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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(4): 610-616, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) concentrations in serum of some reproductive aged men in Wuhan and explore the influencing factors of PCBs exposure. METHODS: Based on a cross-sectional study in 2013 on the association between exposure to environmental pollutants and adverse male reproductive health, which was conducted in Wuhan. Levels of dioxins-like PCBs(dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs(ndl-PCBs) in 101 serum samples of men with childbearing age were analyzed via high-resolution gas chromatograph tandem high-resolution mass spectrometer(HRGC-HRMS) method. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between PCBs levels and influencing factors. RESULTS: Total concentrations of twelve dl-PCBs(Σdl-PCBs) were in range of 177.85-7271.48 pg/g lipid, the median value was 1530.71 pg/g lipid, and CB-118 was the predominant congener. For six ndl-PCBs, total concentrations(Σndl-PCBs) were in range of 1463.23-40561.47 pg/g lipid, the median value was 5498.37 pg/g lipid, and CB-153 was the predominant congener. The World Health Organization toxicity equivalent(WHO_(2005)-TEQ) of dl-PCBs(ΣTEQ_(dl-PCBs)) were 0.02-162.29 pg TEQ/g lipid, the median value was 1.77 pg TEQ/g lipid. The age was positively correlated with Σmono-ortho PCBs(ß=0.01, 95%CI 0.00-0.02), ΣTEQ_(mono-ortho PCBs)(ß=0.01, 95%CI 0.00-0.02) and Σndl-PCBs(ß=0.02, 95%CI 0.00-0.03). Men who drank alcohol tend to show higher exposure to ΣTEQ_(dl-PCBs)(ß=0.56, 95%CI 0.13-1.00) than those did not drink alcohol. And higher levels of Σndl-PCBs(ß=0.15, 95%CI 0.04-0.26) was found in the men who reside in urban areas as compared to rural one. CONCLUSION: There were PCBs exposure in some reproductive aged men in Wuhan. Age, drink alcohol status, and residence were influencing factors on PCBs.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Adulto , Benzofuranos/análise , Estudos Transversais , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 779, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097084

RESUMO

Active sampling was conducted for the first time in Erzurum, Turkey, between August 2012 and January 2013, in order to investigate the presence of 82 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners. Urban and rural ambient air samples, including gas and particle phase atmospheric concentrations (GAPPACs) of PCBs, were collected simultaneously using high volume air sampler (HVAS) at two different sampling points of Erzurum. GAPPACs of PCB samples taken using HVAS in Palandöken Mountain Region (2565 m) and Ataturk University Campus (1870 m) were analyzed in GC-MS following appropriate extraction steps. Throughout the sampling period, total ambient air concentrations (gas phase + particulate phase) were 10 ± 6 and 27 ± 13 pg/m3 (mean) for Palandöken Mountain Region (PMR) and Atatürk University Campus (AUC), respectively. Low molecular weighted PCBs were found to be dominant in both rural an urban sampling sites. Meteorological parameters especially temperature (from Clausius-Clapeyron equation), wind direction, wind velocity, and precipitation were found to be effective on PCB concentration and distribution. The gas-particle distributions of PCBs in the summer and winter period were found to be 82% (gas phase) and 18% (particle phase) in the PMR and 90% (gas phase) and 10% (particle phase) in AUC, through Junge-Pankow adsorption model. In the light of these findings, total PCB concentrations detected in urban atmosphere (due to possible PCB sources) were observed to be higher than those determined in rural area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Turquia , Vento
3.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 41: e2021360, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early exposure to agricultural pesticides and their relationship with autism spectrum disorder. DATA SOURCE: This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42020204842. The subject was systematically analyzed on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until April 2021. Only studies with humans with early exposure to agricultural pesticides and diagnosis of autism were included. Exclusion criteria were studies on pesticides for domestic or veterinary use and late exposure. There were no language and time restriction. The quality analysis of the studies used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. DATA SYNTHESIS: Six case-control studies were included; three of them measured the route of exposure by maternal biomarkers and the others by the residence address. The studies had scores between moderate and high in the quality assessment tool. It was found high rates of association between early exposure to agricultural pesticides and autism and detection limit above the quantification for a sample of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence concerning the exposure to agricultural pesticides in early life and the development of the autism spectrum disorder; however, more studies are required to better understand their possible association.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1227: 340328, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089327

RESUMO

Owing to the severe toxicity and health hazard of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to humans, the efficient separation and determination of PCBs in dairy products is highly desirable and challenging. In this study, a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared by coating of a new molecularly imprinted phenolic resin (MIPR) in situ using a covalent grafting method. The MIPR coating, synthesized from 4-mercaptophenol and glutaraldehyde, provides rough surface with more adsorption sites; furthermore, the coating has a thickness of 1.0 µm, resulting in rapid equilibration. This new device has the advantages such as less coating peeling from the substrate and selective recognition enhancement of the coating. A highly selective and sensitive SPME-based method was developed using the developed fiber, coupled with GC-MS/MS, for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in milk samples. The developed MIPR-HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method showed low detection limits (0.012-0.066 pg mL-1), good linearity (r ≥ 0.9991), satisfactory recovery (77.5-116.7%), efficient enhancement factors (362-2034 folds) and good reusability (50 cycles). Therefore, this is a simple and efficient strategy for monitoring trace PCBs in complex samples and is a potential alternative for improving the selectivity of SPME fibers by introducing MIPR into the fiber coating.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Animais , Formaldeído , Humanos , Leite/química , Fenóis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Polímeros , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012166

RESUMO

Although recent studies have demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposure leads to toxicant-associated steatohepatitis, the underlying mechanism of this condition remains unsolved. Male C57Bl/6 mice fed a standard diet (SD) or 60% high fat diet (HFD) were exposed to the nondioxin-like PCB mixture Aroclor1260 or dioxin-like PCB congener PCB126 by intraperitoneal injection for a total of four times for six weeks. We observed hepatic injury, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in not only the Aroclor1260-treated mice fed a HFD but the PCB126-treated mice fed either a SD or a HFD. We also observed that both types of PCB exposure induced hepatic iron overload (HIO). Noticeably, the expression of hepatic lipocalin-2 (LCN2) was significantly increased in the PCB-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) models. The knockdown of LCN2 resulted in improvement of PCB-induced lipid and iron accumulation in vitro, suggesting that LCN2 plays a pivotal role in PCB-induced NAFLD/NASH. We observed that recombinant FGF21 improved hepatic steatosis and HIO in the PCB-induced NAFLD/NASH models. Importantly, recombinant FGF21 reduced the PCB-induced overexpression of hepatic LCN2 in vivo and in vitro. Our findings indicate that recombinant FGF21 attenuates PCB-induced NAFLD/NASH by modulating hepatic lipocalin-2 expression. Our data suggest that hepatic LCN2 might represent a suitable therapeutic target for improving PCB-induced NAFLD/NASH accompanying HIO.


Assuntos
Sobrecarga de Ferro , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Lipocalina-2/genética , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 242: 113941, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926409

RESUMO

This paper proposes a stochastic model to simulate the occurrence and levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in juvenile tuna. This model can calculate the transport of PCBs in the ocean (macroscopic phenomena) and biomagnification in fish (microscopic phenomena). The uncertainty in the concentration of the PCBs encountered by fish was treated by adopting a random sampling from the probability distribution function using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The model was applied to one-dimensional cases with transported PCBs and swimming fish. The simulated PCBs levels in the fish agreed well with levels observed by previous studies. Influences of PCBs spatial distribution patterns and current velocity on the PCBs levels in fish body was examined. The results showed that the model was sensitive to the distribution pattern and moderately sensitive to the current velocity. The model has the potential to be extended to more realistic situations and to serve as a tool for environmental risk assessment.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Algoritmos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Plâncton , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Atum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 243: 114010, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030683

RESUMO

With development of e-waste related legislation in China, formal recycling activities are designated in some areas while informal ones are illegally transferred to emerging areas to avoid supervision. However, the resulting environmental impact and ecological risks are not clear. Here, we investigated the discharge of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to soil and aquatic environments by e-waste recycling activities in the Lian River Basin, China. The study area included a designated industrial park in the traditional e-waste recycling area (Guiyu, known as the world's largest e-waste center), several emerging informal recycling zones, and their surrounding areas and coastal area. A total of 27 PCBs were analyzed, and the highest concentration was found in an emerging site for soil (354 ng g-1) and in a traditional site for sediment (1350 ng g--1) respectively. The pollution levels were significantly higher in both the traditional and emerging recycling areas than in their respective upstream countryside areas (p = 0.0356 and 0.0179, respectively). Source analysis revealed that the traditional and emerging areas had similar PCB sources mainly associated with three PCB technical mixtures manufactured in Japan (KC600) and the USA (Aroclor 1260 and Aroclor 1262). The PCB pollution in their downstream areas including the coastal area was evidently affected by the formal and informal recycling activities through river runoff. The ecological risk assessments showed that PCBs in soils and sediments in the Lian River Basin could cause adverse ecotoxicological consequences to humans and aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Bifenilos Policlorados , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Reciclagem , Rios , Solo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954780

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may interfere with hormonal processes. Knowledge about the effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) on pubertal development is limited. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether prenatal environmental PCB and OH-PCB exposure are associated with reproductive hormone levels and pubertal characteristics in 13- to 15-year-old children. In this Dutch observational cohort study, 194 mother-infant pairs were included (1998-2002). Maternal pregnancy serum levels of PCBs, OH-PCBs, and other POPs were measured. At follow-up (2014-2016), we measured serum or plasma levels of reproductive hormones in their children. We assessed Tanner stages and testicular volume (by clinician or standardized self-assessment), and participants completed questionnaires on pubertal onset. In total, 101 adolescents (14.4 ± 0.8 years; 53.7% of invited) participated, and 55 were boys. In boys, higher prenatal PCB levels were associated with higher testosterone levels, higher pubic hair stage, larger testicular volume, and younger age at onset of growth spurt and voice break. In girls, higher prenatal PCB levels were associated with higher stages for breast development. In conclusion, higher prenatal PCB exposure could be associated with more advanced pubertal development in 13- to 15-year-old children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12228-12236, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943277

RESUMO

Although commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) production was banned in 1979 under the Toxics Substance Control Act, inadvertent generation of PCBs through a variety of chemical production processes continues to contaminate products and waste streams. In this research, a total of 39 consumer products purchased from local and online retailer stores were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners. Inadvertent PCBs (iPCBs) were detected from seven products, and PCB-11 was the only congener detected in most of the samples, with a maximum concentration exceeding 800 ng/g. Emission of PCB-11 to air was studied from one craft foam sheet product using dynamic microchambers at 40 °C for about 120 days. PCB-11 migration from the product to house dust was also investigated. The IAQX program was then employed to estimate the emissions of PCB-11 from 10 craft foam sheets to indoor air in a 30 m3 room at 0.5 h-1 air change rate for 30 days. The predicted maximum PCB-11 concentration in the room air (156.8 ng/m3) and the measured concentration in dust (20 ng/g) were applied for the preliminary exposure assessment. The generated data from multipathway investigation in this work should be informative for further risk assessment and management for iPCBs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12200-12209, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952373

RESUMO

Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is affected by physiochemical properties of POPs and ecological factors of wildlife. In this study, influences on species-specific biomagnification of POPs from aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates to eight songbird species were investigated. The median concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in birds were 175 to 13 200 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 62.7 to 3710 ng/g lw, respectively. Diet compositions of different invertebrate taxa for songbird species were quantified by quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Aquatic insects had more contributions of more hydrophobic POPs, while terrestrial invertebrates had more contributions of less hydrophobic PCBs in songbirds. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) and trophic magnification factors had parabolic relationships with log KOW and log KOA. The partition ratios of POPs between bird muscle and air were significantly and positively correlated with log KOA of POPs, indicating respiratory elimination as an important determinant in biomagnification of POPs in songbirds. In this study, the species-specific biomagnification of POPs in songbird species cannot be explained by stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen and body parameters of bird species. BMFs of most studied POPs were significantly correlated with proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in different species of songbirds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Aves Canoras , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Invertebrados , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12307-12314, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969807

RESUMO

Calculating accurate air-sea fluxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is an essential condition for evaluating their transport in the atmosphere. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecosystem-PCB coupled model was developed for the northwestern Pacific Ocean to assess the air-sea fluxes of four PCBs and examine the influences of ocean currents on the fluxes. The model revealed a fine structure in the air-sea flux that is sensitive to the Kuroshio, a western boundary current with a high surface speed. Intense downward and upward fluxes (-23.6 to 44.75 ng m-2 d-1 for ∑4PCBs) can be found in the Kuroshio region south of Japan and the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan, respectively. In strong (weak) current regions, it takes ∼4 and ∼1 days (1-3 and 3-12 days) for dissolved PCBs to reach an equilibrium in scenarios where only air-sea exchange or only ocean advection is considered, respectively. In strong current regions, the ocean advection has a shorter response time than the air-sea exchange, indicating that dissolved PCBs from upstream carried by strong current can easily change the downstream concentration by disrupting the equilibrium with original air-sea exchange and induce new air-sea fluxes there. Therefore, strong western boundary currents should be correctly considered in future atmospheric transport models for PCBs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Pacífico , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12460-12472, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994059

RESUMO

Lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) and their metabolites make up a class of environmental pollutants implicated in a range of adverse outcomes in humans; however, the metabolism of LC-PCBs in human models has received little attention. Here we characterize the metabolism of PCB 2 (3-chlorobiphenyl), an environmentally relevant LC-PCB congener, in HepG2 cells with in silico prediction and nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty PCB 2 metabolites belonging to 13 metabolite classes, including five dechlorinated metabolite classes, were identified in the cell culture media from HepG2 cells exposed for 24 h to 10 µM or 3.6 nM PCB 2. The PCB 2 metabolite profiles differed from the monochlorinated metabolite profiles identified in samples from an earlier study with PCB 11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl) under identical experimental conditions. A dechlorinated dihydroxylated metabolite was also detected in human liver microsomal incubations with monohydroxylated PCB 2 metabolites but not PCB 2. These findings demonstrate that the metabolism of LC-PCBs in human-relevant models involves the formation of dechlorination products. In addition, untargeted metabolomic analyses revealed an altered bile acid biosynthesis in HepG2 cells. Our results indicate the need to study the disposition and toxicity of complex PCB 2 metabolites, including novel dechlorinated metabolites, in human-relevant models.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Compostos de Bifenilo , Linhagem Celular , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo
13.
Environ Int ; 167: 107397, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933843

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in a number of industrial products from 1950 to 80s, including building materials. As a result, some buildings exhibit high levels of PCBs in the indoor environment. The aim of this study was to test silicone wristbands as a method for estimating personal exposure to PCBs in buildings both in controlled experiments and field settings. In the controlled study, the sampling kinetics of silicone wristbands were investigated in a 31-day uptake study. The field study focused on the application of wristbands as a personal exposure measure. It included 71 persons in a contaminated housing estate and 23 persons in a reference group. The linear uptake of PCBs ranged from 2 to 24 days for PCB-8, 18, 28, 31, 40, 44, 49, 52, 66, 99, and 101 under controlled conditions. A generic sampling rate (Rk) of 2.3 m3 d-1 corresponding to a mass transfer coefficient of 17 m h-1 was found in the controlled kinetic study. Partitioning coefficients were also determined for the nine congeners. In the field study, an apparent generic field sampling rate (Rf) of 2.6 m3 d-1 was found; when adjusted to reported hours exposed, it increased to 3.5 m3 d-1. The wristbands were shown to be a good tool for predicting airborne exposure, as there was a highly significant difference between the exposed and reference group as well as a clear trend when used for ranking of exposure. In correlation analyses, highly significant correlations were observed between air and wristband levels, though adjusting by self-reported exposure time only increased the correlation marginally in the field study. The obtained kinetic data can be used for estimating the magnitude of external exposure. The advantages provided by the wristbands in the form of easy use and handling are significant, though the limitations should also be acknowledged.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Materiais de Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Silicones
14.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 119980, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985432

RESUMO

China has been in a rapid development period in recent decades, the mass production and use of chemical industrial products and pesticides have resulted in a large amount of pollutants in the environment. These pollutants enter the human body through environmental exposure and dietary intake, causing adverse health effects. Although many of them have been banned and restricted in the production and use in China, these pollutants still remain in the human body due to their high persistence and strong bioaccumulation. In this review, we aim to reveal the accumulation levels and profiles, as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of common chemical pollutants including chlorinated paraffins (CPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), new halogenated flame retardants (NHFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenols, organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides in the blood (including whole blood, serum and plasma) of Chinese adults by extracting 93 related studies published from 1990 to 2021. Results have shown that CPs, OCPs and PAHs were the main pollutants in China, the levels of short-chain chlorinated paraffin, p,p'-DDE and phenanthrene in blood even reached 11,060.58, 740.41 and 498.28 ng/g lipid respectively. Under the strict control of pollutants in China, the levels of most pollutants have been on a downward trend except for perfluoro octanoate and perfluoro nonanoate. Besides, OPFRs, NHFRs and PAHs may have a potential upward trend, requiring further research and observation. As for spatial distribution, East China (Bohai Bay and Yangtze River Delta) and South China (Pearl River Delta) were the major polluted regions due to their fast development of industry and agriculture.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adulto , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Neurotoxicology ; 92: 200-211, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995272

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental contaminants is an important public health concern for the Inuit population of northern Québec, who have been exposed to mercury (Hg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb). During the last 25 years, the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS) birth cohort has reported adverse associations between these exposures and brain function outcomes. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether contaminant exposure is associated with alterations of the corpus callosum (CC), which plays an important role in various cognitive, motor and sensory function processes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was administered to 89 NCDS participants (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 1.2). Diffusion-weighted imaging was assessed to characterize the microstructure of the CC white matter in 7 structurally and functionally distinct regions of interest (ROIs) using a tractography-based segmentation approach. The following metrics were computed: fiber tract density, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). Multiple linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, current alcohol/drug use and fish nutrients (omega-3 fatty acids and selenium) were conducted to assess the association between diffusion-weighted imaging metrics and Hg, PCB 153 and Pb concentrations obtained at birth in the cord blood and postnatally (mean values from blood samples at 11 and 18 years of age). Exposures were not associated with fiber tract density. Nor were significant associations found with cord and postnatal blood Pb concentrations for FA. However, pre- and postnatal Hg and PCB concentrations were significantly associated with higher FA of several regions of the CC, namely anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus, and splenium, with the most pronounced effects observed in the splenium. FA results were mainly associated with lower RD. This study shows that exposure to Hg and PCB 153 alters the posterior microstructure of the CC, providing neuroimaging evidence of how developmental exposure to environmental chemicals can impair brain function and behavior in late adolescence.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Mercúrio , Bifenilos Policlorados , Selênio , Animais , Anisotropia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Humanos , Inuítes , Chumbo , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade
16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 245: 114028, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041276

RESUMO

In 2019, high concentrations of the non-Aroclor PCB congeners 47, 51, and 68 were released by a silicone rubber production site in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Local authorities announced a consumption alert for home-grown fruits and vegetables for the affected area which led to a great level of insecurity among the population regarding potential health effects. The aim of study was to determine the plasma levels of the non-Aroclor congeners and the six ndl-indicator congeners (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) in children and women with child-bearing potential living close to the production site. Altogether n = 111 participants, with n = 73 female adults and n = 38 children were included in this analysis. For the non-Aroclor-PCBs as well as the lower-clorinated ndl-indicator PCBs 28, 52, and 101, the median plasma concentrations were below the LOQ. Only one adult showed an elevated PCB 47 value. In conclusion, no elevated plasma levels could be detected for PCB 47, 51, or 68 in the nearby population of the silicone-rubber production site. However, our study was highly important for risk characterisation as well as risk communication.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Elastômeros de Silicone , Verduras
17.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114215, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041536

RESUMO

In 1973-74, a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) flame retardant mixture was shipped to Michigan livestock feed mills in place of a nutritional supplement and contaminated the food supply. Following the accident, the Michigan PBB Registry was established to study the long-term health effects of halogenated compounds and is now led by a community-academic partnership. PBB exposure is associated with altered DNA methylation in sperm, which may lead to adverse birth outcomes in children whose fathers have increased levels of serum PBB or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Paternal PBB and PCB levels of men enrolled in the Michigan PBB Registry (n = 155) were analyzed against matched offspring birthweight and gestational age (n = 336). Birthweight and gestational age were dichotomized at the 25th percentile and 37 weeks, respectively, and paternal PBB and PCB levels were examined as continuous measures and divided into tertiles. Associations of offspring birthweight and gestational age with paternal PBB and PCB serum concentrations were modeled using multivariable linear spline and log-risk regression, adjusting for family clustering, paternal health and lifestyle factors, maternal PBB, and PCB serum concentrations, sex, and offspring gestational age (for birthweight). Fathers in the middle and upper PBB and PCB tertiles had increased risks for lowest quartile birthweight compared to the first tertile, with adjusted risk ratios (aRR) = 1.67 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.99) and aRR = 2.06 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.79) for PBB, and aRR = 1.47 (95% CI: 0.79, 2.75) and aRR = 1.34 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.54) for PCB, respectively. Elevated paternal PBB levels were not associated with an increased risk for preterm birth, while PCB levels were associated with a small, but not significant, decrease in gestational age, ß = -0.37 (95% CI: -0.76, 0.03) weeks per log unit increase PCB. The findings suggest that increased paternal PBB and PCB levels negatively impact offspring birthweight, and paternal PCB levels may negatively impact gestational age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenil Polibromatos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Nascimento Prematuro , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Sêmen
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(42): 64252-64258, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939195

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls are commonly categorized as persistent organic pollutants. In order to analyze these pollutants, customized stationary phases are increasingly being developed and synthesized for solid-phase extraction. In this work, we tested a new solventless solid-phase extraction approach based on the use of a Magic Chemisorber® (Frontier Lab) which consists of a bead-covered polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase with a thickness of 500 µm. These devices are directly immersed into aqueous samples and then introduced into a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system equipped with a cryofocusing system for the thermal desorption and analysis of the adsorbed species. Our new method performs better than the most recent solid-phase extraction devices, with limits of detection lower than 2.7 ng/L and limits of quantification lower than 9.0 ng/L. The method was tested on standard compounds and on an environmental sample, showing the potential to characterize other chemical species besides the persistent organic pollutants, such as phthalate plasticizers and antioxidants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antioxidantes , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Água Doce/análise , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Plastificantes , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pirólise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 1): 113765, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792169

RESUMO

PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are ubiquitous persistent pollutants with reduced bioavailability, which bioremediation using soil fauna is still managed to treat. This research set out to: (i) study the suitability of earthworms (Eisenia fetida), alone and associated with plants (Lepidium sativum), for the decontamination of PCDD/F and PCB polluted soils in Brescia-Caffaro (Italy), at total and congener concentration levels; (ii) simulate the action of earthworms in groundwater contamination process and nutrient mobility. Five treatments were set up: (i) uncontaminated soil with E. fetida (NC); (ii) contaminated soil (C); (iii) contaminated soil with E. fetida (CEf); (iv) contaminated soil with L. sativum (CLs); (v) contaminated soil with E. fetida and L. sativum (CEfLs). PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the soil prior to testing were measured. Analysis was repeated in soil treatments and percolating water at the end of the test period (4 months). Dissolved nutrient concentrations were measured in percolated water. PCB and PCDD/F concentrations, initially 259333.33 ± 10867.89 ng/kg and 176 ± 10.69 ngTE/kg, were significantly reduced after 4 months in all treatments. Treatments did not differ in total PCBs concentration (from 160,000 ng/kg to 194,000 ng/kg), but CEfLs congeners concentrations were less environmentally threatening; CEf and CLs resulted in lower PCDD/Fs concentration (79.43 ± 3.34 ngTE/kg and 73.03 ± 4.09 ngTE/kg, respectively). The action of earthworms could enhance contaminants and soluble reactive phosphorous content in percolating water.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Solo , Água
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown an association between dioxin and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer. This study aims to examine the effects of blood concentration of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs) on T2DM and thyroid cancer. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Korean cancer prevention study-II (KCPS-II) consisting of 15 thyroid cancer cases, 30 T2DM cases, and 55 controls. A total of 500 samples were used in 100 pooling samples. An average value of a pooled sample was calculated weighted by the blood volume of each sample. RESULTS: The study population included 100 participants from the KCPS-II (median (IQR) baseline age, 54.06 [21.04] years; 48 women). The toxic equivalents of PCDD/DFs showed a significant positive association with T2DM and thyroid cancer, after adjustments for potential confounders (T2DM ORs = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.05-1.43; thyroid cancer ORs = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.12-1.61). CONCLUSION: In this study, both T2DM and thyroid cancer were associated with the blood concentrations of PCDD/DFs. The association between PCDD/DFs and T2D was found among women but not among men. Our findings suggest that further biochemical in vivo research and epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify the association between dioxins concentrations and diseases.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
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