Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.089
Filtrar
1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 415, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568381

RESUMO

In this study, we used a comprehensive array of sampling techniques to examine the pollution caused by organic micropollutants in Izmit Bay for the first time. Our methodology contains spot seawater sampling, semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) passive samplers for time-weighted average (TWA), and sediment sampling for long-term pollution detection in Izmit Bay, together. Additionally, the analysis results obtained with these three sampling methods were compared in this study. Over the course of two seasons in 2020 and 2021, we deployed SPMDs for 21 days in the first season and for 30 days in the second season. This innovative approach allowed us to gather sea water samples and analyze them for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ15 PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ7 PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (Σ11 OCPs). Using SPMD-based passive sampling, we measured micropollutant concentrations: PAHs ranged from 1963 to 10342 pg/L in 2020 and 1338 to 6373 pg/L in 2021; PCBs from 17.46 to 61.90 pg/L in 2020 and 8.37 to 78.10 pg/L in 2021; and OCPs from 269.2 to 8868 pg/L in 2020 and 141.7 to 1662 pg/L in 2021. Our findings revealed parallels between the concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs in both SPMDs and sediment samples, providing insights into the distribution patterns of these pollutants in the marine ecosystem. However, it is worth noting that due to limited data acquisition, the suitability of spot sampling in comparison to instantaneous sampling remains inconclusive, highlighting the need for further investigation and data collection.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Baías , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133878, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447365

RESUMO

Microbial reductive dechlorination of organohalogenated pollutants is often limited by the scarcity of electron donors, that can be overcome with microbial electrochemical technologies (METs). In this study, polarized electrodes buried in marine sediment microcosms were investigated to stimulate PCB reductive dechlorination under potentiostatic (-0.7 V vs Ag/AgCl) and galvanostatic conditions (0.025 mA·cm-2-0.05 mA·cm-2), using graphite rod as cathode and iron plate as sacrificial anode. A single circuit and a novel two antiparallel circuits configuration (2AP) were investigated. Single circuit polarization impacted the sediment pH and redox potential (ORP) proportionally to the intensity of the electrical input and inhibited PCB reductive dechlorination. The effects on the sediment's pH and ORP, along with the inhibition of PCB reductive dechlorination, were mitigated in the 2AP system. Electrodes polarization stimulated sulfate-reduction and promoted the enrichment of bacterial clades potentially involved in sulfate-reduction as well as in sulfur oxidation. This suggested the electrons provided were consumed by competitors of organohalide respiring bacteria and specifically sequestered by sulfur cycling, which may represent the main factor limiting the applicability of METs for stimulating PCB reductive dechlorination in marine sediments.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bifenilos Policlorados , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Eletrodos , Sulfatos , Enxofre , Cloro
3.
J Mol Model ; 30(4): 97, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451367

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two families of persistent organic pollutants that are dangerous as they remain in the atmosphere for long periods and are toxic for humans and animals. They are found all over the world, including the penguins of Antarctica. One of the mechanisms that explains the toxicity of these compounds is related to oxidative stress. The main idea of this theoretical research is to use conceptual density functional theory as a theory of chemical reactivity to analyze the oxidative stress that PCBs and PBDEs can produce. The electron transfer properties as well as the interaction with DNA nitrogenous bases of nine PCBs and ten PBDEs found in Antarctic penguins are investigated. From this study, it can be concluded that compounds with more chlorine or bromine atoms are more oxidizing and produce more oxidative stress. These molecules also interact directly with the nitrogenous bases of DNA, forming hydrogen bonds, and this may be an explanation for the toxicity. Since quinone-type metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs can cause neurotoxicity, examples of quinones are also investigated. Condensed Fukui functions are included to analyze local reactivity. These results are important as the reactivity of these compounds helps to explain the toxicity of PCBs and PBDEs. METHODS: All DFT computations were performed using Gaussian16 at M06-2x/6-311 + g(2d,p) level of theory without symmetry constraints. Electro-donating (ω-) and electro-accepting (ω +) powers were used as global response functions and condensed Fukui functions as local parameters of reactivity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Humanos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , DNA
4.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 75(1): 15-23, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548374

RESUMO

This review summarises our two decades of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) monitoring in different marine organisms along the eastern Adriatic Sea. The aim was to gain an insight into the trends of PCB distribution in order to evaluate the effectiveness of past and current legislation and suggest further action. Here we mainly focus on PCB levels in wild and farmed Mediterranean mussels, wild and farmed bluefin tuna, loggerhead sea turtles, common bottlenose dolphins, and small pelagic fish. The use of artificial intelligence and advanced statistics enabled an insight into the influence of various variables on the uptake of PCBs in the investigated organisms as well as into their mutual dependence. Our findings suggest that PCBs in small pelagic fish and mussels reflect global pollution and that high levels in dolphins and wild tuna tissues raise particular concern, as they confirm their biomagnification up the food chain. Therefore, the ongoing PCB monitoring should focus on predatory species in particular to help us better understand PCB contamination in marine ecosystems in our efforts to protect the environment and human health.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Golfinhos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Atum , Ecossistema , Inteligência Artificial , Croácia , Monitoramento Ambiental
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171436, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447728

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are man-made chemicals that were once widely produced as commercial mixtures for various industrial applications. PCBs were later recognized as environmental pollutants and health hazards, leading to their global phase-out and strict regulations on their production, use, and disposal. Most investigations on PCBs focus on measuring the specific PCBs present in commercial mixtures or marker compounds representing those mixtures. However, there are new sources of PCBs that are gaining more attention. These 'by-product PCBs' are inadvertently produced in certain chemical and product formulations. Our estimates show that U.S. legislation currently permits the generation of more by-product PCBs (~100 million lb. (~45,000 Tonnes) per year) than during peak commercial production of the 1970s (85 million lb. (~39,000 Tonnes) per year). These PCBs are currently going un-detected in most investigations. Therefore, they may be a posing a growing, unmonitored environmental and human health risk. Most people assume PCBs to be legacy pollutants from historically formulated commercial mixtures. However, our research suggests that due to the emergence of by-product PCBs they may need to be reconsidered as an emerging pollutant of concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
6.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 54, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Massive amounts of sewage sludge are generated during biological sewage treatment and are commonly subjected to anaerobic digestion, land application, and landfill disposal. Concurrently, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are frequently found in sludge treatment and disposal systems, posing significant risks to both human health and wildlife. Metabolically versatile microorganisms originating from sewage sludge are inevitably introduced to sludge treatment and disposal systems, potentially affecting the fate of POPs. However, there is currently a dearth of comprehensive assessments regarding the capability of sewage sludge microbiota from geographically disparate regions to attenuate POPs and the underpinning microbiomes. RESULTS: Here we report the global prevalence of organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) known for their capacity to attenuate POPs in sewage sludge, with an occurrence frequency of ~50% in the investigated samples (605 of 1186). Subsequent laboratory tests revealed microbial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one of the most notorious categories of POPs, in 80 out of 84 sludge microcosms via various pathways. Most chlorines were removed from the para- and meta-positions of PCBs; nevertheless, ortho-dechlorination of PCBs also occurred widely, although to lower extents. Abundances of several well-characterized OHRB genera (Dehalococcoides, Dehalogenimonas, and Dehalobacter) and uncultivated Dehalococcoidia lineages increased during incubation and were positively correlated with PCB dechlorination, suggesting their involvement in dechlorinating PCBs. The previously identified PCB reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes pcbA4 and pcbA5 tended to coexist in most sludge microcosms, but the low ratios of these RDase genes to OHRB abundance also indicated the existence of currently undescribed RDases in sewage sludge. Microbial community analyses revealed a positive correlation between biodiversity and PCB dechlorination activity although there was an apparent threshold of community co-occurrence network complexity beyond which dechlorination activity decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings that sludge microbiota exhibited nearly ubiquitous dechlorination of PCBs indicate widespread and nonnegligible impacts of sludge microbiota on the fate of POPs in sludge treatment and disposal systems. The existence of diverse OHRB also suggests sewage sludge as an alternative source to obtain POP-attenuating consortia and calls for further exploration of OHRB populations in sewage sludge. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Chloroflexi , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Esgotos , Chloroflexi/genética , Prevalência , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia
7.
EuroIntervention ; 20(6): e389-e398, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are important treatment options for coronary artery disease; however, randomised controlled trials comparing various DCB technologies are sparse, and further investigations are needed. AIMS: This preclinical study aimed to histologically and biologically compare the drug effects and safety of a low-dose paclitaxel-coated DCB (PCB; AGENT), a regular-dose PCB (SeQuent Please NEO) and a sirolimus-coated DCB (SCB; MagicTouch). METHODS: The DCBs were inflated in the healthy iliac arteries of 18 rabbits, which were euthanised after 28 days. The treated iliac arteries and distal skeletal muscles were histopathologically evaluated, and drug concentrations were measured. RESULTS: In the histopathological evaluation, the medial smooth muscle cell loss score regarding depth, an indicator of drug efficacy, was significantly higher with AGENT and SeQuent Please NEO than with MagicTouch (4.0 [3.6-4.0] vs 3.7 [3.7-4.0] vs 2.2 [2.0-2.4]), with significant differences in comparisons between AGENT and MagicTouch (p<0.01) and between SeQuent Please NEO and MagicTouch (p<0.01). AGENT and SeQuent Please NEO showed comparable drug concentrations in the treated artery (p=0.61). In contrast, the drug concentrations in distal skeletal muscles were the highest for MagicTouch, followed by SeQuent Please NEO and AGENT (28.07 [13.19-52.46] ng/mg vs 0.66 [0.22-3.76] ng/mg vs 0.25 [0.04-3.23] ng/mg, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that PCBs might have higher efficacy and lower drug concentrations in distal skeletal muscles than the MagicTouch SCB. The efficacy of the AGENT low-dose PCB and the SeQuent Please NEO regular-dose PCB was comparable.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Coelhos , Coração , Artérias , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico
8.
Environ Int ; 185: 108531, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428193

RESUMO

Gadani is internationally renowned for its extensive ship-breaking operations, positioning it as one of the globe's primary ship-breaking hubs. A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the presence of organic contaminants in the air within Gadani, encompassing the areas surrounding ship-breaking facilities, proximate residential settlements, and adjacent roadways. Passive air samplers were employed to collect a total of 30 air samples. The analytical results unveiled a notably elevated concentration of specific organic compounds, with a pronounced prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the ship-breaking yard. Notably, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and DDE were detected at substantially lower levels. In particular, sites in close proximity to ship-breaking activities exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (Σ7PCB 0.065429 to 7.345714 ng/sample), PAHs (Σ8PAH 2.44 to 134.23 ng/sample), and SCCPs (0.18 to 25.6 ng/sample). Conversely, DDTs and DDE demonstrated higher concentrations near residential settlements. The evaluation of Molecular Diagnostic Ratios for PAHs revealed anthracene/anthracene + phenanthrene ratios of 0.88, 0.69, and 0.5 for ship-breaking areas, roadside locations, and community surroundings, respectively. Furthermore, the benz[a]anthracene/benz-[a]anthracene + chrysene molecular ratios were measured at 0.77 (ship-breaking sites), 0.82 (roadside), and 0.83 (community), respectively. The molecular ratio of fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene at ship-breaking sites was 0.23, while roadside and community ratios were 0.36 and 0.89, respectively. These findings underscore the significant contribution of ship-recycling activities to the atmospheric release of SCCPs, PCBs, and PAHs, emphasizing the global imperative for responsible ship recycling practices.


Assuntos
Fluorenos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Navios , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Antracenos , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
9.
Environ Int ; 185: 108551, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452465

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) from residential combustion is an existential threat to human health. Emission factors (EFs) of multiple potential toxic components (PTCs) in size-resolved PM and gas from eight residential fuel combustion were measured, and size distribution, gas/particle partitioning and health risks of the PTCs were investigated. Average EFs from clean coal and anthracite coal were PTEs (sum of EFs of 11 Potential Toxic Elements, 6.62 mg/kg fuels) > PAHs (sum of 22 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 1.12 mg/kg) > OPAHs (sum of 5 Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 0.45 mg/kg) > PAEs (sum of 6 Phthalate Esters, 0.11 mg/kg) > NPAHs (sum of 14 Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 16.84 µg/kg) > OPEs (sum of 7 Organophosphate Esters, 7.57 µg/kg) > PCBs (sum of 6 Polychorinated Biphenyls, 0.07 µg/kg), which were 2-3 and 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the EFs of PTCs (except PTEs) from bituminous coal and biomass. Most PAHs, OPAHs and NPAHs, which may mainly originate from chemical reactions, showed similar size distributions and averagely 85 % concentrated in PM1. PTEs, PAEs, OPEs and PCBs generated from the release from raw fuels may have a higher proportion, so their size distributions were more complex and varied with combustion temperature, volatility of compounds, binding mode of the raw fuels, and so on. In addition, clean coal and high-quality anthracite coal could reduce the health risks from the potential organic toxic components, but also reveal the stumbling block of PTEs in risk control.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
10.
Chemosphere ; 353: 141573, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428532

RESUMO

Over the last two decades, Taiwan has effectively diminished atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) through the adept utilization of advanced technologies and the implementation of air pollution control devices. Despite this success, there exists a dearth of data regarding the levels of other PM2.5-bound organic pollutants and their associated health risks. To address this gap, our study comprehensively investigates the spatial and seasonal variations, potential sources, and health risks of PCDD/Fs, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCNs) in Northern and Central Taiwan. Sampling collections were conducted at three specific locations, including six municipal waste incinerators in Northern Taiwan, as well as a traffic and an industrial site in Central Taiwan. As a result, the highest mean values of PM2.5 (20.3-39.6 µg/m3) were observed at traffic sites, followed by industrial sites (14.4-39.3 µg/m3), and the vicinity of the municipal waste incinerator (12.4-29.4 µg/m3). Additionally, PCDD/Fs and PCBs exhibited discernible seasonal fluctuations, displaying higher concentrations in winter (7.53-11.9 and 0.09-0.12 fg I-TEQWHO/m3) and spring (7.02-13.7 and 0.11-0.16 fg I-TEQWHO/m3) compared to summer and autumn. Conversely, PCNs displayed no significant seasonal variations, with peak values observed in winter (0.05-0.10 fg I-TEQWHO/m3) and spring (0.03-0.08 fg I-TEQWHO/m3). Utilizing a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, sintering plants emerged as the predominant contributors to PCDD/Fs, constituting 77.9% of emissions. Woodchip boilers (68.3%) and municipal waste incinerators (21.0%) were identified as primary contributors to PCBs, while municipal waste incinerators (64.6%) along with a secondary copper and a copper sludge smelter (22.1%) were the principal sources of PCNs. Moreover, the study specified that individuals aged 19-70 in Northern Taiwan and those under the age of 12 years in Central Taiwan were found to have a significantly higher cancer risk, with values ranging from 9.26 x 10-9-1.12 x 10-7 and from 2.50 x 10-8-2.08 x 10-7respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Humanos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Taiwan , Cobre , Monitoramento Ambiental , Incineração , Material Particulado , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(12): 5347-5356, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478968

RESUMO

Dechlorination is one of the main processes for the natural degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an anaerobic environment. However, PCB dechlorination pathways and products vary with PCB congeners, types of functional dechlorinating bacteria, and environmental conditions. The present study develops a novel model for determining dechlorination pathways and fluxes by tracking redox potential variability, transforming the complex dechlorination process into a stepwise sequence. The redox potential is calculated via the Gibbs free energy of formation, PCB concentrations in reactants and products, and environmental conditions. Thus, the continuous change in the PCB congener composition can be tracked during dechlorination processes. The new model is assessed against four measurements from several published studies on PCB dechlorination. The simulation errors in all four measurements are calculated between 2.67 and 35.1% under minimum (n = 0) and maximum (n = 34) numbers of co-eluters, respectively. The dechlorination fluxes for para-dechlorination pathways dominate PCB dechlorination in all measurements. Furthermore, the model also considers multiple-step dechlorination pathways containing intermediate PCB congeners absent in both the reactants and the products. The present study indicates that redox potential might be an appropriate indicator for predicting PCB dechlorination pathways and fluxes even without prior knowledge of the functional dechlorinating bacteria.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Cloro/metabolismo
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(12): 5483-5490, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484382

RESUMO

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), comprising 75 congeners, have gained considerable attention from the general public and the scientific community owing to their high toxic potential. The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of PCDDs is crucial for the assessment of their environmental persistence. Nonetheless, owing to the substantial number of congeners and low hydrolysis rates of PCDDs, conducting hydrolysis experiments proves to be exceedingly time-consuming and financially burdensome. Herein, density functional theory and transition state theory were employed to predict the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of PCDDs in aquatic environments. Findings reveal that PCDDs undergo base-catalyzed hydrolysis in aquatic environments with two competing pathways: prevailing dioxin ring-opening and reduced reactivity in the hydrolytic dechlorination pathway. The resultant minor products include hydroxylated PCDDs, which exhibit thermodynamic stability surpassing that of the principal product, chlorinated hydroxydiphenyl ethers. The half-lives (ranging from 17.10 to 1.33 × 1010 h at pH = 8) associated with the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of PCDDs dissolved in water were shorter compared to those within the water-sediment environmental system. This observation implies that hydroxide ions can protect aquatic environments from PCDD contamination. Notably, this study represents the first attempt to predict the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of PCDDs by using quantum chemical methods.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Hidrólise , Água , Catálise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(14): 6105-6116, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547313

RESUMO

Inhalation of PCB-contaminated air is increasingly recognized as a route for PCB exposure. Because limited information about the disposition of PCBs following inhalation exposure is available, this study investigated the disposition of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB52) and its metabolites in rats following acute, nose-only inhalation of PCB52. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (50-58 days of age, 210 ± 27 g; n = 6) were exposed for 4 h by inhalation to approximately 14 or 23 µg/kg body weight of PCB52 using a nose-only exposure system. Sham animals (n = 6) were exposed to filtered lab air. Based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), PCB52 was present in adipose, brain, intestinal content, lung, liver, and serum. 2,2',5,5'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB52) and one unknown monohydroxylated metabolite were detected in these compartments except for the brain. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis identified several metabolites, including sulfated, methoxylated, and dechlorinated PCB52 metabolites. These metabolites were primarily found in the liver (7 metabolites), lung (9 metabolites), and serum (9 metabolites) due to the short exposure time. These results demonstrate for the first time that complex mixtures of sulfated, methoxylated, and dechlorinated PCB52 metabolites are formed in adolescent rats following PCB52 inhalation, laying the groundwork for future animal studies of the adverse effects of inhaled PCB52.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação , Bifenilos Policlorados , Ratos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(13): 5889-5898, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501580

RESUMO

Human exposure to toxic chemicals presents a huge health burden. Key to understanding chemical toxicity is knowledge of the molecular target(s) of the chemicals. Because a comprehensive safety assessment for all chemicals is infeasible due to limited resources, a robust computational method for discovering targets of environmental exposures is a promising direction for public health research. In this study, we implemented a novel matrix completion algorithm named coupled matrix-matrix completion (CMMC) for predicting direct and indirect exposome-target interactions, which exploits the vast amount of accumulated data regarding chemical exposures and their molecular targets. Our approach achieved an AUC of 0.89 on a benchmark data set generated using data from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Our case studies with bisphenol A and its analogues, PFAS, dioxins, PCBs, and VOCs show that CMMC can be used to accurately predict molecular targets of novel chemicals without any prior bioactivity knowledge. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and promise of computationally predicting environmental chemical-target interactions to efficiently prioritize chemicals in hazard identification and risk assessment.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Humanos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Saúde Pública
15.
Epidemiol Prev ; 48(1): 60-65, 2024.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: endometriosis is a chronic condition with a significant impact on women's health, featured by endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. A limited number of studies have been conducted in the general population, and the true prevalence of endometriosis is unknown for many areas of the country. OBJECTIVES: to better estimate the prevalence of endometriosis in three Italian regions (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Tuscany, Apulia) and to assess the relationship between endometriosis and environmental factors in three participating areas (Trieste, Barga, and Taranto), with a focus on Tuscany Region. DESIGN: implementing a specific epidemiological registry for endometriosis, aimed at estimating the incidence and prevalence data. The registry collected information from hospital discharge records and anatomopathological reports of women residing in the three considered regions, aged 15 years or older. Additionally, the analysis includes the assessment of the spatial distribution of endometriosis at both regional and municipal levels in the three study areas. Further research investigations in these areas involve a multilevel screening of a sample of women of childbearing age. Women who test positive in the initial screening (through a self-administered questionnaire) will have the opportunity to undergo a second level of screening, consisting of a gynecological examination, transvaginal ultrasound, a swab for vaginal microbiome analysis, and the collection of blood and urine samples to assess the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or heavy metals. The adopted scientific approach is based on post-normal science (PNS) concerning the extended peer community. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: women aged 15 years or older residing in the three regions. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: estimating the incidence and prevalence of endometriosis based on data collected from the epidemiological registry. The analysis extends to assessing the spatial distribution of endometriosis at municipal levels in the three areas of interest. RESULTS: the preliminary results of the study allowed for the estimation of the spatial distribution of endometriosis incidence in Tuscany. In particular, it was found that there is variability within the region, with some coastal and North-Western areas showing values 20% higher than the regional average. Cities such as Pisa, Lucca, Livorno, Grosseto, Orbetello, and the Serchio Valley with Barga had a probability of excess risk of more than 90% compared to the regional average. CONCLUSIONS: the study is ongoing and requires the active participation of women living in the region to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the collected data. This research effort represents an important contribution to understanding endometriosis in Tuscany and its possible environmental causes.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Bifenilos Policlorados , Humanos , Feminino , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171342, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428594

RESUMO

Single-pollutant methods to evaluate associations between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and thyroid cancer risk may not reflect realistic human exposures. Therefore, we evaluated associations between exposure to a mixture of 18 EDCs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides, and risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer histological subtype. We conducted a nested case-control study among U.S. military servicemembers of 652 histologically-confirmed PTC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and 652 controls, matched on birth year, sex, race/ethnicity, military component (active duty/reserve), and serum sample timing. We estimated mixture odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and standard errors (SE) for associations between pre-diagnostic serum EDC mixture concentrations, overall PTC risk, and risk of histological subtypes of PTC (classical, follicular), adjusted for body mass index and military branch, using quantile g-computation. Additionally, we identified relative contributions of individual mixture components to PTC risk, represented by positive and negative weights (w). A one-quartile increase in the serum mixture concentration was associated with a non-statistically significant increase in overall PTC risk (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.91, 1.56; SE = 0.14). Stratified by histological subtype and race (White, Black), a one-quartile increase in the mixture was associated with increased classical PTC risk among those of White race (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.40; SE = 0.21), but not of Black race (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.34, 2.68; SE = 0.53). PCBs 180, 199, and 118 had the greatest positive weights driving this association among those of White race (w = 0.312, 0.255, and 0.119, respectively). Findings suggest that exposure to an EDC mixture may be associated with increased classical PTC risk. These findings warrant further investigation in other study populations to better understand PTC risk by histological subtype and race.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Militares , Bifenilos Policlorados , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123608, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428792

RESUMO

To explore contaminant concerns as a result of anthropogenic disturbance of the river system, this study provided the first extensive investigation of the contamination profiles, possible driving factors, and ecological risks of 40 target compounds including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), neonicotinoid pesticides (NNIs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of the whole Yangtze River (the world's third longest river). Among these target compounds, PPCPs were the dominant contaminants with a total concentration (∑15PPCPs) of 2.13-14.99 ng/g, followed by ∑7PCBs (

Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Efeitos Antropogênicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Rios/química , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , China
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(11): 5103-5116, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445973

RESUMO

Organic light-emitting materials (OLEMs) are emerging contaminants in the environment and have been detected in various environment samples. However, limited information is available regarding their contamination within the human body. Here, we developed a novel QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method coupled with triple quadrupole/high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine OLEMs in breast milk samples, employing both target and suspect screening strategies. Our analysis uncovered the presence of seven out of the 39 targeted OLEMs in breast milk samples, comprising five liquid crystal monomers and two OLEMs commonly used in organic light-emitting diode displays. The cumulative concentrations of the seven OLEMs in each breast milk sample ranged from ND to 1.67 × 103 ng/g lipid weight, with a mean and median concentration of 78.76 and 0.71 ng/g lipid weight, respectively, which were higher compared to that of typical organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We calculated the estimated daily intake (EDI) rates of OLEMs for infants aged 0-12 months, and the mean EDI rates during lactation were estimated to range from 30.37 to 54.89 ng/kg bw/day. Employing a suspect screening approach, we additionally identified 66 potential OLEMs, and two of them, cholesteryl hydrogen phthalate and cholesteryl benzoate, were further confirmed using pure reference standards. These two substances belong to cholesteric liquid crystal materials and raise concerns about potential endocrine-disrupting effects, as indicated by in silico predictive models. Overall, our present study established a robust method for the identification of OLEMs in breast milk samples, shedding light on their presence in the human body. These findings indicate human exposure to OLEMs that should be further investigated, including their health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Lipídeos
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 201: 116086, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387219

RESUMO

The green-lipped mussel Perna viridis was utilised for pollution biomonitoring in Victoria Harbour and its adjacent aquaculture area in Hong Kong. P. viridis was collected from a reference site and redeployed at five study sites for five weeks during the dry and wet seasons of 2019. Our study found various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in the mussel tissue, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were not detected. P. viridis at the reference site generally displayed lower levels of pollutants. Comparing with previous research in the 1980s and 2000s, we observed substantial reduction in the tissue levels of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and heavy metals in P. viridis. The human health risks associated with consuming these mussels were determined to be insignificant. Our findings imply that the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme has been effective in improving the water quality in Victoria Harbour and its adjacent aquaculture area.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Metais Pesados , Perna (Organismo) , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bioacumulação , Hong Kong , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Qualidade da Água , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Aquicultura , Metais Pesados/análise
20.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 54(2): 92-122, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363552

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic toxicants derived from legacy pollution sources and their formation as inadvertent byproducts of some current manufacturing processes. Metabolism of PCBs is often a critical component in their toxicity, and relevant metabolic pathways usually include their initial oxidation to form hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs). Subsequent sulfation of OH-PCBs was originally thought to be primarily a means of detoxication; however, there is strong evidence that it may also contribute to toxicities associated with PCBs and OH-PCBs. These contributions include either the direct interaction of PCB sulfates with receptors or their serving as a localized precursor for OH-PCBs. The formation of PCB sulfates is catalyzed by cytosolic sulfotransferases, and, when transported into the serum, these metabolites may be retained, taken up by other tissues, and subjected to hydrolysis catalyzed by intracellular sulfatase(s) to regenerate OH-PCBs. Dynamic cycling between PCB sulfates and OH-PCBs may lead to further metabolic activation of the resulting OH-PCBs. Ultimate toxic endpoints of such processes may include endocrine disruption, neurotoxicities, and many others that are associated with exposures to PCBs and OH-PCBs. This review highlights the current understanding of the complex roles that PCB sulfates can have in the toxicities of PCBs and OH-PCBs and research on the varied mechanisms that control these roles.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Hidroxilação , Sulfatos/toxicidade , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...