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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5243, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475406

RESUMO

Peroxisome, a special cytoplasmic organelle, possesses one or more kinds of oxidases for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and catalase for H2O2 degradation, which serves as an intracellular H2O2 regulator to degrade toxic peroxides to water. Inspired by this biochemical pathway, we demonstrate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced tumor therapy by integrating lactate oxidase (LOx) and catalase (CAT) into Fe3O4 nanoparticle/indocyanine green (ICG) co-loaded hybrid nanogels (designated as FIGs-LC). Based on the O2 redistribution and H2O2 activation by cascading LOx and CAT catalytic metabolic regulation, hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) production can be modulated for glutathione (GSH)-activated chemodynamic therapy (CDT) and NIR-triggered photodynamic therapy (PDT), by manipulating the ratio of LOx and CAT to catalyze endogenous lactate to produce H2O2 and further cascade decomposing H2O2 into O2. The regulation reactions of FIGs-LC significantly elevate the intracellular ROS level and cause fatal damage to cancer cells inducing the effective inhibition of tumor growth. Such enzyme complex loaded hybrid nanogel present potential for biomedical ROS regulation, especially for the tumors with different redox state, size, and subcutaneous depth.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanogéis/química , Peroxissomos/enzimologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Catalase/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Verde de Indocianina/química , Camundongos , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(3): 287-295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390633

RESUMO

Objective: Decompression sickness (DCS) causes serious brain hypoxic-ischemic injury. This experiment was designed to observe whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) pretreatment played a neuroprotective effect in decompression sickness rat models and to explore the mechanism of protective effects. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were pretreated with HBO2 and then underwent decompression to establish the DCS rat model. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by detecting peroxides (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in brains. The levels of metal elements manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) in brain tissues were assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Necrosis and apoptosis of neurons were assessed by H-E staining and immunohistochemical staining. Results: HBO2 pretreatment reduced the degree of necrosis and apoptosis in brain tissues of decompression sickness rat models. In addition, HBO2 pretreatment increased GPx, SOD and CAT activities and reduced MDA accumulation. It also increased the content of Mn, Zn, Fe and Mg in brain tissue, which are all related to free radical metabolism. Conclusion: These results suggested that HBO2 pretreatment has protective effects on brain injury of rats with decompression sickness. The mechanism of the protective effects may be related to reducing oxidative damage by affecting metal elements in vivo.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença da Descompressão/complicações , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Animais , Apoptose , Encéfalo/patologia , Química Encefálica , Caspase 3/análise , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Descompressão , Doença da Descompressão/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Magnésio/análise , Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Manganês/metabolismo , Necrose , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/análise
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360655

RESUMO

Low-dose ozone acts as a bioregulator in chronic inflammatory diseases, biochemically characterized by high oxidative stress and a blocked regulation. During systemic applications, "Ozone peroxides" are able to replace H2O2 in its specific function of regulation, restore redox signaling, and improve the antioxidant capacity. Two different mechanisms have to be understood. Firstly, there is the direct mechanism, used in topical treatments, mostly via radical reactions. In systemic treatments, the indirect, ionic mechanism is to be discussed: "ozone peroxide" will be directly reduced by the glutathione system, informing the nuclear factors to start the regulation. The GSH/GSSG balance outlines the ozone dose and concentration limiting factor. Antioxidants are regulated, and in the case of inflammatory diseases up-regulated; cytokines are modulated, here downregulated. Rheumatoid arthritis RA as a model for chronic inflammation: RA, in preclinical and clinical trials, reflects the pharmacology of ozone in a typical manner: SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and finally GSH (reduced glutathione) increase, followed by a significant reduction of oxidative stress. Inflammatory cytokines are downregulated. Accordingly, the clinical status improves. The pharmacological background investigated in a remarkable number of cell experiments, preclinical and clinical trials is well documented and published in internationally peer reviewed journals. This should encourage clinicians to set up clinical trials with chronic inflammatory diseases integrating medical ozone as a complement.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Artrite Experimental/etiologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Oxirredução , Ratos
4.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(4): 1312-1317, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of astaxanthin (ASTA) on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells stored for transfusion. METHODS: The suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells were randomly divided into group A, B, C and D. The ASTA was added into preservation solution of suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells of group B, C and D with the final concentration 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L, respectively, while DMSO was added into cells of group A in the same volume. After 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of storage, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in red blood cells was detected by fluorescence microplate reader, malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method, activity of SOD was detected by xanthine oxidase method, the activity of CAT was detected by visible light method, and activity of GSH-Px was detected by colorimetry. RESULTS: After 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of storage, the contents of ROS and MDA in suspended red blood cells of group B, C and D were significantly lower(P<0.05), while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those of group A(P<0.05); and CAT activity in cells treated by ASTA was significantly higher at 28 and 42 days of storage in comparison with that of group A(P<0.05). There were positive correlations between the ROS, MDA content in suspended red blood cells of group A, B, C, D and storage time(P<0.01), while negative correlation between SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activity and storage time(P<0.01). CONCLUSION: ASTA can decrease the oxidative stress level and peroxide damage degree by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities in suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells during storage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Estresse Oxidativo , Catalase/metabolismo , Eritrócitos , Leucócitos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Xantofilas
5.
Andrologia ; 53(9): e14176, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309867

RESUMO

Exposure to acrylamide (Ac) through food is almost inevitable and this kind of toxicity may cause lifelong harm. In present study, we researched effects of Crocin (Cr) on testis histopathology in Ac-induced testis of rats. Adult male rats were grouped as: group 1, 1 ml saline only; group 2, 50 mg/kg Cr only; group 3, 25 mg/kg Ac only and group 4, 25 mg/kg Ac + 50 mg/kg Cr. All administrations were given as 1 ml/day by gavage for 21 days. It was found that Ac adversely influenced the levels of FSH, testosterone and LH in the blood serum; malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI)/ glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS) oxidant/antioxidant parameters in testis tissue (p < .01) and the histopathological parameters like Johnson's score, seminiferous tubule diameter, seminiferous epithelial height and H-score for caspase-3 immunoreactivity. In contrary, Cr treatment resulted in increase in testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizan hormone (LH) levels and SOD, CAT, GSH, TAS levels (p < .01) and improved all the histopathological changes. In conclusion, Cr has a promising protective potential against Ac-caused toxic damages in testicular tissue.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Testículo , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
6.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1243-1255, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226986

RESUMO

The effects of stocking density on growth performance, serum biochemistry, digestive enzymes, immune response, and muscle quality of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reared in nine in-pond raceway systems (IPRS, 22.0 m × 5.0 m × 2.0 m) were studied. M. salmoides with initial an body weight of 8.25 ± 0.51 g and body length of 6.99 ± 0.44 cm were reared at an initial stocking density of 90.91 ind./m3 (low stocking density, LSD), 113.63 ind./m3 (middle stocking density, MSD), and 136.36 ind./m3 (high stocking density, HSD) with triplication. After 300 days of culture, MSD recorded the highest final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and yield, but the food conversion ratio in MSD was the lowest. The viscerosomatic index in LSD was significantly higher than other groups. The fish serum reared at HSD showed significantly lower total protein, higher total cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, glucose content, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase activity. Significantly lower intestinal amylase, lipase, trypsin activities, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and higher malondialdehyde content were detected in HSD compared to others. The content of crude lipid, saturated fatty acid decreased, and total essential amino acid, delicious amino acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in muscle with stocking density increase. No significant difference was observed in muscle texture. Profitability analysis indicated the benefit-to-cost ratio varied between 1.10 and 1.68, of which MSD was significantly higher than others. The optimal stocking density for M. salmoides should be 113.63 ind./m3 in an IPRS farm.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Bass , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bass/sangue , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/imunologia , Bass/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/sangue , Imunidade , Intestinos/enzimologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Esteróis/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Tripsina/metabolismo
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 645-656, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214775

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) is involved in several physiological processes in plants but its excess in environment has many phytotoxic effects. Silicon (Si), an element required for optimal plant performance, has been shown to have beneficial effects for plants coping with various types of stresses. Here we studied the alleviative potential of Si (2.5 mM) added to hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays L.) plants under Ni (100 µM) stress. Ni decreased most of the growth parameters, total chlorophyll (Chl) and leaf relative water content (RWC), and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activity, while leaf water loss (LWL), contents of proline (Pro), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbate (AsA), membrane lipid peroxidation and activities of peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) were increased. Supplementation of Si to Ni-treated plants enhanced the leaf area, Chl content, RWC, CAT and POX (only in younger leaf) activities and decreased LWL, the contents of Pro (in younger leaf), H2O2 (roots) and AsA, lipid peroxidation and POX and SOD activities. We may conclude that Si mitigated the Ni-induced stress in maize by amelioration of the leaf water deficient status (Pro, RWC, LWL), enhancing membrane stability (MDA) and influencing enzymatic (SOD, POX, CAT) and non-enzymatic (Pro, AsA) defence systems. The increased Chl content and leaf area improve overall plant performance.


Assuntos
Silício , Zea mays , Antioxidantes , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Malondialdeído , Níquel/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Silício/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 985-998, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265697

RESUMO

Effect of triacontanol on drought-induced stress was studied in Brassica juncea L. Foliage of sixteen-days-old plants was sprayed with concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 µM) of triacontanol (TRIA) for 7 days. Subsequently, plants were subjected to drought stress (10% polyethylene glycol, PEG6000) for 7 days. Drought stress increased oxidative stress (TBARS, O2●- and H2O2), however, their contents were reduced by TRIA. Total soluble sugars, reduced glutathione, and proline content in stressed plants were increased by TRIA. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner with TRIA. Potassium (K+) level declined, while magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+) contents increased. The elevated level of lignin under drought with TRIA was significantly associated with MYB46 and PAL gene expression patterns. Altogether, our results suggest that foliar spray of 20 µM TRIA was more operative in reducing the negative impact of drought stress in B. juncea by regulating the antioxidant system, calcium, and lignification.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Mostardeira , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Cálcio , Catalase/metabolismo , Secas , Álcoois Graxos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
Croat Med J ; 62(3): 215-226, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212558

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the effects of metformin or liraglutide on oxidative stress level and antioxidative enzymes gene expression and activity in the blood and vessels of pre-diabetic obese elderly Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of both sexes. METHODS: Male and female SD rats were assigned to the following groups: a) control group (fed with standard rodent chow); b) high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (HSHFD) group fed with HSHFD from 20-65 weeks of age; c) HSHFD+metformin treatment (50 mg/kg/d s.c.); and d) HSHFD+liraglutide treatment (0.3 mg/kg/d s.c). Oxidative stress parameters (ferric reducing ability of plasma and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and gene expression were determined from serum, aortas, and surface brain blood vessels (BBV). RESULTS: HSHFD increased body weight in both sexes compared with the control group, while liraglutide prevented this increase. Blood glucose level did not change. The liraglutide group had a significantly increased antioxidative capacity compared with the HSHFD group in both sexes. The changes in antioxidative enzymes' activities in plasma were more pronounced in male groups. The changes in antioxidative gene expression were more prominent in microvessels and may be attributed to weight gain prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and antidiabetic drugs caused sex-related differences in the level of antioxidative parameters. Liraglutide exhibited stronger antioxidative effects than metformin. These results indicate that weight gain due to HSHFD is crucial for developing oxidative stress and for inhibiting antioxidative protective mechanisms.


Assuntos
Metformina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Animais , Antioxidantes , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Caracteres Sexuais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203800

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence support the cardioprotective properties of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ß/δ (PPARß/δ); however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to further investigate the mechanisms underlying PPARß/δ-mediated cardioprotection in the setting of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). For this purpose, rats were treated with PPARß/δ agonist GW0742 and/or antagonist GSK0660 in vivo and hearts were subjected to ex vivo global ischemia followed by reperfusion. PPARß/δ activation improved left ventricular developed pressure recovery, reduced infarct size (IS) and incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias while it also up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and uncoupling protein 3 resulting in attenuation of oxidative stress as evidenced by the reduction in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein adducts and protein carbonyl formation. PPARß/δ activation also increased both mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2); inhibition of ALDH2 abrogated the IS limiting effect of PPARß/δ activation. Furthermore, upregulation of PGC-1α and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mRNA expression, increased citrate synthase activity as well as mitochondrial ATP content indicated improvement in mitochondrial content and energy production. These data provide new mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective properties of PPARß/δ in I/R pointing to ALDH2 as a direct downstream target and suggesting that PPARß/δ activation alleviates myocardial I/R injury through coordinated stimulation of the antioxidant defense of the heart and preservation of mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , PPAR delta/metabolismo , PPAR beta/metabolismo , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR delta/agonistas , PPAR beta/agonistas , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Proteína Desacopladora 3/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112682, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218033

RESUMO

In the present study, the bioaccumulation of chromium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, arsenic, strontium, cadmium, tin, antimony and lead in tissues of thirty marine fish species collected from New Ferry Whorf, Sassoon dock and Versova fishing harbour in Mumbai, India, were analysed. The bioaccumulation patterns of these twelve elements were determined to assess pollution biomarkers based on cellular and oxidative stresses. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-s-transferase, glycolytic enzymes viz. lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, protein metabolism enzymes viz. aspartate transferase and alanine transferase, and lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in muscle and gill tissues. The activities of the neurotransmitter enzyme acetylcholine esterase in muscle and brain tissues was inhibited due to pollution. This study suggested that biochemical attributes such as oxidative stress enzymes, cellular biomarkers, neurotransmitter enzymes and metal and metalloid contamination could be successfully employed, even at low concentrations, as reliable biomarkers for biomonitoring of contaminated marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Peixes/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204516

RESUMO

Peptic ulcer has a serious impact on people's health around the world, and traditional medicines can cause adverse reactions. This study investigated the protective effects of tilapia collagen oligopeptides (TCOPs) on gastroduodenal injury. Seventy-two specific pathogen-free (SPF) male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups according to body weight: normal control group, ethanol group, whey protein group (500 mg/kg BW), and three TCOPs dose groups (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg BW). After intragastric administration for 30 days, the acute gastroduodenal injury was induced by anhydrous ethanol (5 mL/kg, intragastrically) in all groups except the normal control group. Biomarkers in gastric and duodenal tissue and serum were measured. Furthermore, western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that the administration with TCOPs significantly reduced gastric and duodenal ulcer index, increased gastric juice pH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, along with the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. TCOPs decreased tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, while interleukin- 10 (IL-10) levels were increased. Furthermore, pepsinogens 1 (PG1), pepsinogens 2 (PG2), gastrin (GAS), and the pepsinogen ratio (PGR) were decreased, the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO contents were increased after TCOPs intervention. Moreover, TCOPs up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and inhibited the expression of Bax and Caspase-3. In conclusion, TCOPs have protective effects on ethanol-induced gastroduodenal injury through gastrointestinal mucosal microcirculation promotion, antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Oligopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Tilápia/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Catalase/metabolismo , Colágeno , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Trato Gastrointestinal/lesões , Interleucina-1beta , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148613, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182439

RESUMO

As one of the most common and persistent emerging human-made pollutants, microplastics (MPs) have become a global environmental problem. Although many studies have demonstrated the impact of MPs on aquatic organisms, the potential effects on terrestrial fauna are relatively unknown, even though soil is a major sink for plastic pollution. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to MPs from tires (TMPs) in artificial soil at different TMP concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, and 20%, w/w), at different TMP size fractions (2 mm-350 µm; 350 µm-50 µm; 50 µm-25 µm; and <25 µm), and time periods (14 and 28 days). The purpose was to evaluate the impact of TMPs on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, and Pb) and levels of oxidative stress in the earthworms. Fluorescence imaging of TMPs stained with Nile red dye clearly showed that the worms had ingested the TMPs, with smaller particles preferentially consumed. The ingested TMPs had altered the surface morphology, degradation that increased surface area and uptake of heavy metals into the organisms. Earthworms exposed to TMPs at the higher concentrations showed clear signs of oxidative stress, with significantly (p < 0.05) increased catalase and peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation levels, and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase. SOD, POD, and CAT are important cell protection enzymes that prevent excessive levels of reactive oxygen species in cells. MDA represents the total scavenging ability of free radicals in the tissue. SOD decreases and MDA accumulates rapidly. GST has a detoxification effect. Overall, this study adds to the growing body of evidence that TMPs are harmful to certain terrestrial organisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Automóveis , Catalase/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Plásticos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 221: 112237, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116318

RESUMO

Nannochloropsis oceanica is widely used as a model photosynthetic chassis to produce fatty acids and carotenoid pigments. However, intense light typically causes excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photorespiration in microalgal cells, which results in decreased cell growth rate and unsaturated fatty acid content. In this study, the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene (vgb) was introduced into N. oceanica cells and expressed by using the light-harvesting complex promoter and its signal peptide. Compared with wild type (WT), the growth rate of transformants increased by 7.4%-18.5%, and the eicosapentaenoic acid content in an optimal transformant increased by 21.0%. Correspondingly, the intracellular ROS levels decreased by 56.9%-70.0%, and the catalase content in transformants was about 1.8 times that of WT. The photorespiration level of transformants was reduced by the measurement and calculation of the dissolved oxygen concentration under the condition of light-dark transition. The expression level of the key genes related to the photorespiration pathway in transformants was more than 80% lower than that in WT. These results indicated that Vitreoscilla hemoglobin could improve microalgal growth by reducing ROS damage and modulating photorespiration under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Luz , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas Truncadas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/efeitos da radiação , Hemoglobinas Truncadas/genética
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 221: 112247, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175580

RESUMO

A need exists for further research elucidating the benefits of environmentally safe photoprotective agents against ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and plant extracts represent a human-friendly alternative formulation. This study was designed to evaluate the potential use of Bellis perennis extract (BPE), from the Asteraceae family, known as the common daisy or the English daisy, in cosmeceuticals as a photoprotective factor, using an in vitro model of UVA-induced keratinocyte damage. Human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were incubated with BPE at 0.01, 0.1, or 1% in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), and after 15 min they were submitted to UVA radiation at 5, 10, and 15 J/cm2 doses, respectively. For comparative purposes, Polypodium leucotomos extract (PLE), known as the fern, was used as a positive control in assessing the photoprotective effect. After 24 h of UVA exposure, cell viability (MTT and LDH assays), levels of cleaved caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2, IL-6, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase) activity were determined. UVA radiation at 5, 10, and 15 J/cm2 doses reduced cell viability to 63%, 43%, and 23%, respectively; we selected 10 J/cm2 for our purposes. After 24 h of UVA exposure, treatment with 1% BPE and 1% PLE significantly recovered cell viability (p < 0.05). Furthermore, treatment was associated with lower cleaved caspase-3 and ROS levels, higher catalase activity, and lower IL-6 levels in the treated UVA keratinocytes compared with the untreated UVA group (p < 0.01). Our results demonstrate photoprotective and immunomodulatory effects of BPE in skin keratinocytes and support its use as a bioactive agent in cosmetic formulations to prevent skin damage caused by exposure to the UV light.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos da radiação , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Protetores contra Radiação/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Mar Environ Res ; 169: 105383, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116384

RESUMO

The activities of the key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and integral antioxidant activity (IAA), were studied in the digestive glands and gills of 14 bivalve species. Species and tissue differences of the antioxidant (AO) systems of the investigated mollusks were discussed in connection with their physiological and biochemical peculiarities. This article describes the role of the AO system of mollusks in adaptation to natural habitat conditions and shows the relationship of AO activity with the maximum habitat depth (MHD) and maximum lifespan (MLS) of these species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Bivalves , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
J Food Biochem ; 45(7): e13818, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121192

RESUMO

In this study, through the combination of AB-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC, an antioxidant component was purified from the crude extract of Phellinus pini, thereby evaluating the cardioprotective effect of the fraction. As a result, total phenolic content of the 60% ethanol elution was increased by 4.8-fold after one run treatment on Sephadex LH-20 chromatography with gradient elution. After semi-preparative HPLC separation, the first peak (PP-S4-1) showed that inhibition ratio of erythrocyte hemolysis was 91.9%, and inhibition ratio of lipid peroxidation was also increased by 87.6%, at 50 µg/ml (p < .01). Based on the results of ESI-MS, 1 HNMR, 13 CNMR, and RP-HPLC compared to many published results, PP-S4-1was identified as catechin (MW 290.015, C15 H14 O6 ). The results showed that PP-S4-1 pretreatment made cell viability increased, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibited. Meanwhile, PP-S4-1 remarkably decreased the fluorescence intensity of Ca2+ , and increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ΔΨm). In addition, PP-S4-1 could significantly inhibit the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity as well as the increase of MDA content in H9c2 cells induced by H2 O2 . Moreover, pretreatment with PP-S4-1 significantly improved the morphological changes and prevented H2 O2 -induced DNA damage. Therefore, this study clarifies the ability of PP-S4-1 to treat H9c2 cell oxidative stress damage induced by H2 O2 through its antioxidant effect. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This research is not only helpful to elaborate the cardioprotective effect of Phellinus pini but also can contribute to the development of health foods or drug supplements for heart disease in the future. This is the first report dealing with phenolic component and cardioprotective activity of a medicinal mushroom P. pini belonging to the genus Phellinus.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Antioxidantes , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Phellinus , Ratos
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2276: 113-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060036

RESUMO

Disruptions in mitochondrial redox activity are implicated in maladies ranging from those in which cells degenerate to those in which cell division is unregulated. This is not surprising given the pivotal role of mitochondria as ATP producers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generators, and gatekeepers of apoptosis. While increased ROS are implicated in such a wide variety of disorders, pinpointing the cause of their hyperproduction is challenging. Elevated levels of ROS can result from increases in their production and/or decreases in their turnover. Disruptions in and/or hyperactivity of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase or ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase can cause excessive ROS generation. Alternatively, if respiration is functioning in a homeostatic manner, decreases in levels or activity of antioxidants like glutathione, CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, and catalase could result in excessive ROS. Because of the diversity of disorders in which oxidative damage occurs, the most effective therapeutic strategies may be those that address the putatively diverse causes of increased ROS. Strategies for determining antioxidant activity typically involve semiquantitative measurement of relative protein levels using immunochemistry and mass spectrometry. These methods can be applied to a variety of samples, but they do not lend themselves to detection of cell-specific analyses within tissue like brain.Because we are interested in elucidating the cause of oxidative stress in selectively vulnerable brain neurons, we have taken advantage of the easily manipulatable genetics and high fecundity of the fly. Using a cell type-targeting approach, we have driven redox sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFP2 ) into the mitochondria of tyrosine hydroxylase-producing (dopaminergic) neurons. In oxidizing conditions, the fluorophore's maximal excitation wavelength reversibly shifts. Therefore, the relative amount of mitochondrial protein oxidation can be determined by taking the ratio of fluorescence excited with two different lasers. In addition, these GFPs have been independently fused to human glutaredoxin-1 (mito-roGFP2-Grx1) and yeast oxidant receptor peroxidase (mito-roGFP2-Orp1), facilitating measurements of relative mitochondrial glutathione redox potential and H2O2 levels, respectively. In order to obtain a more comprehensive observation of redox states, we capture 3D images of roGFP2 excited by two different lasers. Mito- and cytoplasmic-roGFP2 -Grx1 and -Orp1 expression can be driven by hundreds of genetic drivers in Drosophila , facilitating fixed or living whole organism or tissue- and cell-specific redox measurements.


Assuntos
Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Drosophila , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112385, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082241

RESUMO

Sulfometuron methyl (SM) is a widely used herbicide and thus leading to accumulation in the environment. The toxicity assessments of SM in model organisms are currently rare. In the present study, zebrafish were utilized for evaluating the detrimental effects of SM in aquatic vertebrates. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L SM from 5.5 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf), respectively. Consequently, SM exposure resulted in increasing the mortality rate and reducing hatching rate in larval zebrafish at 10, 20, and 40 mg/L SM-treated groups. The reduced numbers of immune cells (neutrophils and macrophages) were observed after SM exposure by a dose-dependent manner. The inflammatory responses (TLR4, MYD88, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, and TGF-ß) were measured to estimate immune responses. Anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10 and TGF-ß) were down-regulated in all the treated groups and significantly altered at 40 mg/L exposure group. Additionally, behavioral tests suggested that SM treatment significantly increased the total distance, average speed, and maximum acceleration of larval zebrafish during light-dark transition and subsequently enzymology test displayed the same trend to locomotor behaviors. The content significantly increased in oxidative stress, as reflected in ROS level in all the treated groups. The numbers of cell apoptosis were significantly increased at 20, and 40 mg/L and the highest concentration group induced the substantial increment (P < 0.001) of apoptosis-related genes including p53, Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-9, and caspase-3. In summary, our results demonstrated that exposure to SM caused toxicity of development, immune system, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis at the early developmental stages of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112401, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118747

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element causing severe toxicity symptoms in plants, besides posing hazardous fitness issue due to its buildup in the human body through food chain. Nanoparticles (NPs) are recently employed as a novel strategy to directly ameliorate the Cd stress and acted as nano-fertilizers. The intend of the current study was to explore the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs; 50 mg/L) on plant growth, photosynthetic activity, elemental status and antioxidant activity in Oryza sativa (rice) under Cd (0.8 mM) stress. To this end, the rice plants are treated by Cd stress at 15 days after sowing (DAS), and the treatment was given directly into the soil. Supply of ZnO-NPs as foliar spray was given for five consecutive days from 30 to 35 DAS, and sampling was done at 45 DAS. However, rice plants supplemented with ZnO-NPs under the Cd toxicity revealed significantly increased shoot length (SL; 34.0%), root fresh weight (RFW; 30.0%), shoot dry weight (SDW; 23.07%), and root dry weight (RDW; 12.24%). Moreover, the ZnO-NPs supplement has also positive effects on photosynthesis related parameters, SPAD value (40%), chloroplast structure, and qualitatively high fluorescence observed by confocal microscopy even under Cd stress. ZnO-NPs also substantially prevented the increases of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) triggered by Cd. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that ZnO-NPs increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; 59%), catalase (CAT; 52%), and proline (17%) that metabolize reactive oxygen species (ROS); these increases coincided with the changes observed in the H2O2 and MDA accumulation after ZnO-NPs application. In conclusion, ZnO-NPs application to foliage has great efficiency to improve biomass, photosynthesis, protein, antioxidant enzymes activity, mineral nutrient contents and reducing Cd levels in rice. This can be attributed mainly from reduced oxidative damage resulted due to the ZnO-NPs application.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Biomassa , Catalase/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos adversos , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Solo/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem
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