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1.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(7)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611223

RESUMO

Epoxidized vegetable oils and limonene dioxide, a bis-epoxide derived from the terpene limonene, are photo-copolymerized to yield highly crosslinked networks with high conversion of all epoxide groups at ambient temperature. However, the slow polymerization of such biobased formulation polymerizes is not compatible for a use in a commercial SLA 3D printer. Adding an acrylated epoxidized vegetable oil to the bis-epoxide leads to a decrease of curing time and an increase in LDO conversion to polymer. For example, in a 60:40 wt:wt mixture of LDO and epoxidized soybean oil, the conversions of both exocyclic and endocyclic epoxide groups of LDO are ≥95%. These formulations were successfully used in SLA 3D printers, leading to generation of hard and dry complex objects using biobased formulations.

2.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 154: 106531, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588633

RESUMO

Despite polyester vascular grafts being routinely used in life-saving aortic aneurysm surgeries, they are less compliant than the healthy, native human aorta. This mismatch in mechanical behaviour has been associated with disruption of haemodynamics contributing to several long-term cardiovascular complications. Moreover, current fabrication approaches mean that opportunities to personalise grafts to the individual anatomical features are limited. Various modifications to graft design have been investigated to overcome such limitations; yet optimal graft functionality remains to be achieved. This study reports on the development and characterisation of an alternative vascular graft material. An alginate:PEGDA (AL:PE) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel has been produced with uniaxial tensile tests revealing similar strength and stiffness (0.39 ± 0.05 MPa and 1.61 ± 0.19 MPa, respectively) to the human aorta. Moreover, AL:PE tubular conduits of similar geometrical dimensions to segments of the aorta were produced, either via conventional moulding methods or stereolithography (SLA) 3D-printing. While both fabrication methods successfully demonstrated AL:PE hydrogel production, SLA 3D-printing was more easily adaptable to the fabrication of complex structures without the need of specific moulds or further post-processing. Additionally, most 3D-printed AL:PE hydrogel tubular conduits sustained, without failure, compression up to 50% their outer diameter and returned to their original shape upon load removal, thereby exhibiting promising behaviour that could withstand pulsatile pressure in vivo. Overall, these results suggest that this AL:PE IPN hydrogel formulation in combination with 3D-printing, has great potential for accelerating progress towards personalised and mechanically-matched aortic grafts.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2400103, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573809

RESUMO

Hydrogel-based electronics have inherent similarities to biological tissues and hold potential for wearable applications. However, low conductivity, poor stretchability, nonpersonalizability, and uncontrollable dehydration during use limit their further development. In this study, projection stereolithography 3D printing high-conductive hydrogel for flexible passive wireless sensing is reported. The prepared photocurable silver-based hydrogel is rapidly planarized into antenna shapes on substrates using surface projection stereolithography. After partial dehydration, silver flakes within the circuits form sufficient conductive pathways to achieve high conductivity (387 S cm-1). By sealing the circuits to prevent further dehydration, the resistance remains stable when tensile strain is less than 100% for at least 30 days. Besides, the sealing materials provide versatile functionalities, such as stretchability and shape memory property. Customized flexible radio frequency identification tags are fabricated by integrating with commercial chips to complete the accurate recognition of eye movement, realizing passive wireless sensing.

4.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619300

RESUMO

Critically-sized segmental bone defects represent significant challenges requiring grafts for reconstruction. 3D-printed synthetic bone grafts are viable alternatives to structural allografts if engineered to provide appropriate mechanical performance and osteoblast/osteoclast cell responses. Novel 3D-printable nanocomposites containing acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) or methacrylated AESO (mAESO), polyethylene glycol diacrylate, and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) were produced using masked stereolithography. The effects of volume fraction of nHA and methacrylation of AESO on interactions of differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblast (dMC3T3-OB) and differentiated RAW264.7 osteoclast cells with 3D-printed nanocomposites were evaluated in vitro and compared with a control biomaterial, hydroxyapatite (HA). Higher nHA content and methacrylation significantly improved the mechanical properties. All nanocomposites supported dMC3T3-OB cells' adhesion and proliferation. Higher amounts of nHA enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. mAESO in the nanocomposites resulted in greater adhesion, proliferation, and activity at day 7 compared with AESO nanocomposites. Excellent osteoclast-like cells survival, defined actin rings, and large multinucleated cells were only observed on the high nHA fraction (30%) mAESO nanocomposite and the HA control. Thus, mAESO-based nanocomposites containing higher amounts of nHA have better interactions with osteoblast-like and osteoclast-like cells, comparable with HA controls, making them a potential future alternative graft material for bone defect repair.

5.
3D Print Med ; 10(1): 10, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN), or death of femoral head tissue due to a lack of blood supply, is a leading cause of total hip replacement for non-geriatric patients. Core decompression (CD) is an effective treatment to re-establish blood flow for patients with AVN. Techniques aimed at improving its efficacy are an area of active research. We propose the use of 3D printed drill guides to accurately guide therapeutic devices for CD. METHODS: Using femur sawbones, image processing software, and 3D modeling software, we created a custom-built device with pre-determined drill trajectories and tested the feasibility of the 3D printed drill guides for CD. A fellowship trained orthopedic surgeon used the drill guide to position an 8 ga, 230 mm long decompression device in the three synthetic femurs. CT scans were taken of the sawbones with the drill guide and decompression device. CT scans were processed in the 3D modeling software. Descriptive statistics measuring the angular and needle-tip deviation were compared to the original virtually planned model. RESULTS: Compared to the original 3D model, the trials had a mean displacement of 1.440 ± 1.03 mm and a mean angle deviation of 1.093 ± 0.749º. CONCLUSIONS: The drill guides were demonstrated to accurately guide the decompression device along its predetermined drill trajectory. Accuracy was assessed by comparing values to literature-reported values and considered AVN lesion size. This study demonstrates the potential use of 3D printing technology to improve the efficacy of CD techniques.

6.
Addit Manuf ; 842024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567361

RESUMO

The working curve informs resin properties and print parameters for stereolithography, digital light processing, and other photopolymer additive manufacturing (PAM) technologies. First demonstrated in 1992, the working curve measurement of cure depth vs radiant exposure of light is now a foundational measurement in the field of PAM. Despite its widespread use in industry and academia, there is no formal method or procedure for performing the working curve measurement, raising questions about the utility of reported working curve parameters. Here, an interlaboratory study (ILS) is described in which 24 individual laboratories performed a working curve measurement on an aliquot from a single batch of PAM resin. The ILS reveals that there is enormous scatter in the working curve data and the key fit parameters derived from it. The measured depth of light penetration Dp varied by as much as 7x between participants, while the critical radiant exposure for gelation Ec varied by as much as 70x. This significant scatter is attributed to a lack of common procedure, variation in light engines, epistemic uncertainties from the Jacobs equation, and the use of measurement tools with insufficient precision. The ILS findings highlight an urgent need for procedural standardization and better hardware characterization in this rapidly growing field.

7.
HardwareX ; 18: e00520, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577345

RESUMO

Traditional photopolymer-based 3D printing methods require sequential printing of thin layers, due to short penetration depths of UV or blue light sources used by these techniques. In contrast, upconversion 3D printing circumvents the layer-by-layer limitation by taking advantage of upconversion luminescence processes and the high penetration depths offered by near-infrared (NIR) lasers, allowing for selective crosslinking of voxels at any depth or position within the resin container. The implementation of this technique required the construction of a 3D printer with the ability of focusing the laser on any point of the space. For this, a low-cost fused filament fabrication (FFF) printer was modified by incorporating a 980 nm laser and laser control circuit. The total cost of the parts required for modification was £180. With enhanced penetration depths up to 5.8 cm, this method also allows for printing inside or through existing 3D printed parts. This opens doors for restoration of broken items, in situ bioprinting, 3D-circuitry, and notably, 3D printing inside cavities of a different material, illustrating numerous opportunities for practical applications.

8.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54312, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) printing in dentistry has mainly focused on applications such as surgical planning, computer-guided templates, and digital impression conversions. Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, involves layering resin material sequentially to construct objects and is gaining recognition for its role in creating custom-made medical appliances. The field of orthodontics has also embraced this technological wave and with the advent of cost-effective printers and biocompatible resins, 3D printing has become increasingly feasible and popular in orthodontic clinics. The limitations of traditional plaster models may have prompted the emergence of 3D-printed models, but it led to enhancing treatment planning and device fabrication, particularly in orthodontics. Notable desktop printing technologies include fused deposition modelling (FDM), digital light processing (DLP), and stereolithography (SLA), each employing distinct methods and materials for fabricating appliances. Evaluating mechanical properties, like flexure strength, is crucial to determine the material's ability to withstand bending forces and thus prove useful in fabricating thermoformable appliances, surgical templates, etc. This study aims to assess the flexure strength of 3D-printed models using FDM, DLP, and SLA technology, providing insights into their suitability as replacements for conventional models and shedding some light on the durability and sustainability of 3D-printed models. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: Cuboids measuring 20 x 5 x 2 mm were cut from models, creating 10 samples per printer group. These samples underwent flexure strength testing using a three-point bending system in a universal testing machine. RESULTS: The FDM group exhibited the highest flexure strength at 69.36 ± 6.03 MPa, while the DLP group showed the lowest flexure strength at 67.47 ± 20.58 MPa. The results can be attributed to the differences in resin materials used for fabrication, with FDM using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer and SLA/DLP using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and also to the variation in their printing mechanism. CONCLUSION: The findings affirm the suitability of FDM models for orthodontic applications, suggesting enhanced efficiency and reliability in clinical practices.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1297: 342362, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a quest of novel functional and reliable platforms for enhancing the efficiency of microextraction approaches in troublesome matrices, such as industrial wastewaters. 3D printing has been proven superb in the analytical field to act as the springboard of microscale extraction approaches. RESULTS: In this work, low-force stereolithography (SL) was exploited for 3D printing and prototyping bespoke fluidic devices for accommodating nonsupported microelectromembrane extraction (µEME). The analytical performance of 3D-printed µEME devices with distinct cross-sections, including square, circle, and obround, and various channel dimensions was explored against that of commonly used circular polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing in flow injection systems. A computer-controlled millifluidic system was harnessed for the (i) automatic liquid-handling of minute volumes of donor, acceptor, and organic phases at the low µL level that spanned from 3 to 44 µL in this work, (ii) formation of three-phase µEME, (iii) in-line extraction, (iv) flow-through optical detection of the acceptor phase, and (v) solvent removal and regeneration of the µEME device and fluidic lines. Using methylene blue (MB) as a model analyte, experimental results evinced that the 3D-printed channels with an obround cross-section (2.5 mm × 2.5 mm) were the most efficient in terms of absolute extraction recovery (59%), as compared to PTFE tubing of 2.5 mm inner diameter (27%). This is attributed to the distinctive convex interface of the organic phase (1-octanol), with a more pronounced laminar pattern, in 3D-printed SL methacrylate-based fluidic channels against that of PTFE tubing on account of the enhanced 1-octanol wettability and lower contact angles for the 3D-printed devices. The devices with obround channels were leveraged for the automatic µEME and in-line clean-up of MB in high matrix textile dyeing wastewater samples with relative recoveries ≥81%, RSD% ≤ 17.1% and LOD of 1.3 mg L-1. The 3D-printed nonsupported µEME device was proven superb for the analysis of wastewater samples with an elevated ionic strength (0.7 mol L-1 NaCl, 5000 mg L-1 Na2CO3, and 0.013 mol L-1 NaOH) with recorded electric currents below 12 µA. NOVELTY: The coupling of 3D printing with nonsupported µEME in automatic flow-based systems is herein proposed for the first time and demonstrated for the clean-up of troublesome samples, such as wastewaters.

10.
J Adv Prosthodont ; 16(1): 1-11, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38455680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present experiment aimed to evaluate the placement accuracy of fully guided implant surgery using a mucosa-supported surgical guide when the protocol of osteotomy and installation was modified (MP) compared to when the protocol was sequentially and conventionally carried out (CP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 mandibular dentiform models, 12 dentists (6 experts and 6 beginners) performed fully guided implant placements two times at the right first and second molar sites using a mucosa-supported surgical guide, once by the CP (CP group) and at the other time by the MP (MP group). The presurgical and postsurgical stereolithographic images were superimposed, and the deviations between the virtually planned and actually placed implant positions and the procedure time were compared statistically (P < .05). RESULTS: The accuracies were similar in the CP and MP groups. In the CP group, the mean platform and apex deviations at the second molar site for the beginners were +0.75 mm and +1.14 mm, respectively, which were significantly larger than those for the experts (P < .05). In the MP group, only the mean vertical deviation at the second molar site for the beginners (+0.53 mm) was significantly larger than that for the experts (P < .05). The procedure time was significantly longer for the MP group (+94.0 sec) than for the CP group (P < .05). CONCLUSION: In fully guided implant surgery using a mucosa-supported guide, the MP may improve the placement accuracy when compared to the CP, especially at sites farther from the most-posterior natural tooth.

11.
JPRAS Open ; 39: 228-236, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323101

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has advanced for applications in the field of reconstructive surgery. This study reports the application of a comprehensive methodology to obtain an anatomical model, using computed tomography and 3D printing, to treat a patient with cancer who designed a prototype oculopalpebral prosthesis for the reconstruction of the affected area of the face (left eye). A personalized prototype was obtained, which adapted to the face of the person, and improved the aesthetics and quality of life. The applied techniques helped to make definitive prostheses using materials that could be permanent. The training and tests carried out in this study favored the understanding and assimilation of the technology and the possibility of applying it to patients in need of facial prosthetic rehabilitation.

12.
3D Print Addit Manuf ; 11(1): 406-414, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389671

RESUMO

Ceramics have many applications in mechanics, electronics, aerospace, and biomedicine because of their high mechanical strength, high-temperature resistance, and excellent chemical stability. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a fast, efficient, and intelligent technology that has revolutionized the manufacturing of complex structural parts. Among many ceramic 3D printing technologies, photopolymerization-based 3D printing techniques print out molded ceramic components with high molding accuracy and surface finish and have received widespread attention. This article reviews the current research status and problems experienced by three mainstream ceramic photocuring technologies, namely stereoscopic, digital light processing, and two-photon polymerization.

13.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1347107, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379923

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) printed models can improve the understanding of the structural anatomic changes in cases of temporomandibular joint ankylosis and pseudoankylosis leading to closed jaw locking. Their use in pre-surgical planning and intraoperative guidance has been reported, contributing to the predictability and success of these surgery procedures, which can be quite complex, especially in small animal patients. The use and production of 3D tools and models remain challenging and are so far limited to institutions with high (economical and human) resources. This study aims to propose simplified workflows using open-source software to facilitate an in-house 3D printing process. To illustrate this, three cases of temporomandibular joint ankylosis and one of pseudoankylosis were reviewed, where in-house 3D printed models were used for client communication and surgical management. The 3D models were segmented from computed tomography and printed via stereolithography. They were used to support discussion with clients (n = 4), to allow surgeons to pre-surgical plan and practice (n = 4) and for intraoperative guidance during surgery (n = 2). Surgical cutting guides were produced in one case to improve precision and define more accurately osteotomy lines. It is essential to consider the initial time and financial investment required for establishing an in-house 3D printing production, particularly when there is a need to produce biocompatible tools, such as surgical cutting guides. However, efficient and streamlined workflows encourage the integration of this technology, by accelerating the printing process and reducing the steep learning curves, while open-source software enhances accessibility to these resources.

14.
Int J Pharm ; 653: 123862, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307399

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical three-dimensional printing (3DP) is now in its golden age. Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the research in 3D printed pharmaceuticals due to their potential to deliver highly personalised medicines, thus revolutionising the way medicines are designed, manufactured, and dispensed. A particularly attractive 3DP technology used to manufacture medicines is stereolithography (SLA), which features key advantages in terms of printing resolution and compatibility with thermolabile drugs. Nevertheless, the enthusiasm for pharmaceutical SLA has not been followed by the introduction of novel excipients specifically designed for the fabrication of medicines; hence, the choice of biocompatible polymers and photoinitiators available is limited. This work provides an insight on how to maximise the usefulness of the limited materials available by evaluating how different formulation factors affect printability outcomes of SLA 3D printed medicines. 156 photopolymer formulations were systematically screened to evaluate the influence of factors including photoinitiator amount, photopolymer molecular size, and type and amount of liquid filler on the printability outcomes. Collectively, these factors were found highly influential in modulating the print quality of the final dosage forms. Findings provide enhanced understanding of formulation parameters informing the future of SLA 3D printed medicines and the personalised medicines revolution.


Assuntos
Impressão Tridimensional , Estereolitografia , Polímeros , Excipientes , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Formas de Dosagem
15.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(1): e827, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fabricating clear aligners by thermoforming three-dimensional printed dental models requires a high degree of accuracy. It is unknown whether model thickness affects the accuracy when used to thermoform aligners. PURPOSE: This research utilizes three-dimensional printed models made with differing wall thicknesses to determine its effect on their ability to withstand deformation during aligner fabrication. METHODS: A total of 50 models of different wall thickness (10 each of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm, and solid) were printed using model resin (Model V2, Formlabs) on a low-force stereolithography printer (Form 3B, Formlabs). Aligners were then fabricated using a thermal pressure forming machine (Biostar V, Great Lakes Dental Technologies) utilizing 25 s cycles to adapt 0.030″ acrylic sheets (Invisacryl, Great Lakes Dental Technologies), then removed from the models and sprayed with a contrast powder (Optispray, Dentsply Sirona) to aid in scanning with an intraoral scanner (CEREC Primescan, Dentsply Sirona). Each aligner's data was then compared to the original file used for printing with 3D comparison software (Geomagic Control X, 3D Systems). RESULTS: The results show model thickness greater than or equal to 2.0 mm produced clinically acceptable results within the margin of error (0.3 mm). A total of 0.5 mm thickness failed to withstand thermal forming in 4 of the 10 trials. A total of 0.5 mm produced 27.56% of results in tolerance, 1.0 mm produced 75.66% of results in tolerance, 1.5 mm had 80.38% of results in tolerance, 86.82% of 2 mm models were in tolerance, and solid had 96.45% of results in tolerance. CONCLUSION: Hollow models of thicknesses 2.0 mm and solid models produced clinically acceptable aligners while utilizing less resin per unit compared to solid models, thus being more cost effective, time efficient and eco-friendly. Therefore, a recommendation can be made to print hollow models with a shell thickness of greater than 2.0 mm for aligner fabrication.


Assuntos
Polimetil Metacrilato , Impressão Tridimensional , Software
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 73, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of 3D printing technology and build angle on the marginal fit of printed crowns is unclear. The objective of this research was to use digital light processing (DLP) and stereo-lithography (SLA)-based 3D printing to construct single restorations with varied build angles and to analyze the crowns' marginal fit. METHODS: A prepared resin first molar was scanned utilizing an optical scanner. Three build orientations were used to construct the specimens: 0, 45, and 90º. DLP and SLA technology were used to produce the casting patterns. A digital microscope was used to measure the marginal gaps. The effect of build orientation was statistically analyzed by using Two-way ANOVA followed by pair-wise Tukey test. RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of printer technology and build angle on the marginal discrepancy of 3D printed crowns (p < 0.001). One-way ANOVA revealed that SLA printers (55.6 [± 13.59]) showed significantly better mean [± SD] marginal discrepancy in µm than DLP printers (72 [± 13.67]) (p < 0.001). Regarding build angle, one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between the different angles. Tukeys post-hoc test revealed that 0° (48.5 [± 9.04]) had the significantly smallest marginal discrepancy followed by 45° (62.5 [± 8.05]) then 90° (80.5 [± 8.99]) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The build orientation affects the marginal discrepancy of single crowns manufactured utilizing DLP and SLA.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Coroas , Humanos , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Impressão Tridimensional
17.
J Dent ; 141: 104834, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of zirconia crowns fabricated using stereolithography (SLA) and digital light processing (DLP) and to compare their accuracy with those fabricated using the subtractive manufacturing (SM) method. METHODS: A typodont model with a prepared maxillary first molar was scanned, and the anatomical contour crown was designed using dental computer-aided-design (CAD) software. The designed file in standard tessellation language (STL) format was used to fabricate 10 crowns per group. The crowns were manufactured using a dental milling machine (Datron D5; MLC group), SLA (CERAMAKER 900; SLAC group), and DLP (ZIPRO; DLPC group) printers. The fabricated crowns were scanned using a dental laboratory scanner and saved in three parts: the external, intaglio, and marginal surfaces. For accuracy assessment, these parts were superimposed to the reference file. Root mean square (RMS) values were evaluated using three-dimensional analysis software (Geomagic Control X). Statistical significance was evaluated using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05) and a post-hoc Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (α = 0.016). RESULTS: Trueness evaluation revealed the lowest RMS value in all areas in the MLC group, followed by that in the DLPC group. The precision evaluation revealed the lowest RMS value in all areas in the MLC group. Statistically significant differences were observed among the groups in the external, intaglio, and marginal surface (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although the restorations fabricated using SM revealed higher accuracy, the crowns manufactured using SLA and DLP methods were considered clinically acceptable. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In the production of zirconia crowns, subtractive manufacturing continues to demonstrate significantly higher accuracy compared to additive manufacturing. However, crowns fabricated using the additive manufacturing method also demonstrated high accuracy.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Estereolitografia , Zircônio , Coroas , Desenho Assistido por Computador
18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 152: 106421, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280269

RESUMO

In this paper, the results obtained in the development of ceramic resin feedstock for stereolithography are shown. Hydroxyapatite and silica are used as source of ceramic. Hydroxyapatite is extracted from bovine bone, which enhances bioactivity of ceramic scaffold. The influence of hydroxyapatite amount in polymer-based slurry on the viscosity and printability of feedstock is explored. Hydroxyapatite and silica containing scaffolds are successfully obtained by stereolithography. Influence of hydroxyapatite/silica ratio on the bioactivity, biodegradability and mechanical properties of the scaffolds is also studied. It was observed that higher concentrations of hydroxyapatite led to improved mechanical strength of the scuffolds but increased viscosity of the slurry, affecting printability. Cell viability assays and cell visualization experiments indicated that the scaffolds not cause significant cell toxicity.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Silício , Estereolitografia , Animais , Bovinos , Regeneração Óssea , Cerâmica , Durapatita
19.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 13(7): e2301158, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38211963

RESUMO

To systematically unveil how substrate stiffness, a critical factor in directing cell fate through mechanotransduction, correlates with tissue regeneration, novel biodegradable and photo-curable poly(trimethylene carbonate) fumarates (PTMCFs) for fabricating elastomeric 2D substrates and 3D bone scaffolds/nerve conduits, are presented. These substrates and structures with adjustable stiffness serve as a unique platform to evaluate how this mechanical cue affects the fate of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hard/soft tissue regeneration in rat femur bone defect and sciatic nerve transection models; whilst, decoupling from topographical and chemical cues. In addition to a positive relationship between substrate stiffness (tensile modulus: 90-990 kPa) and hMSC adhesion, spreading, and proliferation mediated through Yes-associated protein (YAP), opposite mechanical preference is revealed in the osteogenesis and neurogenesis of hMSCs as they are significantly enhanced on the stiff and compliant substrates, respectively. In vivo tissue regeneration demonstrates the same trend: bone regeneration prefers the stiffer scaffolds; while, nerve regeneration prefers the more compliant conduits. Whole-transcriptome analysis further shows that upregulation of Rho GTPase activity and the downstream genes in the compliant group promote nerve repair, providing critical insight into the design strategies of biomaterials for stem cell regulation and hard/soft tissue regeneration through mechanotransduction.


Assuntos
Mecanotransdução Celular , Tecidos Suporte , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Células-Tronco , Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Osteogênese , Regeneração Nervosa , Impressão Tridimensional
20.
Dent Mater ; 40(2): 190-197, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of surface polishing and printing layer orientation on the fatigue behaviour of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) by stereolithography (SLA) in comparison with subtractive manufacturing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 experimental zirconia bar-shaped specimens were 3D-printed (P) via SLA, and 30 specimens were milled (M) from commercial zirconia block (Lava™ Frame, 3 M ESPE AG). All specimens had the same dimensions (1 mm × 1 mm x 12 mm) after sintering. The 3D-printed specimens were randomly divided according to printing orientations: parallel or perpendicular to the tensile surface in the fatigue test. The specimens were subsequently submitted to two surface finishing protocols (n = 15/gr): unpolished or polished. Their phase compositions were analysed by X-ray diffraction. The fatigue behaviour was evaluated by a stepwise approach. RESULTS: The milled and both 3D-printed groups showed similar phase compositions for the as-sintered condition. Considerable amounts of rhombohedral phase were detected after polishing. Milled unpolished samples presented significantly higher fatigue strength than 3D-printed unpolished samples. Polishing did not improve the fatigue strength for milled zirconia but was advantageous for the 3D-printed specimens. 3D-printed specimens with parallel printing-layer orientation were significantly stronger than specimens with perpendicular layers regardless of surface finishing. CONCLUSION: The manufacturing techniques had a significant influence on the fatigue strength of 3Y-TZP, but not on the phase compositions of the surface. The polishing protocol showed different effects on 3Y-TZP fatigue strength and induced phase transition of the 3Y-TZP from Tetragonal to Rhombohedral. The best fatigue strength was achieved through milling using an unpolished surface and SLA-printed layers that were parallel to the tensile surface, followed by polishing.


Assuntos
Ítrio , Zircônio , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Impressão Tridimensional , Materiais Dentários , Polimento Dentário , Cerâmica
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