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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130490, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274703

RESUMO

In this study, a novel signal amplification strategy on photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor was designed for high-sensitivity and -selectivity detection of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) on the basis of Schottky junction and sensitization. First, the Schottky barrier not only provided an electron-transfer irreversible passage from CuO to Au Nanoparticles (NPs) but also generated excellent local surface plasmon resonance between CuO and Au NPs, thus improving the efficiency of charge separation and light absorption. Second, to further improve the response of the PEC aptasensor under the action of the sensitization, the complementary-DNA-functionalized CdS quantum dots were introduced onto the surface of CuO/Au NPs via hybridization of the target aptamer. The PEC aptasensor exhibited a low detection limit of 17.3 pg L-1, and a wide linear response was shown at a range of 0.2-220 ng L-1 depending on the variation of photocurrent before and after incubation.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Bifenilos Policlorados
2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 347-366, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480207

RESUMO

There is little information on how POPs in eggs of different terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic birds share a large urban and rural landscape relate. We collected and analysed 64 eggs belonging to ten species of six feeding guilds, and compared organic chlorinated pesticide (OCP), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and brominated flame retardants (BFR) residue concentrations and compositions. The eggs were collected in the Gauteng and the northern part of the Free Sate provinces of South Africa, one of the largest economic hubs in Africa. White-breasted Cormorant and African Darter eggs (at the highest trophic level as large aquatic predators) had the highest ΣOCP and ΣPCB concentrations, and Cape Sparrow and Southern Masked Weaver (granivores) eggs had the lowest concentrations, corresponding to the lowest trophic level in our collection. The highest percentage p,p'-DDT were in eggs of the terrestrial insectivore Crowned Lapwing (24%) and the scavenging African Sacred Ibis (17%), and the lowest in African Darter (1.0%) and White-breasted Cormorant (0.9%) eggs, suggesting that recency of DDT releases in a region cannot be gauged by this metric. African Sacred Ibis and Southern Masked Weaver eggs had the highest ΣBFR concentrations, with Crowned Lapwing, Cattle Egret, and White-breasted Cormorant eggs the least. Based on feeding guilds, the mean ΣPOP concentrations increased from granivore, aquatic omnivore, scavenger, terrestrial insectivore, small aquatic predator, to large aquatic predator. Mean ΣPOP concentrations in eggs increased from terrestrial, to wetland, to aquatic habitat birds. Interesting patterns were observed with multivariate analyses. There were no significant regressions between egg size and any summed POP classes. ΣBFR concentrations were not correlated with ΣOCPs or ΣPCBs. Eggshell thinning of African Darter eggs was associated with p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB suggesting risk. Other metrics also suggest risk. Therefore, different species of terrestrial and aquatic birds from the same area acquire and deposit POPs in different proportions and quantities in their eggs. Trophic levels and habitat explain the overall patterns, but detailed differences were found, some of which we are unable to explain. Based on POPs residues in terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic bird eggs, different POPs classes behave differently in a shared large inland industrial area, complicating deductions about POPs and associated risks based on one or few species.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , África Austral , Animais , Aves , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , África do Sul
3.
Talanta ; 235: 122721, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517589

RESUMO

Current work presents developed and validated miniaturized method for residue analysis of 261 pesticides and their metabolites as well as 6 congeners of non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-PCB) in a very low mass beebread sample. Sample preparation is based on modified QuEChERS protocol with all steps miniaturized to enable multiresidue analysis of sample with extremely low weight. Sample of beebread (0.3 g) was extracted with 1 mL of acetonitrile containing 5% formic acid and ammonium formate salt were added, then extract was subjected to clean-up by freezing and two-step dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) with a Supel QuE Verde sorbents (Supelclean ENVI-Carb Y; Supelclean PSA; Z-Sep+; magnesium sulfate). After 1st step dSPE a portion of extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 200 pesticide residues. Remaining extract was subjected to 2nd step dSPE clean-up by another Supel QuE Verde and then after concentration and solvent exchange it was analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for another 61 pesticide and 6 ndl-PCB residues. Method enables determination of residues of 101 insecticides, 72 herbicides, 67 fungicides, 10 acaricides, 6 growth regulators, 5 veterinary drugs and 6 ndl-PCB's. Particular attention was paid to the pesticides being active substances of plant protection products recommended for the protection of winter oilseed rape and apple orchards which during their blooming periods are one of the most attractive sources of food for pollinators and could serve as representatives of other economically important crops. Method was validated according to the Guidance document SANTE/12682/2019 at six concentration levels from 0.001 to 0.5 mg kg-1. The analysis of beebread samples spiked at the level of 0.01 mg kg-1showed mean recovery (trueness) value of about 98% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. The small weight of the sample did not adversely affect the limits of quantification and 75% of analytes could be quantified at least at concentration of 0.005 mg kg-1. Developed mini-method was tested in the analysis of beebread samples, each extracted from individual cell of honeycomb. It is the first time when analyses at single comb cell level were possible.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Própole , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113645, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523545

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are compounds of significant interest due to high toxicity, persistence, long-range atmospheric transport, and bioaccumulation. These compounds can interact with components present in the environment, including dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and waters, thereby modifying its availability and movement. In this study, DOM was fractionated by ultrafiltration and characterized according to its hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, then the interaction of a series of PCBs and different DOM fractions was evaluated. The DOM was collected from the surface waters of three sectors located along a river in the southern part of America. These sectors are subject to different anthropic activities, thus the DOM of sector 1, with the least anthropic influence, was mainly hydrophobic and with a high content of aromatic structures. In contrast, the DOM collected from sectors 2 and 3, where anthropic activity is highest, was slightly hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively. The DOM of these two sectors was mainly composed of low molecular weight macromolecules. These results revealed that more hydrophobic PCBs (i.e., 101, 118, 138, and 180) have a greater affinity to DOM with a higher molecular weight (i.e., >1 kDa). In turn, PCBs with lesser chlorination and hydrophobicity presented a greater affinity to DOM with a lower molecular weight. In conclusion, our study shows that the high molecular weight DOM is responsible for mobilizing PCBs with a high degree of chlorination.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Halogenação , Peso Molecular , Rios , Ultrafiltração
5.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131125, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467953

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are industrial chemicals with long half-lives. Early life exposure to POPs has been associated with adverse effects. Fetal exposure is typically estimated based on concentrations in maternal serum or placenta and little is known on the actual fetal exposure. We measured the concentrations of nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry in maternal serum, placenta, and fetal tissues (adipose tissue, liver, heart, lung and brain) in 20 pregnancies that ended in stillbirth (gestational weeks 36-41). The data were combined with our earlier data on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the same cohort (Mamsen et al. 2019). HCB, p,p'-DDE, PCB 138 and PCB 153 were quantified in all samples of maternal serum, placenta and fetal tissues. All 22 POPs were detected in all fetal adipose tissue samples, even in cases where they could not be detected in maternal serum or placenta. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly higher in later gestations, male fetuses, and pregnancies with normal placental function. OCPs showed the highest tissue:serum ratios and PFAS the lowest. The highest chemical burden was found in adipose tissue and lowest in the brain. Overall, all studied human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to mixtures of POPs. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly modified by gestational age, fetal sex and placental function. Importantly, more chemicals were detected in fetal tissues compared to maternal serum and placenta, implying that these proxy samples may provide a misleading picture of actual fetal exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Feminino , Feto , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Placenta , Gravidez
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148454, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465049

RESUMO

Nano zero-valent iron particles (nZVI, 0.09 wt%), micro zero-valent iron particles (mZVI, 0.09 wt%), granular activated carbon (GAC, 3.03 wt%), GAC supported nZVI (nZVI/GAC, 3.12 wt%) and nZVI&GAC (nZVI 0.09 wt%, GAC 3.03 wt%) were evaluated for their effects on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) anaerobic reductive dechlorination, detoxification, as well as microbial community structure in Taihu Lake (China) sediment microcosms. The results showed that all of these five materials could stimulate PCBs reductive dechlorination, especially for dioxin-like PCB congeners, and nZVI&GAC had the best removal effect on PCBs. The reduction of total PCBs increased from 13.5% to 33.2%. H2 generated by zero-valent iron corrosion was utilized by organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) to enhance the dechlorination of PCBs predominantly via meta chlorine removal in the short term. The addition of ZVI had little impact on the total bacterial abundance and the microbial community structure. The adsorption of GAC and potential bioremediation properties of attached biofilm could promote the long-term removal of PCBs. GAC, nZVI/GAC, nZVI&GAC had different influences on the microbial structure. These findings provide insights into the biostimulation technique for in situ remediations of PCBs contaminated sediments.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bifenilos Policlorados , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catálise , Cloro , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ferro , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131109, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470161

RESUMO

Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely used in the modern society, but their environmental fate and related human health effects remain inadequately recognized. To assist in better understanding the environmental fate of LCs, the octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) of 21 target LCs were determined with a gas chromatography-retention time (GC-RT) approach. Four classes of traditional organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls were employed as reference or calibration compounds. Cluster analysis indicated that the reference and calibration compounds somewhat influenced the relative and absolute magnitudes of GC-RT results. A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model was constructed from the experimental results and outperformed a widely-used model, KOAWIN, in estimating log KOA of LCs. This model was used to predict log KOAs for 116 LCs with the same element compositions and similar structures as the target LCs. Overall persistence and long-range transport potential were predicted based on the measured and estimated log KOA values, yielding consistent results. Several LCs were shown to have comparable characteristic travel distances and transport efficiencies as the traditional organic pollutants, suggesting they are potential environmental pollutants and the QSPR model is applicable in predicting the environmental fate of LCs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Cristais Líquidos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Cromatografia Gasosa , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Octanóis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149278, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340081

RESUMO

The study aimed at investigating the concentrations and geographical patterns of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in reindeer muscle samples (n = 100) collected from 10 grazing districts in Norway, 2009. Concentrations were examined for patterns related to geographical region as well as age and sex of animals. Concentrations measured for PCBs and OCPs in reindeer meat samples were generally low. Geographical patterns were revealed and districts with previous mining activities, military trenches, or those that were in the vicinity of the Russian border exhibited slightly elevated concentrations compared to other districts. Calves (10 months) exhibited higher concentrations than young (1.5 year) and old animals (>2 years) adjusted for sex, whereas males exhibited higher concentrations than females, adjusted for age. All PCB congeners inter-correlated strongly with each other, whereas oxy-chlordane and heptachlor epoxide were the strongest inter-correlated OCP compounds. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs in reindeer meat were all considerably lower than the maximum levels set for those contaminants in foodstuffs for safe human consumption by the European Commission. Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a substantial contributor to the human body burden of persistent organic pollutants.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Rena , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Masculino , Carne/análise , Noruega , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
9.
Water Res ; 203: 117546, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419920

RESUMO

Aquatic ecosystems are exposed to multiple environmental pressures including chemical contamination. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) known as preoccupying substances for the environment. Active biomonitoring (ABM) is a surveillance method for polluted aquatic ecosystems measuring bioavailable contamination. In this work, the aim was to quantify the total links between environmental pressures and bioavailable contamination (for PAHs and PCBs) at the French national scale. Based on 245 sites experimented by ABM from 2017 to 2019, environmental pressures (anthropogenic pressures and environmental parameters) were defined (point source landfill density, point source urban density, point source industry density, point source road density, nonpoint source industry density, nonpoint source road density, nonpoint source urban density, nutrients and organic matter, slope, dams, straightness, coarse sediment, summer precipitation, hydrographic network density and watershed size) and characterized by one or a combination of measures called stressor indicators. The links between environmental pressures and bioavailable POPs contamination (ABM measure) at a large spatial scale were defined and quantified via structural equation modeling. Point source urban density, nutrients and organic matter, summer precipitation, straightness and point source industry density are correlated positively with PAH bioavailable contamination. In contrast, nonpoint source urban density, nonpoint source industry density, nonpoint source road density and watershed size are positively correlated with PCB bioavailable contamination. The dominant pressures linked to PAHs and PCBs were different, respectively local and large-scale pressures were linked to PAH bioavailable contamination, and only large-scale pressures were linked to PCB bioavailable contamination.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11937-11947, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435488

RESUMO

This study tested two sediment amendments with active sorbents: injection of aluminum (Al) into sediments and thin-layer capping with Polonite (calcium-silicate), with and without the addition of activated carbon (AC), for their simultaneous sequestration of sediment phosphorus (P), hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), and metals. Sediment cores were collected from a eutrophic and polluted brackish water bay in Sweden and incubated in the laboratory to measure sediment-to-water contaminant release and effects on biogeochemical processes. We used diffusive gradients in thin-film passive samplers for metals and semi-permeable membrane devices for the HOC polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Al injection into anoxic sediments completely stopped the release of P and reduced the release of cadmium (Cd, -97%) and zinc (Zn, -95%) but increased the sediment fluxes of PAH (+49%), compared to the untreated sediment. Polonite mixed with AC reduced the release of P (-70%), Cd (-67%), and Zn (-89%) but increased methane (CH4) release. Adding AC to the Al or Polonite reduced the release of HOCs by 40% in both treatments. These results not only demonstrate the potential of innovative remediation techniques using composite sorbent amendments but also highlight the need to assess possible ecological side effects on, for example, sedimentary microbial processes.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Sedimentos Geológicos , Fósforo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(16): 11080-11090, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342440

RESUMO

Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-PCBs) are a subclass of persistent bioaccumulative pollutants able to enter the food chain. We investigated the transfer of ndl-PCBs from contaminated feed into meat and liver of fattening chickens. A total of 48 chicks were divided into five treatment and one control groups. Treated animals were fed with contaminated diets (11.7 ± 0.4 µg/kg sum of indicator ndl-PCBs; 88% dry matter (DM)) before slaughter for different subperiods of time: 16, 23, 28, 32, and 36 days for groups 1-5, respectively. One day after the end of each subperiod, three animals per group were slaughtered to determine the congener-specific ndl-PCB content. All remaining animals were fed the control feed until slaughter on day 37 to probe depuration. We used these data to generate congener-specific physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for indicator ndl-PCBs. The models show that PCBs 28, 138, 153, and 180 form a more slowly eliminated cluster (with an observed transfer rate into meat over 74% and observed half-lives over 8.7 days) than PCBs 52 and 101 (with a transfer rate under 13% and half-lives under 2.6 days). Our simulations show that ndl-PCB levels in feed lower than 3.9 (long 56-day) or 4.4 µg/kg (short 37-day fattening period) would be necessary to ensure the current maximum level in muscle meat (fat basis), according to EU Regulations 1881/2006 and 1259/2011. The PBTK models are made available in the Python and Food Safety Knowledge Exchange formats.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Galinhas , Carne/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130356, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384189

RESUMO

Numerous reports have elucidated different statistical approaches to identify temporal trends in atmospheric persistent organic pollutant (POP) time series. However, the correlation of industrial activity with concentrations of atmospheric POPs in Japan has not yet been determined. Herein, a panel data analysis of a 16-year monitoring program (2003-2018) conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Environment was used to investigate a range of POPs in the atmosphere above Japan. This work focuses on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) collected each year at 53 sites across Japan. The panel analysis revealed that PCB, PCN, and PBDE concentrations were influenced by a combination of factors including year, industrial activity (municipal and industrial waste incinerators, cement kilns, steel industry, and secondary zinc production), population, temperature, and atmospheric boundary layer. However, HCB and PeCBz were not significantly affected by these factors. Industrial activity showed stronger positive correlations with all homologues of PCBs, PCNs, and PBDEs as compared to those demonstrated by population. Significant decreasing trends were identified for the atmospheric ∑PBDEs (half-life t1/2 = 9.4 years), ∑PCNs (t1/2 = 8.9 years), and ∑PCBs (t1/2 = 13.5 years) concentrations, while HCB and PeCBz showed slightly increasing or steady levels. As a statistical tool, panel data analysis can contribute to the assessment of spatial and temporal trends of POPs at a national scale, while elucidating different behavioral responses to numerous environmental variables.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Análise de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Japão , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396900

RESUMO

The main objective of the present study was to determine and differentiate the concentration levels, to define the probable sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pollution in the atmospheric air and their seasonal variations in Bulgaria, on the high mountain peak Moussala, Rila Mountain. The study was based on the obtained results from the passive monitoring of POPs in 2014-2017. During this period, the measurements of POPs were performed with passive samplers, advanced instrumental methods analytically determined the concentrations of PAHs, and the analysis of the obtained data was performed by the multivariate statistical analysis (cluster, factor and time-series analysis). It is shown that the POPs species could be correctly classified according to their chemical nature into several patterns of similarity and their concentration profile depends on the annual season.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112541, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352580

RESUMO

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in muscle samples from common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), eagle owls (Bubo bubo), and little owls (Athene noctua) collected in Beijing, China. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were in the ranges of 22.7-5280, 67.5-1610, and 68.4-3180 pg/g lipid weight (lw), while levels of dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 4.91 to 1560, 8.08-294, and 28.2-3540 ng/g lw, in common kestrel, eagle owl, and little owl, respectively. The main PCDD/Fs congener was 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, and CB-153 dominated the seven indicator PCBs. PCB levels have shown a decreasing trend in the last decade for the common kestrel, but not for little owl in Beijing, which exhibited higher levels of pollutants and toxic equivalency (TEQ) values than the other two species. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and indicator PCBs differed between fledgling and adult raptors for certain species. Raptors in this study generally had a higher TEQ than the no-observed-effect level in the literature, indicating significant exposure risks to PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in raptors, especially in adult little owls.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Aves Predatórias , Animais , China , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 605, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453199

RESUMO

This study determined the indoor air levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some selected public bars in Southern part of Nigeria. The result obtained was used to carry out health risk assessment of exposure to PCBs in these indoor environment.s. Air samples were obtained from the selected popular bars using polyurethane (PUF) passive samplers. PCB quantification was done using GC-MS operated in selected ionization mode (SIM). Health risk assessment from exposure of these pollutants was determining using toxicity equivalence quotient (TEQ), inhalation risk assessment (IRA), incremental life cancer risk (ILCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). The results showed the average concentration range of 0.15-0.17 µg/m3. The mean TEQ at various locations was 0.00050 ng WHO-TEQ/m3, while the calculated daily inhalation exposure values were 0.0004 ng TEQ kg-1 day-1 for adults and 0.0002 ng TEQ kg-1 day-1 for children. The values of IRA, ILCR for the children, and HQs for both adults and children were higher than the WHO permissible limits. The study revealed that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks associated with longtime exposure to PCBs in the indoor environment public bars.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Criança , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 579, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398331

RESUMO

The concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils collected at three depths from thirteen different sites along the floodplain of the lower reaches of the River Niger (LRRN) in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to provide data on the levels of contamination, sources of the contaminants, and risks to the ecosystem and humans. Soil samples were Soxhlet extracted with a solvent mixture of dichloromethane (DCM)/n-hexane and cleaned up on a column packed with Florisil and silica gel. The PCBs in the samples were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Æ©28 PCB concentrations in the floodplain soils varied between not detected (nd) and 11,151 ng g-1 for different sampling sites and depths. The PCB concentrations and homologue distribution patterns in soil profiles of the floodplain of the LRRN showed remarkable differences with respect to sites and depths. The results obtained were used to evaluate the ecological and human health risks, which indicated that there is a potential risk to organisms and humans from exposure to PCBs in these soil profiles. The source evaluation as determined by principal component analysis suggested that PCBs in these soil profiles came from burnt circuit boards, cable wires, use of paints, discharges from transformers, long-range migration, and deposition.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Níger , Nigéria , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Rios , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112763, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332355

RESUMO

This study determines the levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Baltic fish caught in ICES areas 24, 25, and 26, and the related risk for fish consumers in relation to the newly established Tolerable Weekly Intake dose (TWI) (2 pg WHO-TEQ kg --1 body weight). The total PCDD/F/DL-PCBs toxic equivalents in the fish muscle ranged from 0.12 to 10.34 pg WHO-TEQ g - -1 wet weight. Salmon muscles contained the highest average concentration and cod the lowest, below 0.5 pg WHO-TEQ g - -1 wet weight of total TEQ. The average intake of PCDD/F/DL-PCBs (portion of fish 200 g) was 91-2420% of the TWI for children, and 30-799% of the TWI for adults. It appears that despite the decreased levels of PCDD/F and PCBs in Baltic fish, in relation to the newly established TWI dose, this decrease is not enough to make the Baltic fish safe for frequent consumers.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Adulto , Animais , Benzofuranos/análise , Criança , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148761, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280633

RESUMO

Organic contaminants are of great environmental concern due to their negative impacts on coastal ecosystems, especially on highly vulnerable species as chondrichthyans. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chlorpyrifos was assessed in muscle, gonads, and liver of the cockfish Callorhinchus callorynchus for both sexes and maturity stages. This species has a wide distribution in South Atlantic Ocean and it is an important resource for coastal Argentine fisheries. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and the distribution pattern found in C. callorynchus was the following: (∑OCPs+chlorpyrifos) > ∑PCBs>∑PBDEs. Endosulfan was predominant among OCP groups, penta-CBs and hexaCBs among PCBs and BDE 47, 66, 99, and 100 in PBDE group. The highest levels were found in liver followed by muscle and gonads. The highest percentage of lipids was also observed in the liver. Moreover, the concentrations of ∑OCPs and ∑PCBs in C. callorynchus liver varied with maturity stage, and ∑OCPs also with sexes. Females presented higher values than males, and mature individuals showed higher concentrations than immature ones, according with biological parameters such as age, sex, maturity stage, metabolic and redistribution processes and habitat use influence. These results indicate that C. callorynchus reflects a historical and recent contamination in their tissues, and therefore, especially females, becomes as a good biomonitor of these pollutants in the marine environment. To our knowledge, this work represents one of the few investigations on the occurrence of POPs and chlorpyrifos in chondrichtyans from South Atlantic Ocean; therefore more research is mandatory for an adequate management and conservation of existing fisheries and aquatic resources.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Masculino , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148936, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328906

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), bioaccumulate in marine ecosystems. Top predators contain high levels of POPs in their lipid-rich tissues, which may result in adverse effects on their reproductive, immune and endocrine functions. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are among the smallest of cetaceans and live under high metabolic demand, making them particularly vulnerable to environmental pressures. Using samples from individuals of all maturity classes and sexes stranded along the southern North Sea (n = 121), we show the generational transfer of PCBs, PBDEs and HCB from adults to foetuses. Porpoise placentas contained 1.3-8.2 mg/kg lipid weight (lw) Sum-17PCB, 9 mg/kg lw). This was particularly true for adult males (92.3% >9 mg/kg lw), while adult females had relatively low PCB levels (10.5% >9 mg/kg lw) due to offloading. Nutritional stress led to higher offloading in the milk, causing a greater potential for toxicity in calves of nutritionally stressed females. No correlation between PCB concentration and parasite infestation was detected, although the probability of a porpoise dying due to infectious disease or debilitation increased with increasing PCB concentrations. Despite current regulations to reduce pollution, these results provide further evidence of potential health effects of POPs on harbour porpoises of the southern North Sea, which may consequently increase their susceptibility to other pressures.


Assuntos
Phocoena , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Mar do Norte , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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