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1.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 129, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While clinical coding is intended to be an objective and standardized practice, it is important to recognize that it is not entirely the case. The clinical and bureaucratic practices from event of death to a case being entered into a research dataset are important context for analysing and interpreting this data. Variation in practices can influence the accuracy of the final coded record in two different stages: the reporting of the death certificate, and the International Classification of Diseases (Version 10; ICD-10) coding of that certificate. METHODS: This study investigated 91,022 deaths recorded in the Scottish Asthma Learning Healthcare System dataset between 2000 and 2017. Asthma-related deaths were identified by the presence of any of ICD-10 codes J45 or J46, in any position. These codes were categorized either as relating to asthma attacks specifically (status asthmatic; J46) or generally to asthma diagnosis (J45). RESULTS: We found that one in every 200 deaths in this were coded as being asthma related. Less than 1% of asthma-related mortality records used both J45 and J46 ICD-10 codes as causes. Infection (predominantly pneumonia) was more commonly reported as a contributing cause of death when J45 was the primary coded cause, compared to J46, which specifically denotes asthma attacks. CONCLUSION: Further inspection of patient history can be essential to validate deaths recorded as caused by asthma, and to identify potentially mis-recorded non-asthma deaths, particularly in those with complex comorbidities.


Assuntos
Asma , Causas de Morte , Codificação Clínica , Atestado de Óbito , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Humanos , Asma/mortalidade , Asma/diagnóstico , Codificação Clínica/métodos , Codificação Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Codificação Clínica/normas , Masculino , Feminino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(22): e2320338121, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768355

RESUMO

Electric school buses have been proposed as an alternative to reduce the health and climate impacts of the current U.S. school bus fleet, of which a substantial share are highly polluting old diesel vehicles. However, the climate and health benefits of electric school buses are not well known. As they are substantially more costly than diesel buses, assessing their benefits is needed to inform policy decisions. We assess the health benefits of electric school buses in the United States from reduced adult mortality and childhood asthma onset risks due to exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We also evaluate climate benefits from reduced greenhouse-gas emissions. We find that replacing the average diesel bus in the U.S. fleet in 2017 with an electric bus yields $84,200 in total benefits. Climate benefits amount to $40,400/bus, whereas health benefits amount to $43,800/bus due to 4.42*10-3 fewer PM2.5-attributable deaths ($40,000 of total) and 7.42*10-3 fewer PM2.5-attributable new childhood asthma cases ($3,700 of total). However, health benefits of electric buses vary substantially by driving location and model year (MY) of the diesel buses they replace. Replacing old, MY 2005 diesel buses in large cities yields $207,200/bus in health benefits and is likely cost-beneficial, although other policies that accelerate fleet turnover in these areas deserve consideration. Electric school buses driven in rural areas achieve small health benefits from reduced exposure to ambient PM2.5. Further research assessing benefits of reduced exposure to in-cabin air pollution among children riding buses would be valuable to inform policy decisions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Emissões de Veículos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Asma/mortalidade , Criança , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Eletricidade , Adulto
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1423, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is a distinct and intricate respiratory condition that requires specific attention and management. The objective of this cohort study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of ACO, explore the association between ACO and all-cause mortality, and investigate the potential mediating role of depressive symptoms in this association. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2018 and National Death Index (NDI) 2019. A total of 22,745 participants were included: 705 with ACO, 2352 with asthma-only, 853 with COPD-only, and 18,835 without asthma or COPD. The non-ACO group (N = 22,040) referred to the individuals without ACO. Statistical tests were employed to assess differences in some characteristics between the ACO group and the other groups. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to evaluate the relationship between ACO and all-cause mortality, estimating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the potential mediating effects of depressive symptoms on the association of ACO with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The prevalence of ACO was 3.10% in our study population. Compared to the non-ACO participants, the ACO participants exhibited significantly different characteristics, including higher age, a lower family income-to-poverty ratio, a higher body mass index, higher rates of comorbidities i.e., hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, poorer dietary habits, and a higher rate of depressive disorders. Compared to the participants without ACO, the participants with ACO exhibited a significant increase in all-cause mortality (HR = 1.908, 95%CI 1.578-1.307, p < 0.001). The proportions mediated by depressive symptoms for ACO -associated all-cause mortality were 8.13% (CI: 4.22%-14.00%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a strong relationship between ACO and all-cause mortality and uncovered a potential psychological mechanism underlying this relationship. Our study indicates the possible necessity of offering comprehensive care to ACO patients, encompassing early detection, lifestyle guidance, and mental health support. Nevertheless, due to the limitations in the study design and the dataset, the results should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Depressão , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sobreposição da Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica e Asma/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sobreposição da Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica e Asma/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Prevalência
4.
JAMA ; 331(20): 1732-1740, 2024 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703403

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality rates in US youth have increased in recent years. An understanding of the role of racial and ethnic disparities in these increases is lacking. Objective: To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality trends and rates among youth with Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, and White race. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study conducted temporal analysis (1999-2020) and comparison of aggregate mortality rates (2016-2020) for youth aged 1 to 19 years using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database. Data were analyzed from June 30, 2023, to January 17, 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality rates per 100 000 youth (hereinafter, per 100 000) for leading underlying causes of death were compared. Injuries were classified by mechanism and intent. Results: Between 1999 and 2020, there were 491 680 deaths among US youth, including 8894 (1.8%) American Indian or Alaska Native, 14 507 (3.0%) Asian or Pacific Islander, 110 154 (22.4%) Black, 89 251 (18.2%) Hispanic, and 267 452 (54.4%) White youth. Between 2016 and 2020, pooled all-cause mortality rates were 48.79 per 100 000 (95% CI, 46.58-51.00) in American Indian or Alaska Native youth, 15.25 per 100 000 (95% CI, 14.75-15.76) in Asian or Pacific Islander youth, 42.33 per 100 000 (95% CI, 41.81-42.86) in Black youth, 21.48 per 100 000 (95% CI, 21.19-21.77) in Hispanic youth, and 24.07 per 100 000 (95% CI, 23.86-24.28) in White youth. All-cause mortality ratios compared with White youth were 2.03 (95% CI, 1.93-2.12) among American Indian or Alaska Native youth, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.61-0.66) among Asian or Pacific Islander youth, 1.76 (95% CI, 1.73-1.79) among Black youth, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.88-0.91) among Hispanic youth. From 2016 to 2020, the homicide rate in Black youth was 12.81 (95% CI, 12.52-13.10) per 100 000, which was 10.20 (95% CI, 9.75-10.66) times that of White youth. The suicide rate for American Indian or Alaska Native youth was 11.37 (95% CI, 10.30-12.43) per 100 000, which was 2.60 (95% CI, 2.35-2.86) times that of White youth. The firearm mortality rate for Black youth was 12.88 (95% CI, 12.59-13.17) per 100 000, which was 4.14 (95% CI, 4.00-4.28) times that of White youth. American Indian or Alaska Native youth had a firearm mortality rate of 6.67 (95% CI, 5.85-7.49) per 100 000, which was 2.14 (95% CI, 1.88- 2.43) times that of White youth. Black youth had an asthma mortality rate of 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01-1.18) per 100 000, which was 7.80 (95% CI, 6.78-8.99) times that of White youth. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, racial and ethnic disparities were observed for almost all leading causes of injury and disease that were associated with recent increases in youth mortality rates. Addressing the increasing disparities affecting American Indian or Alaska Native and Black youth will require efforts to prevent homicide and suicide, especially those events involving firearms.


Assuntos
Asma , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Suicídio , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Causas de Morte/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/etnologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Grupos Raciais/etnologia , Grupos Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Indígena Americano ou Nativo do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Brancos/estatística & dados numéricos , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Nativo Asiático-Americano do Havaí e das Ilhas do Pacífico/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etnologia , Asma/mortalidade , Homicídio/etnologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/etnologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade
5.
J Bras Pneumol ; 50(2): e20230364, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the number of hospitalizations, the length of hospital stay, and mortality due to asthma, as well as the costs to the Unified Health Care System in Brazil between 2008 and 2021. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study using data from the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Proportional hospitalization and death rates were estimated per 100,000 population by age, microregion, and year. RESULTS: The number of hospitalizations and deaths due to asthma decreased from 2008 to 2021 (205,392 vs. 55,009 and 822 vs. 327, respectively). In addition, a between-sex difference was observed in asthma-related hospitalizations in 2008, and more men were hospitalized in 2021 (51.8%). Asthma mortality rates were similar for both sexes (50.0% each) in 2008, and a slight increase was observed in women's deaths in 2021 (52.9%). Even so, approximately one death/day and more than 55,000 hospitalizations were observed yearly, with a mean length of hospital stay of three days. Additionally, the Southeast region allocated more financial resources to asthma-related hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the number of deaths and hospitalizations due to asthma substantially declined during the study period.


Assuntos
Asma , Hospitalização , Tempo de Internação , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/mortalidade , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Criança , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade
8.
Br J Gen Pract ; 74(742): e347-e354, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite many benefits of continuity of care with a named regular GP (RGP), continuity is deteriorating in many countries. AIM: To investigate the association between RGP continuity and mortality, in a personal list system, in addition to examining how breaches in continuity affect this association for patients with chronic diseases. DESIGN AND SETTING: A registry-based observational study using Norwegian primary care consultation data for patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus, or heart failure. METHOD: The Usual Provider of Care (UPC, value 0-1) Index was used to measure both disease-related (UPCdisease) and overall (UPCall) continuity with the RGP at the time of consultation. In most analyses, patients who changed RGP during the study period were excluded. In the combined group of all four chronic conditions, the proportion of consultations with other GPs and out-of-hours services was calculated. Cox regression models calculated the associations between continuity during 2013-2016 and mortality in 2017-2018. RESULTS: Patients with COPD with UPCdisease <0.25 had 47% increased risk of dying within 2 years (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.64) compared with those with UPCdisease ≥0.75. Mortality also increased with decreasing UPCdisease for patients with heart failure and decreasing UPCall for those with diabetes. In the combined group of chronic conditions, mortality increased with decreasing UPCall. This latter association was also found for patients who had changed RGP. CONCLUSION: Higher disease-related and overall RGP UPC are both associated with lower mortality. However, changing RGP did not significantly affect mortality, indicating a compensatory benefit of informational and management continuity in a patient list system.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Medicina Geral , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Doença Crônica , Idoso , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Asma/mortalidade , Adulto
9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 19(4): 951-957, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441863

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the associations of asthma control with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in obese individuals. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2018. Weighted logistic regression analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate the influence of asthma control on hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. A total of 2744 obese participants were included. Of them, 937 participants had poorly controlled asthma, 873 had well-controlled asthma, and 934 did not have asthma. We found that poorly controlled asthma was associated with an increased risk of angina pectoris, congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, and all-cause mortality in obese participants, while well-controlled asthma was associated with an increased risk of CHF and all-cause mortality. Compared with patients with poorly controlled asthma, patients with well-controlled asthma were at low risk of angina pectoris (OR [odds ratio], 0.49; 95% CI [confidence interval], 0.29-0.81), heart attack (OR, 0.54; 95% CI 0.34-0.87), CHF (OR, 0.62; 95% CI 0.39-0.99), and stroke (OR, 0.45; 95% CI 0.27-0.73). The present study suggested that obese individuals with poorly controlled asthma were associated with increased risks of angina pectoris, CHF, stroke, and all-cause mortality. Well-controlled asthma had fewer negative health effects than poorly controlled asthma in obese individuals.


Assuntos
Asma , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Obesidade/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Asma/complicações , Asma/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
10.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 132(5): 637-645.e7, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between underlying type 2 inflammation and immune response to COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between allergic conditions and COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes. METHODS: In the Optum database, adult patients with and without major allergic conditions (asthma, atopic dermatitis [AD], allergic rhinitis, food allergy, anaphylaxis, or eosinophilic esophagitis) and patients with and without severe asthma/AD were identified. Adjusted incidence rate ratios for COVID-19 were compared among patients with vs without allergic conditions or severe asthma/AD vs non-severe asthma/AD during April 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. Among patients with COVID-19, adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of 30-day COVID-19-related hospitalization/all-cause mortality were estimated for the same comparisons during April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2022. RESULTS: Patients with (N = 1,273,231; asthma, 47.2%; AD, 1.5%; allergic rhinitis, 58.6%; food allergy, 5.1%; anaphylaxis, 4.1%; eosinophilic esophagitis, 0.9%) and without allergic conditions (N = 2,278,571) were identified. Allergic conditions (adjusted incidence rate ratios [95% CI], 1.22 [1.21-1.24]) and asthma severity (1.12 [1.09-1.15]) were associated with increased incidence of COVID-19. Among patients with COVID-19 (patients with [N = 261,076] and without allergic conditions [N = 1,098,135] were matched on age, sex, region, index month), having an allergic condition had minimal impact on 30-day COVID-19-related hospitalization/all-cause mortality (aHR [95% CI] 0.96 [0.95-0.98]) but was associated with a lower risk of mortality (0.80 [0.78-0.83]). Asthma was associated with a higher risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization/all-cause mortality vs non-asthma allergic conditions (aHR [95% CI], 1.27 [1.25-1.30]), mostly driven by higher hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Allergic conditions were associated with an increased risk of receiving COVID-19 diagnosis but reduced mortality after infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/mortalidade , Idoso , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Incidência , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/complicações
11.
Chron Respir Dis ; 20: 14799731221151183, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is an observed paucity of data regarding the predictors of asthma mortality in Nigeria. This study aimed to ascertain the clinical presentations and predictors of acute severe asthma mortality in rural Southwestern Nigeria. METHODS: A retrospective observational study using a data form and a standardized questionnaire was used to review the 124 patients admitted at Emergency Department between January 2015 and December 2019. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0. The results were presented in descriptive and tabular formats. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of asthma mortality and a p-value <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients were studied. The acute severe asthma mortality was 4.8% and its predictors were older age (Crude odds Ratio (COR), 14.857; 95% CI: 2.489-88.696, p < .001), Tobacco smoking (COR, 6.741; 95% CI: 1.170-38.826, p = .016), more than three co-morbidities (COR, 2.750; 95% CI: 1.147-26.454, p = 0.012), diabetes mellitus (COR, 13.750; 95% CI: 2.380-79.433, p < .001), Human Immunodeficiency virus (COR, 117.000; 95% CI: 9.257-1479.756, p < .001), ≥2 days before presentation (COR, 7.440; 95% CI: 1.288-42.980, p = .039), and Short-acting-B2-agonists overuse (COR, 7.041; 95% CI: 1.005-62.165, p = .044). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate was 4.8% and its predictors were older age patients, tobacco smoking, multiple co-morbidities, diabetes mellitus, HIV, SP02 <90%, delay presentation, and Short-acting-B2-agonists over use, The study showed that there is high prevalence of asthma mortality in rural Southwestern Nigeria. The findings may be used to plan for asthma preventions and control programs in rural settings, and may also provide an impetus for prospective research on these outcomes.


Assuntos
Asma , Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comorbidade , População Rural , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
12.
J Occup Environ Med ; 65(1): 22-28, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study mortality related to different obstructive lung diseases, occupational exposure, and their potential joint effect in a large, randomized population-based cohort. METHODS: We divided the participants based on the answers to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnoses and occupational exposure and used a combined effects model and compared the results to no asthma or COPD with no occupational exposure. RESULTS: High exposure had a hazards ratio (HR) of 1.34 (1.11-1.62) and asthma and COPD coexistence of 1.58 (1.10-2.27). The combined effects of intermediate exposure and coexistence had an HR of 2.20 (1.18-4.09), high exposure with coexistence of 1.94 (1.10-3.42) for overall mortality, and sub-HR for respiratory-related mortality of 3.21 (1.87-5.50). CONCLUSIONS: High occupational exposure increased overall but not respiratory-related mortality hazards, while coexisting asthma and COPD overall and respiratory-related hazards of mortality.


Assuntos
Asma , Exposição Ocupacional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Asma/etiologia , Asma/mortalidade , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(3): 203-215, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521829

RESUMO

La enfermedad respiratoria aguda por coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Objetivos: Examinar el uso de recursos sanitarios, riesgo de complicaciones y muerte en pacientes adultos con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas atendidos por COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio clínico descriptivo prospectivo realizado en pacientes adultos atendidos por COVID-19 en la Red de Salud UC Christus entre el 1 de abril y 31 de diciembre de 2020. Resultados: Se evaluaron 2.160 pacientes adultos, edad: 47 ± 17 años (rango: 18-100), 51,3% sexo masculino, 43,8% tenía comorbilidades, especialmente hipertensión (23,2%), diabetes (11,7%) y enfermedades respiratorias crónicas: asma (5%), EPOC (1,4%) y enfermedad pulmonar difusa (EPD: 0,8%). Los pacientes adultos con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas tuvieron mayor riesgo de hospitalización y uso de oxígeno suplementario; sin embargo, la evolución de los pacientes asmáticos y la sobrevida a los doce meses fue similar a los pacientes sin comorbilidades atendidos por COVID-19, mientras que en los pacientes con EPOC y EPD la admisión a la unidad de paciente crítico y riesgo de muerte fueron más elevados. En el análisis multivariado, los principales predictores clínicos asociados al riesgo de muerte en el seguimiento a doce meses en pacientes adultos con COVID-19 fueron la edad y admisión al hospital, mientras que el asma fue un factor protector. Conclusión: Los pacientes asmáticos tuvieron bajo riesgo de complicaciones y muerte asociados a COVID-19; mientras que los pacientes con EPOC y EPD tuvieron mayor riesgo de complicaciones y muerte en el seguimiento a largo plazo.


The acute respiratory disease associated to coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. Objectives: To examine the use of healthcare resources, risk of complications and death in adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases treated for COVID-19. Methods: Prospective descriptive clinical study conducted in adult patients treated for COVID-19 in the UC Christus Healthcare Network between April 1 and December 31, 2020. Results: 2,160 adult patients were evaluated, age: 47 ± 17 years-old (range: 18-100), 51.3% male, 43.8% had comorbidities, especially hypertension (23.2%), diabetes (11.7%), and chronic respiratory diseases: asthma (5%), COPD (1,4%) and interstitial lung disease (ILD: 0.8%). Adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases were at higher risk for hospitalization and use of supplemental oxygen; however, the evolution of asthmatic patients and survival at twelve months was similar to that of adult patients without comorbidities treated for COVID-19, while in patients with COPD and ILD admission to the critical care unit and risk of death were higher. In the multivariate analysis, the main clinical predictors associated to 12-month mortality risk in adult patients with COVID-19 were age and hospital admission, while asthma was a protective factor. Conclusion: Asthmatic patients had minor risk of complications and mortality associated with COVID-19; while patients with COPD and ILD had a significant higher risk of complications and 12-month mortality.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Asma/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , Asma/mortalidade , Asma/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Seguimentos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Medição de Risco , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Proteção , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia
14.
J. investig. allergol. clin. immunol ; 33(2): 119-125, 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-219414

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies suggest that asthma mortality rates in Spain have been decreasing in recent years. However, this trend is not homogeneous across age groups. Objective: To analyze asthma mortality rates over a 40-year period, focusing on changes associated with the development of new therapeutic approaches. Methods: Death records and mid-year population data were collected from the National Statistics Institute. Using the direct method, agestandardized mortality rates were calculated for the overall population and for each sex and age group. Significant changes in mortality trends were identified using joinpoint regression analysis. The independent effects of age, period, and cohort and potential years of life lost due to asthma were also analyzed. Results: Age-standardized asthma mortality rates decreased in Spain from 7.38 to 2.03 deaths per 100 000 from the first to the last quinquennium of the study (1980-1984 to 2015-2019) for the whole population. This decrease was more intense among men, where a decrease from 10.37/100 000 to 0.91/100 000 was observed compared with 5.53 to 2.77/100 000 in women. Mortality decreased in all age groups. During the last 3 years, the decrease stabilized in patients aged >64 years but increased in those aged 35-64. Mortality has been decreasing rapidly since the 1990s in patients aged <35 years. Conclusion: Asthma mortality rates began to decline in 1980. The decrease was observed among younger cohorts starting in the 1990s, thus confirming earlier trends. Improved diagnosis and development of new therapies for asthma may have played a role in the changes observed. Close monitoring of asthma mortality rates is necessary to confirm these trends (AU)


Introducción: Estudios previos sugieren que las tasas de mortalidad en España han disminuido en los últimos años, aunque esta tendencia no se ha observado de forma homogénea en todos los grupos de edad. Objetivo: Se analizan las tasas de mortalidad por asma de los últimos 40 años en España, centrándose en los cambios relacionados con el desarrollo de nuevas terapias. Métodos: Se obtuvieron los registros de defunción y los datos de población del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad utilizando el método directo para la población global y para cada sexo y grupos de edad. Se identificaron cambios significativos en las tendencias de mortalidad mediante modelos de regresión Joinpoint (puntos de cambio). También se analizaron los efectos de la edad, período y cohorte, y se calcularon los años potenciales de vida perdidos debido al asma. Resultados: Las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por asma disminuyeron en España de 7,38 a 2,03 muertes por 100.000 entre el primer y el último quinquenio del estudio (1980-1984 a 2015-2019) para la población general. Esta disminución fue más intensa entre los hombres, donde se observó una disminución de 10,37/100.000 a 0,91/100.000 frente a 5,53 a 2,77 / 100.000 en las mujeres. Todos los grupos de edad han reducido su mortalidad globalmente en el periodo estudiado. Mientras que los mayores de 64 años han estabilizado su descenso y la población entre 35 y 64 incluso ha incrementado la mortalidad en los últimos 3 años, los menores de 35 años mantienen un rápido descenso desde la década de 1990. Conclusión: Hay una disminución en las tasas de mortalidad por asma a partir de 1980, incluidas las cohortes más jóvenes a partir de la década de 1990, lo que confirma tendencias anteriores. Las mejoras en el diagnóstico y el desarrollo de nuevas terapias para el asma pueden tener un papel en estos hallazgos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Asma/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Espanha/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(5): 1106-1113.e10, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanic/Latinx (HL) ethnicity encompasses racially and culturally diverse subgroups. Studies suggest that Puerto Ricans (PR) may bear greater asthma-related morbidity than Mexicans, but these were conducted in children or had limited clinical characterization. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether disparities in asthma morbidity exist among HL adult subgroups. METHODS: Adults with moderate-severe asthma were recruited from US clinics, including from Puerto Rico, for the Person Empowered Asthma Relief (PREPARE) trial. Considering the shared heritage between PR and other Caribbean HL (Cubans and Dominicans [C&D]), the investigators compared baseline self-reported clinical characteristics between Caribbean HL (CHL) (PR and C&D: n = 457) and other HLs (OHL) (Mexicans, Spaniards, Central/South Americans; n = 141), and between CHL subgroups (C&D [n = 56] and PR [n = 401]). This study compared asthma morbidity measures (self-reported exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids, emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits, hospitalizations, health care utilization) through negative binomial regression. RESULTS: CHL compared to OHL were similar in age, body mass index, poverty status, blood eosinophils, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide but were prescribed more asthma controller therapies. Relative to OHL, CHL had significantly increased odds of asthma exacerbations (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4), ED/UC visits (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), hospitalization (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.06-3.7), and health care utilization (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.44-2.53). Of the CHL subgroups, PR had significantly increased odds of asthma exacerbations, ED/UC visits, hospitalizations, and health care utilization compared to OHL, whereas C&D only had increased odds of exacerbations compared to OHL. PR compared to C&D had greater odds of ED/UC and health care utilization. CONCLUSIONS: CHL adults, compared with OHL, adults reported nearly twice the asthma morbidity; these differences are primarily driven by PR. Novel interventions are needed to reduce morbidity in this highly impacted population.


Assuntos
Asma , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/mortalidade , Etnicidade , Morbidade , Porto Rico/epidemiologia
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113765, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that particulate matter (PM) with smaller particle sizes (such as PM1, PM with an aerodynamic diameter≤1 µm) may have more toxic health effects. However, the short-term association between PM1 and asthma mortality remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the short-term effects of PM1 and PM2.5 on asthma mortality, as well as to investigate how neighborhood characteristics modified this association. METHODS: Daily data on asthma mortality were collected from 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, China, between 2016 and 2017. A time-stratified case-crossover design was attempted to examine the short-term effects of PM1 and PM2.5 on asthma mortality. Individual exposure levels of PM1 and PM2.5 on case and control days were determined based on individual's residential addresses. Stratified analyses by neighborhood characteristics (including green space, tree canopy, blue space, population density, nighttime light and street connectivity) were conducted to identify vulnerable living environments. RESULTS: Mean daily concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 on case days were 33.8 µg/m3 and 54.3 µg/m3. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-day-averaged (lag02) PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations were associated with an increase of 6.66% (95%CI:1.18%,12.44%) and 2.39% (95%CI: 0.05%-4.78%) asthma mortality, respectively. Concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily asthma mortality with increasing PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations. Subgroup analyses indicated that the effect of PM1 appeared to be evident in neighborhood characteristics with high green space, low urbanization level and poor street connectivity. CONCLUSION: This study suggested an association between short-term PM1 and PM2.5 exposures and asthma mortality. Several neighborhood characteristics (such as green space and physical supportive environment) that could modify the effect of PM1 on asthma mortality should be further explored.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Características da Vizinhança , Material Particulado/toxicidade
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 28, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between mortality attributed to respiratory causes and other causes among people with asthma, COPD, and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is important. This study used electronic health records in England to estimate excess risk of death from respiratory-related causes after accounting for other causes of death. METHODS: We used linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care and Office for National Statistics mortality data to identify adults with asthma and COPD from 2005 to 2015. Causes of death were ascertained using death certificates. Hazard ratios (HR) and excess risk of death were estimated using Fine-Gray competing risk models and adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: 65,021 people with asthma and 45,649 with COPD in the CPRD dataset were frequency matched 5:1 with people without the disease on age, sex and general practice. Only 14 in 100,000 people with asthma are predicted to experience a respiratory-related death up to 10 years post-diagnosis, whereas in COPD this is 98 in 100,000. Asthma is associated with an 0.01% excess incidence of respiratory related mortality whereas COPD is associated with an 0.07% excess. Among people with asthma-COPD overlap (N = 22,145) we observed an increased risk of respiratory-related death compared to those with asthma alone (HR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.21-1.40) but not COPD alone (HR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.83-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Asthma and COPD are associated with an increased risk of respiratory-related death after accounting for other causes; however, diagnosis of COPD carries a much higher probability. ACO is associated with a lower risk compared to COPD alone but higher risk compared to asthma alone.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Asma/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1315, 2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079067

RESUMO

Despite high prevalence of asthma in children in the UK, there were no prior report on asthma admissions in paediatric intensive care units (PICU). We investigated the epidemiology and healthcare resource utilisation in children with asthma presenting to PICUs in England. PICANet, a UK national PICU database, was queried for asthma as the primary reason for admission, of children resident in England from April 2006 until March 2013. There were 2195 admissions to PICU for a median stay of 1.4 days. 59% were males and 51% aged 0-4 years. The fourth and fifth most deprived quintiles represented 61% (1329) admissions and 73% (11) of the 15 deaths. Deaths were most frequent in 10-14 years age (n = 11, 73%), with no deaths in less than 5 years age. 38% of admissions (828/2193) received invasive ventilation, which was more frequent with increasing deprivation (13% (108/828) in least deprived to 31% (260/828) in most deprived) and with decreasing age (0-4-year-olds: 49%, 409/828). This first multi-centre PICU study in England found that children from more deprived neighbourhoods represented the majority of asthma admissions, invasive ventilation and deaths in PICU. Children experiencing socioeconomic deprivation could benefit from enhanced asthma support in the community.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Admissão do Paciente , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 569-578, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958811

RESUMO

Our understanding of risk factors and interventions influencing outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has continued to evolve, revealing advances emerging from hypotheses formed at the start of the pandemic. Epidemiologic studies have shown that asthma control, rather than a diagnosis of asthma, is a determinant of COVID-19 severity. Clinical outcomes in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, even in those with impaired cellular immunity, are variable. IL-6 has emerged as a reliable biomarker of COVID-19 severity, and large clinical trials have shown the potential for improving outcomes through inhibition of IL-6 signaling in some patients. Studies of genetic risk factors for severe COVID-19 have also revealed the importance of interferon homeostasis in the defense against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Because COVID-19 vaccines constitute the primary tool for ending this pandemic, strategies have been developed to address potential allergic and immune-mediated reactions. Here, we discuss advances in our understanding of COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes within the context of allergic and immunologic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Asma/terapia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/mortalidade , Asma/virologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/mortalidade , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Prognóstico , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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