clinical issue. Cellular communication involving exosome-borne cargo such as miRNA is a critical mechanism involved in wound healing. This study isolated and identified human adipose tissue-derived exosomes (Exo-ATs). The specific effects of Exo-ATs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts were examined. Enriched miRNAs in Exo-ATs were analyzed, and miR-92a-3p was selected. The transfer of Exo-ATs-derived miR-92a-3p to keratinocytes and fibroblasts was verified. miR-92a-3p binding to LATS2 was examined and the dynamic effects of the miR-92a-3p/LATS2 axis were investigated. In a dorsal skin wound model, the in vivo effects of Exo-ATs on wound healing were examined. Exo-AT incubation increased keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. miR-92a-3p, enriched in Exo-ATs, could be transferred to keratinocytes and fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation. Large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) was a direct target of miR-92a-3p. miR-92a-3p inhibitor effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be partially reversed by LATS2 knockdown. In a dorsal skin wound model, Exo-ATs accelerated wound healing through enhanced cell proliferation, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and YAP/TAZ activation. In conclusion, Exo-ATs improve skin wound healing by promoting keratinocyte and fibroblast migration and proliferation and collagen production by fibroblast, which could be partially eliminated by miR-92a inhibition through its downstream target LATS2 and the YAP/TAZ signaling.


Assuntos
Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
4.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 13(10): e2302607, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38118064

RESUMO

Stem cells are regulated not only by biochemical signals but also by biophysical properties of extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is constantly monitored and remodeled because the fate of stem cells can be misdirected when the mechanical interaction between cells and ECM is imbalanced. A well-defined ECM model for bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) based on supramolecular hydrogels containing reversible host-guest crosslinks is fabricated. The stiffness (Young's modulus E) of the hydrogels can be switched reversibly by altering the concentration of non-cytotoxic, free guest molecules dissolved in the culture medium. Fine-adjustment of substrate stiffness enables the authors to determine the critical stiffness level E* at which hMSCs turn the mechano-sensory machinery on or off. Next, the substrate stiffness across E* is switched and the dynamic adaptation characteristics such as morphology, traction force, and YAP/TAZ signaling of hMSCs are monitored. These data demonstrate the instantaneous switching of traction force, which is followed by YAP/TAZ signaling and morphological adaptation. Periodical switching of the substrate stiffness across E* proves that frequent applications of mechanical stimuli drastically suppress hMSC proliferation. Mechanical stimulation across E* level using dynamic hydrogels is a promising strategy for the on-demand control of hMSC transcription and proliferation.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Humanos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Transdução de Sinais , Matriz Extracelular , Módulo de Elasticidade
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(19)2023 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37835395

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway transcriptional co-activators, YES-associated protein (YAP) and Transcriptional Co-Activator with PDZ Binding Motif (TAZ), have both been linked to tumor progression and metastasis. These two proteins possess overlapping and distinct functions, and their activities lead to the expression of genes involved in multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, survival, and migration. The dysregulation of YAP/TAZ-dependent cellular processes can result in altered tumor growth and metastasis. In addition to their well-documented roles in the regulation of cancer cell growth, survival, migration, and invasion, the YAP/TAZ-dependent signaling pathways have been more recently implicated in cellular processes that promote metastasis and therapy resistance in several solid tumor types. This review highlights the role of YAP/TAZ signaling networks in the regulation of tumor cell plasticity mediated by hybrid and reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) states, and the promotion of cancer stem cell/progenitor phenotypes. Mechanistically, YAP and TAZ regulate these cellular processes by targeting transcriptional networks. In this review, we detail recently uncovered mechanisms whereby YAP and TAZ mediate tumor growth, metastasis, and therapy resistance, and discuss new therapeutic strategies to target YAP/TAZ function in various solid tumor types. Understanding the distinct and overlapping roles of YAP and TAZ in multiple cellular processes that promote tumor progression to metastasis is expected to enable the identification of effective therapies to treat solid tumors through the hyper-activation of YAP and TAZ.

6.
Genes Dis ; 10(6): 2528-2539, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37554194

RESUMO

Bone defects caused by diseases or surgery are a common clinical problem. Researchers are devoted to finding biological mechanisms that accelerate bone defect repair, which is a complex and continuous process controlled by many factors. As members of transcriptional costimulatory molecules, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) play an important regulatory role in osteogenesis, and they affect cell function by regulating the expression of osteogenic genes in osteogenesis-related cells. Macrophages are an important group of cells whose function is regulated by YAP/TAZ. Currently, the relationship between YAP/TAZ and macrophage polarization has attracted increasing attention. In bone tissue, YAP/TAZ can realize diverse osteogenic regulation by mediating macrophage polarization. Macrophages polarize into M1 and M2 phenotypes under different stimuli. M1 macrophages dominate the inflammatory response by releasing a number of inflammatory mediators in the early phase of bone defect repair, while massive aggregation of M2 macrophages is beneficial for inflammation resolution and tissue repair, as they secrete many anti-inflammatory and osteogenesis-related cytokines. The mechanism of YAP/TAZ-mediated macrophage polarization during osteogenesis warrants further study and it is likely to be a promising strategy for bone defect repair. In this article, we review the effect of Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling and macrophage polarization on bone defect repair, and highlight the regulation of macrophage polarization by YAP/TAZ.

7.
Andrology ; 11(7): 1514-1527, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37042189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) and weakness of the penis are processes related to hemodynamic alteration. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), as a new mechanical modality for the treatment of ED, deserves to be explored in depth for the biomechanical mechanisms it exerts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of YAP/TAZ-mediated mechanotransduction in mechanical therapy for the treatment of neurogenic erectile dysfunction (NED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two male SD rats (12 w old) were randomly divided into sham-operated (n = 14), bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI, n = 14), and LIPUS-treated (n = 14) groups. Intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) was measured 14 and 28 days after treatment. Penile tissue specimens were collected for pathological examination, and the changes in YAP, TAZ, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), CYR61, LATS1, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression levels were assessed by Western blot, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunological staining. RESULTS: Compared with BCNI, LIPUS significantly improved ICP/MAP levels and enhanced histopathological changes. The penile expression levels of YAP, TAZ, CTGF, and CYR61 were significantly downregulated in the BCNI group (p < 0.01), and LIPUS upregulated the expression levels of these proteins (p < 0.05). The expression levels of p-LATS1 and LATS1 were not significantly different among the groups (p > 0.05). Interestingly, the expression level of p-p38/p38 significantly increased in BCNI rats (p < 0.05), which was reversed by LIPUS treatment (p < 0.05). However, the p38 inhibitor SB203580 did not change the expression of YAP/TAZ in rat primary smooth muscle cells or mouse MOVAS cells (p > 0.05). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: LIPUS can effectively improve penile erectile function in NED rats. The underlying mechanism may be related to the regulation of YAP/TAZ-mediated mechanotransduction. However, the upstream regulatory signal may differ from the classical Hippo pathway.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Mecanotransdução Celular , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ereção Peniana , Pênis/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas
8.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 42(1): 10, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttranscriptional modification of tumor-associated factors plays a pivotal role in breast cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. M6A modifications in cancer cells are dynamic and reversible and have been found to impact tumor initiation and progression through various mechanisms. In this study, we explored the regulatory mechanism of breast cancer cell proliferation and metabolism through m6A methylation in the Hippo pathway.  METHODS: A combination of MeRIP-seq, RNA-seq and metabolomics-seq was utilized to reveal a map of m6A modifications in breast cancer tissues and cells. We conducted RNA pull-down assays, RIP-qPCR, MeRIP-qPCR, and RNA stability analysis to identify the relationship between m6A proteins and LATS1 in m6A regulation in breast cancer cells. The expression and biological functions of m6A proteins were confirmed in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated the phosphorylation levels and localization of YAP/TAZ to reveal that the activity of the Hippo pathway was affected by m6A regulation of LATS1 in breast cancer cells.  RESULTS: We demonstrated that m6A regulation plays an important role in proliferation and glycolytic metabolism in breast cancer through the Hippo pathway factor, LATS1. METTL3 was identified as the m6A writer, with YTHDF2 as the reader protein of LATS1 mRNA, which plays a positive role in promoting both tumorigenesis and glycolysis in breast cancer. High levels of m6A modification were induced by METTL3 in LATS1 mRNA. YTHDF2 identified m6A sites in LATS1 mRNA and reduced its stability. Knockout of the protein expression of METTL3 or YTHDF2 increased the expression of LATS1 mRNA and suppressed breast cancer tumorigenesis by activating YAP/TAZ in the Hippo pathway. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we discovered that the METTL3-LATS1-YTHDF2 pathway plays an important role in the progression of breast cancer by activating YAP/TAZ in the Hippo pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Metilação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo
9.
Biomedicines ; 10(11)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359354

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway regulates and contributes to several hallmarks of prostate cancer (PCa). Although the elucidation of YAP function in PCa is in its infancy, emerging studies have shed light on the role of aberrant Hippo pathway signaling in PCa development and progression. YAP overexpression and nuclear localization has been linked to poor prognosis and resistance to treatment, highlighting a therapeutic potential that may suggest innovative strategies to treat cancer. This review aimed to summarize available data on the biological function of the dysregulated Hippo pathway in PCa and identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed for optimizing the development of YAP-targeted treatment strategies in patients likely to benefit.

10.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1015709, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276068

RESUMO

Laminin is an extracellular matrix multidomain trimeric glycoprotein, that has a potential role in tumor progression. Here, we studied the effects of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells interaction on laminin and explored the underlying mechanism of laminin associated NSCLC progression. Culture of A549 and NCI-1299 cells on 2D collagen gels (containing laminin) significantly promoted the proliferative and tumorigenic characteristics, as well as cell invasion of tumor cells in vitro. Consistently, comparing the clinical NSCLC tumor tissues, a poor overall survival was observed in patients with high laminin expression. Mechanistically, the expression of integrin α6ß4 was required for the pro-tumor effects of laminin. Meanwhile, we showed that the downstream signaling of integrin α6ß4, involved the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Yes-Associated Protein (YAP)/TAZ signaling pathway. The activation of FAK/YAP/TAZ signaling pathway induced by laminin was validated in tumor tissues from NSCLC patients. Suppression of integrin α6ß4/FAK/YAP/TAZ signaling pathway efficiently suppressed the laminin-induced tumor growth, and strengthened the anticancer effects of chemotherapy, describing a novel target for NSCLC treatment.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326638

RESUMO

Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formed by aggressive tumor cells to create vascular networks connected with the endothelial cells, plays an important role in breast cancer progression. WISP2 has been considered as a tumor suppressor protein; however, the relationship between WISP2 and VM formation remains unclear. We used the in vitro tube formation assay and in vivo immunohistochemical analysis in a mouse model, and human breast tumors were used to evaluate the effect of WISP2 on VM formation. Here we report that WISP2 acts as a potent inhibitor of VM formation in breast cancer. Enforced expression of WISP2 decreased network formation while knockdown of WISP2 increased VM. Mechanistically, WISP2 increased retention of oncogenic activators YAP/TAZ in cytoplasm, leading to decreased expression of the angiogenic factor CYR61. Studies using an in vivo mouse model and human breast tumors confirmed the in vitro cell lines data. In conclusion, our results indicate that WISP2 may play a critical role in VM and highlight the critical role of WISP2 as a tumor suppressor.

12.
Cell Transplant ; 31: 9636897221075749, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168393

RESUMO

Statins are first-line drugs used to control patient lipid levels, but there is recent evidence that statin treatment can lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence by 50% and prolong CRC patient survival through mechanisms that are poorly understood. In this study, we found that the treatment of APCmin mice by the mevalonate pathway inhibitor lovastatin significantly reduced the number of colonic masses and improved hypersplenism and peripheral anemia. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of colonic mass tissues showed a potent inhibitory effect in both Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and YAP/TAZ signaling in the lovastatin treatment group. The results of our transcriptomic analyses in RKO indicated that lovastatin regulated several proliferation-related signaling pathways. Moreover, lovastatin suppressed important genes and proteins related to the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin and alternative Wnt-YAP/TAZ signaling pathways in RKO and SW480 cells, and these effects were rescued by mevalonic acid (MVA), as confirmed through a series of Western blotting, RT-PCR, and reporter assays. Given that statins suppress oncogenic processes primarily through the inhibition of Rho GTPase in the mevalonate pathway, we speculate that lovastatin can inhibit certain Rho GTPases to suppress both canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and alternative Wnt-YAP/TAZ signaling. In RKO cells, lovastatin showed similar inhibitory properties as the RhoA inhibitor CCG1423, being able to inhibit ß-catenin, TAZ, and p-LATS1 protein activity. Our results revealed that lovastatin inhibited RhoA activity, thereby suppressing the downstream canonical Wnt/ß-catenin and alternative Wnt-YAP/TAZ pathways in colon cancer cells. These inhibitory properties suggest the promise of statins as a treatment for CRC. Altogether, the present findings support the potential clinical use of statins in non-cardiovascular contexts and highlight novel targets for anticancer treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , beta Catenina , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Lovastatina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/farmacologia
13.
Cancer Lett ; 527: 164-173, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952145

RESUMO

As the downstream effectors of Hippo pathway, YAP/TAZ are identified to participate in organ growth, regeneration and tumorigenesis. However, owing to lack of a DNA-binding domain, YAP/TAZ usually act as coactivators and cooperate with other transcription factors or partners to mediate their transcriptional outputs. In this article, we first present an overview of the core components and the upstream regulators of Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling in mammals, and then systematically summarize the identified transcription factors or partners that are responsible for the downstream transcriptional output of YAP/TAZ in various cancers.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 172-180, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945400

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway is a highly conserved kinase cascade in mammals with the proteins YAP and TAZ as its most important downstream effectors that shuttle between cytoplasma and nucleus. It has a crucial role in processes such as embryogenesis, organ size control, homeostasis and tissue regeneration, where mechanosensing and/or cell-cell interactions are involved. As the pathway is associated with many essential functions in the body, its dysregulation is related to many diseases. In contrast to human pathology, a PubMed-search on Hippo, YAP/TAZ and companion animals (horse, equine, dog, canine, cat, feline) retrieved few publications. Because of its high level of functional conservation, it is anticipated that also in veterinary sciences aberrant Hippo YAP/TAZ signaling would be implicated in animal pathologies. Publications on Hippo YAP/TAZ in companion animals are mainly in cats and dogs and related to oncology. Here, we emphasize the important role of YAP/TAZ in liver diseases. First the liver has a remarkable regeneration capacity and a strict size control and the liver has a moderate liver cell renewal (homeostasis). The last years numerous papers show the importance of YAP/TAZ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatocyte differentiation and bile duct epithelial (BEC) cell survival. YAP/TAZ signaling is involved in activation of hepatic stellate cells crucial in fibrogenesis. The availability of drugs (e.g. verteporfin) targeting the YAP/TAZ pathway are described as is their potential usage in veterinary medicine. The aim of this overview is to stimulate researchers' and clinicians' interest in the potential role of Hippo YAP/TAZ signaling in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Doenças do Gato/metabolismo , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Hepatopatias , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807895

RESUMO

Enhanced Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) signaling is correlated with the extraprostatic extension of prostate cancer. However, the mechanism by which YAP/TAZ signaling becomes hyperactive and drives prostate cancer progression is currently unclear. In this study, we revealed that higher expression of CCM1, which is uniquely found in advanced prostate cancer, is inversely correlated with metastasis-free and overall survival in patients with prostate cancer. We also demonstrated that CCM1 induces the metastasis of multiple types of prostate cancer cells by regulating YAP/TAZ signaling. Mechanistically, CCM1, a gene mutated in cerebral cavernous malformation, suppresses DDX5, which regulates the suppression of YAP/TAZ signaling, indicating that CCM1 and DDX5 are novel upstream regulators of YAP/TAZ signaling. Our findings highlight the importance of CCM1-DDX5-YAP/TAZ signaling in the metastasis of prostate cancer cells.

16.
J Biol Chem ; 294(38): 13939-13952, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358620

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation (IR) can promote migration and invasion of cancer cells, but the basis for this phenomenon has not been fully elucidated. IR increases expression of glucose-regulated protein 78kDa (GRP78) on the surface of cancer cells (CS-GRP78), and this up-regulation is associated with more aggressive behavior, radioresistance, and recurrence of cancer. Here, using various biochemical and immunological methods, including flow cytometry, cell proliferation and migration assays, Rho activation and quantitative RT-PCR assays, we investigated the mechanism by which CS-GRP78 contributes to radioresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. We found that activated α2-Macroglobulin (α2M*) a ligand of the CS-GRP78 receptor, induces formation of the AKT kinase (AKT)/DLC1 Rho-GTPase-activating protein (DLC1) complex and thereby increases Rho activation. Further, CS-GRP78 activated the transcriptional coactivators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and tafazzin (TAZ) in a Rho-dependent manner, promoting motility and invasiveness of PDAC cells. We observed that radiation-induced CS-GRP78 stimulates the nuclear accumulation of YAP/TAZ and increases YAP/TAZ target gene expressions. Remarkably, targeting CS-GRP78 with C38 monoclonal antibody (Mab) enhanced radiosensitivity and increased the efficacy of radiation therapy by curtailing PDAC cell motility and invasion. These findings reveal that CS-GRP78 acts upstream of YAP/TAZ signaling and promote migration and radiation-resistance in PDAC cells. We therefore conclude that, C38 Mab is a promising candidate for use in combination with radiation therapy to manage PDAC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/radioterapia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aciltransferases , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Chaperona BiP do Retículo Endoplasmático , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP
17.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(5): 410-422, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896984

RESUMO

Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs), the precursors of placental cells, are effective for studying placental formation in vitro. Using a dual inhibition (2i) medium and mixed L-Wnt3a/mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells, we previously established the bovine trophoblast cell line BTS-1. In this study, we used bovine fetal fibroblasts and added Wnt3a to the 2i medium to establish another bovine TSC line (BTSW). BTSW cells expressed pluripotency markers, including NANOG, SOX2, OCT4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA4, CDH1, and KRT18, and TSC markers CDX2, TEAD4, and ESRRB. Methylation sequencing of the promoter regions of NANOG, OCT4, and CDX2 revealed no significant differences between BTS-1 and BTSW cells. Removal of Wnt3a from the culture medium resulted in downregulation (p < 0.05) of NANOG, OCT4, CDX2, and TSC marker genes, and upregulation of TSC differentiation markers, including MASH2, GCM1, and PAG. Western blotting indicated activation of the WNT-YAP/TAZ signaling pathway in BTS-1 and BTSW cells, consequently activating TEAD4 transcription. However, this pathway was not activated in BCFF cells, an established bovine embryonic stem-like cell line that expresses OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, but not CDX2. Thus, Wnt3a may play a critical role in bovine TSC maintenance by activating and regulating CDX2 expression through the WNT-YAP/TAZ signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição CDX2/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Trofoblastos/citologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Proteína Wnt3/metabolismo , Animais , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/genética , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem da Célula
18.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 36(1): 109-140, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28229253

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma (UM), a rare cancer of the eye, is distinct from cutaneous melanoma by its etiology, the mutation frequency and profile, and its clinical behavior including resistance to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockers. Primary disease is efficiently controlled by surgery or radiation therapy, but about half of UMs develop distant metastasis mostly to the liver. Survival of patients with metastasis is below 1 year and has not improved in decades. Recent years have brought a deep understanding of UM biology characterized by initiating mutations in the G proteins GNAQ and GNA11. Cytogenetic alterations, in particular monosomy of chromosome 3 and amplification of the long arm of chromosome 8, and mutation of the BRCA1-associated protein 1, BAP1, a tumor suppressor gene, or the splicing factor SF3B1 determine UM metastasis. Cytogenetic and molecular profiling allow for a very precise prognostication that is still not matched by efficacious adjuvant therapies. G protein signaling has been shown to activate the YAP/TAZ pathway independent of HIPPO, and conventional signaling via the mitogen-activated kinase pathway probably also contributes to UM development and progression. Several lines of evidence indicate that inflammation and macrophages play a pro-tumor role in UM and in its hepatic metastases. UM cells benefit from the immune privilege in the eye and may adopt several mechanisms involved in this privilege for tumor escape that act even after leaving the niche. Here, we review the current knowledge of the biology of UM and discuss recent approaches to UM treatment.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia , Neoplasias Uveais/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uveais/metabolismo
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