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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4865-4876, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypoxia promotes tumor proliferation and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Since the tumor microenvironment is generally characterized by hypoxia, its understanding is important for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that hypoxia promotes the mitochondrial function, mobility, and proliferation of CRC by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the effects of PGC-1α under hypoxia, we investigated the mitochondrial function, cell motility, and sphere formation as well as proliferation and apoptosis of CRC. RESULTS: Under hypoxia, we confirmed the increased expression of PGC-1α and reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating anti-oxidant enzymes. Also, up-regulation of PGC-1α enhanced the motility, sphere formation, and proliferation of CRC. Under the presence of the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU), up-regulation of PGC-1α under hypoxia promoted resistance of CRC against 5FU-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Targeting PGC-1α could to be a powerful strategy for CRC therapy.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Apoptose , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(7): e201900706, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective roles of pyracantha fortune fruit extract (PFE) on acute renal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in rats. METHODS: Rats were pretreated with PFE and consecutively injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days. RESULTS: The concentration of Cd, kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) production were remarkably increased in CdCl2 group as well as the levels of plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.001). However, the body weight and glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione peroxidase (GR) levels were markedly reduced by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.001). Histological manifestations of renal tissue showed severely adverse changes. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly decreased the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression while increased the Bcl-2-Associated X Protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression (P < 0.001). Additionally, the expression of Nrf2/Keap 1 related proteins Keap-1 gained a significant increase (P < 0.001), whereas the Nrf2, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSH-Px and NQO1 expression decreased by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.05). These rats were pretreated with PFE to improve the changes caused by CdCl2 treatment. CONCLUSION: PFE could protect the kidney against acute renal toxicity induced by CdCl2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pyracantha/química , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 185-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468397

RESUMO

In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-stress activities of taurine in electric foot-shock stress model rats. Taurine supplementation markedly increased the hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, compared to the levels in the stress group. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were improved in the taurine-treated group. Plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were significantly reduced in the taurine-supplemented group compared to those in the stress group. In contrast, the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were markedly increased in the taurine or betaine-treated group compared to those in the stress group. It may be concluded that taurine produces beneficial effects in the form of antioxidant status and biochemical alterations in foot-shock-induced acute stress in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estimulação Elétrica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/sangue
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180395, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432900

RESUMO

The aquatic environment presents daily and/or seasonal variations in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. Piava faces different DO levels in the water due to its distributional characteristics. The goal of this study was to describe the effects of low DO levels on plasma ion, biochemical and oxidative variables in piava juveniles. Fish were exposed to different DO levels, including 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg L-1 of DO for 96 h, after which blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, gill and muscle) were collected. The decrease in DO levels decreased plasma Na+, Cl-, K+ and NH3 levels as well as protein and glycogen levels in the liver, kidney and muscle; increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney as well as glucose and ammonia levels in the liver, kidney and muscle; and increased lactate levels in the kidney and muscle. Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, catalase and non-protein thiol levels decreased in the tissues of piavas exposed to low DO levels. It is concluded that piava can apparently cope with hypoxic conditions; however, low DO levels are a stressor, and the tolerance of piava to hypoxia involves iono-regulatory, metabolic and oxidative adjustments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Caraciformes/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126297, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421711

RESUMO

Many plant growth promoting rhizobacteria such as Bacillus velezensis GJ11 can produce acetoin to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. For improving acetoin production, the mutant strains were respectively constructed by knockout of the gene of bdh (2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase) and gdh (glycerol dehydrogenase) in GJ11, but only GJ11Δbdh produced a high level of acetoin triggering strong ISR against Pseudomonas syringae infection in plants. GJ11Δbdh could induce H2O2 accumulation in plants by producing a high level of acetoin. H2O2 was necessary for triggering ISR against the pathogen infection because after scavenging H2O2 with ascorbic acid or catalase, the inhibition role to pathogen infection induced by acetoin almost disappeared in plants. Further investigation found the plants treated with GJ11Δbdh in an obvious "priming" state, in which the mild immune response was observed such as a slight increase of H2O2 production, callose deposition, and enzymes activity related with defence response (e.g. POD, PAL and PPO). The plants in "priming" could rapidly respond to the pathogen infection accompanying with a significant increase of H2O2 production, callose deposition, and enzymes activity. Collectively, this study provides new insight into the role of acetoin as a strong elicitor of defense response, and ascribes a new approach to construct the mutant strains with high production of acetoin for triggering stronger ISR against pathogens infection in plants.


Assuntos
Acetoína/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/genética
6.
Life Sci ; 234: 116780, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430453

RESUMO

Bronchial asthma and obesity are common health problems. Obesity is already responsible for 300,000 deaths per year. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess whether apocynin, alpha lipoic acid and probiotic administration in combination with low-fat diet supplementation influences the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. MAIN METHODS: The study was performed on male C57/BL6 mice divided into 10 groups: (I) control; (II) asthma; (III) obesity; (IV) asthma + obesity; (V) asthma + obesity + apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (VI) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks; (VII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day; (VIII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet with probiotics for 12 weeks; (IX) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with lipoic acid p.o. 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (X) asthma + obesity + standard diet with probiotics for 12 weeks. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were examined. The administration of apocynin alone and apocynin in combination with a low-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in SOD values (respectively p < 0.001; p = 0.010). Application of probiotics resulted in a decrease in CAT activity (p = 0.037) and an increase in GPx activity (p < 0.001) compared to obese asthmatic mice. The administration of lipoic acid resulted in an increase in GR activity (p = 0.024 vs. control). KEY FINDINGS: Supplementation containing apocynin, lipoic acid and probiotics has a positive influence on the antioxidant capacity of the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. SIGNIFICANCE: These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asma/complicações , Asma/metabolismo , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Zool Res ; 40(4): 305-316, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310064

RESUMO

Ambient temperature is an important factor influencing many physiological processes, including antioxidant defense and immunity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant defense and immunity are suppressed by high and low temperature treatment in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Thirty male voles were randomly assigned into different temperature groups (4, 23, and 32 °C, n=10 for each group), with the treatment course lasting for 27 d. Results showed that low temperature increased gross energy intake (GEI) and liver, heart, and kidney mass, but decreased body fat mass and dry carcass mass. With the decline in temperature, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, which is indicative of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, increased in the liver, decreased in the heart, and was unchanged in the kidney, testis, and small intestine. Lipid peroxidation indicated by malonaldehyde (MDA) content in the liver, heart, kidney, testis, and small intestine did not differ among groups, implying that high and low temperature did not cause oxidative damage. Similarly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the five tissues did not respond to low or high temperature, except for elevation of CAT activity in the testis upon cold exposure. Bacteria killing capacity, which is indicative of innate immunity, was nearly suppressed in the 4 °C group in contrast to the 23 °C group, whereas spleen mass and white blood cells were unaffected by temperature treatment. The levels of testosterone, but not corticosterone, were influenced by temperature treatment, though neither were correlated with innate immunity, H2O2 and MDA levels, or SOD, CAT, and T-AOC activity in any detected tissues. Overall, these results showed that temperature had different influences on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, and immunity, which depended on the tissues and parameters tested. Up-regulation or maintenance of antioxidant defense might be an important mechanism for voles to survive highly variable environmental temperatures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arvicolinae/imunologia , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Catalase/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 600, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of both Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, there are limited studies on the effect of P. falciparum malaria infection on oxidative stress in SCD patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress in isolates from SCD patients with uncomplicated P.falciparum malaria. The biomarkers namely: malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in plasma samples from SCD malaria positive, malaria positive, SCD malaria negative and healthy control participants. The genetic diversity of P.falciparum was determined by nested polymerase chain reaction of merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2) gene. RESULTS: Out of 207 participants, 54 (26%) were SCD malaria positive, 51 (24%) malaria positive, 51 (24%) SCD controls and 51 (24%) healthy control individuals. The mean concentration of MDA was significantly higher in SCD malaria positive than SCD controls (P < 0.0001). In contrast, the mean concentration of GSH (P < 0.0001) and GPx (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in SCD malaria than SCD controls. Although not significantly different, the mean concentration of MDA was higher (P = 0.0478), but the geometric mean parasite density (P = 0.2430) and multiplicity of infection (P = 0.3478) were lower in SCD malaria samples than in malaria samples. The most prevalent MSP2 allelic family was IC3D7 in SCD malaria (72%) and Malaria (76%) samples. The biomarkers of oxidative stress were not significantly different between IC3D7 and FC27 allelic families of MSP2. CONCLUSION: We identified severe oxidative stress in Sickle cell disease patients with uncomplicated P.falciparum malaria.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Uganda
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4601-4611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296989

RESUMO

Introduction: The ratio of Ce3+/Ce4+ in their structure confers unique functions on cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) containing rare earth elements in scavenging free radicals and protecting against oxidative damage. The potential of CeO2NPs to protect testosterone synthesis in primary mouse Leydig cells during exposure to 1,800 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation was examined in vitro. Methods: Leydig cells were treated with different concentrations of CeO2NPs to identify the optimum concentration for cell proliferation. The cells were pretreated with the optimum dose of CeO2NPs for 24 hrs and then exposed to 1,800 MHz RF at a power density of 200.27 µW/cm2 (specific absorption rate (SAR), 0.116 W/kg) for 1 hr, 2 hrs, or 4 hrs. The medium was used to measure the testosterone concentration. The cells were collected to determine the antioxidant indices (catalase [CAT], malondialdehyde [MDA], and total antioxidant capacity [T-AOC]), and the mRNA expression of the testosterone synthase genes (Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd-3ß) and clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, and Rorα). Results: Our preliminary result showed that 128 µg/mL CeO2NPs was the optimum dose for cell proliferation. Cells exposed to RF alone showed reduced levels of testosterone, T-AOC, and CAT activities, increased MDA content, and the downregulated genes expression of Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd-3ß, Clock, Bmal1, and Rorα. Pretreatment of the cells with 128 µg/mL CeO2NPs for 24 hrs followed by RF exposure significantly increased testosterone synthesis, upregulated the expression of the testosterone synthase and clock genes, and increased the resistance to oxidative damage in Leydig cells compared with those in cells exposed to RF alone. Conclusion: Exposure to 1,800 MHz RF had adverse effects on testosterone synthesis, antioxidant levels, and clock gene expression in primary Leydig cells. Pretreatment with CeO2NPs prevented the adverse effects on testosterone synthesis induced by RF exposure by regulating their antioxidant capacity and clock gene expression in vitro. Further studies of the mechanism underlying the protective function of CeO2NPs against RF in the male reproductive system are required.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cério/farmacologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Testosterona/biossíntese , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cério/química , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 146, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antioxidative enzymes contribute to a parasite's ability to counteract the host's intracellular killing mechanisms. The facultative intracellular oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus, a sister taxon to dinoflagellates and apicomplexans, is responsible for mortalities of oysters along the Atlantic coast of North America. Parasite trophozoites enter molluscan hemocytes by subverting the phagocytic response while inhibiting the typical respiratory burst. Because P. marinus lacks catalase, the mechanism(s) by which the parasite evade the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide had remained unclear. We previously found that P. marinus displays an ascorbate-dependent peroxidase (APX) activity typical of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Like other alveolates, the evolutionary history of P. marinus includes multiple endosymbiotic events. The discovery of APX in P. marinus raised the questions: From which ancestral lineage is this APX derived, and what role does it play in the parasite's life history? RESULTS: Purification of P. marinus cytosolic APX activity identified a 32 kDa protein. Amplification of parasite cDNA with oligonucleotides corresponding to peptides of the purified protein revealed two putative APX-encoding genes, designated PmAPX1 and PmAPX2. The predicted proteins are 93% identical, and PmAPX2 carries a 30 amino acid N-terminal extension relative to PmAPX1. The P. marinus APX proteins are similar to predicted APX proteins of dinoflagellates, and they more closely resemble chloroplastic than cytosolic APX enzymes of plants. Immunofluorescence for PmAPX1 and PmAPX2 shows that PmAPX1 is cytoplasmic, while PmAPX2 is localized to the periphery of the central vacuole. Three-dimensional modeling of the predicted proteins shows pronounced differences in surface charge of PmAPX1 and PmAPX2 in the vicinity of the aperture that provides access to the heme and active site. CONCLUSIONS: PmAPX1 and PmAPX2 phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are derived from a plant ancestor. Plant ancestry is further supported by the presence of ascorbate synthesis genes in the P. marinus genome that are similar to those in plants. The localizations and 3D structures of the two APX isoforms suggest that APX fulfills multiple functions in P. marinus within two compartments. The possible role of APX in free-living and parasitic stages of the life history of P. marinus is discussed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Parasitos/enzimologia , Fotossíntese , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ascorbato Peroxidases/química , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/isolamento & purificação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Parasitos/genética , Filogenia , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4475-4489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354270

RESUMO

Background: Effects of different nanoparticles (NPs) exposure at acutely non-cytotoxic concentrations are particularly worthy to figure out, compare, and elucidate. Objective: To investigate and compare the effect of a small library of NPs at non-cytotoxic concentration on the adherens junction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), obtaining new insights of NPs safety evaluation. Materials and methods: The HUVECs layer was exposed to NPs including gold (Au), platinum (Pt), silica (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, with different surface chemistry and size distribution. Cellular uptake of NPs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. and the cytotoxicity was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The NP-induced variation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and catalase (CAT) activity was measured using the probe of 2'7'-dichlorodihydr fluorescein diacetate and a CAT analysis kit, respectively. The level of VE-cadherin of HUVECs was analyzed by Western blot, and the loss of adherens junction was observed with laser confocal microscopy. Results: The acutely non-cytotoxic concentrations of different NPs were determined and applied to HUVECs. The NPs increased the level of intracellular ROS and the activity of CAT to different degrees, depending on the characteristics. At the same time, the HUVECs lost their adherens junction protein VE-cadherin and gaps were formed between the cells. The NP-induced oxidative stress and gap formation could be rescued by the supplementary N-acetylcysteine in the incubation. Conclusion: The increase of intracellular ROS and CAT activity was one common effect of NPs, even at the non-cytotoxic concentration, and the degree was dependent on the composition, surface chemistry, and size distribution of the NP. The effect led to the gap formation between the cells, while could be rescued by the antioxidant. Therefore, the variation of adherens junction between endothelial cells was suggested to evaluate for NPs when used as therapeutics and diagnostics.


Assuntos
Junções Aderentes/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 466-473, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331442

RESUMO

Removal of bio-accumulated pesticides in edible fish is a global problem. In this study, we tested protective capability of a phytochemical pelargonidin-loaded non-toxic, biodegradable poly-lactide-co-glycolide nano-particles (NPG) against toxicity induced by a pesticide cypermethrin (CM) in a fish model (Oreochromis mossambica) in vivo and also in L6 muscle cell line, in vitro. First we assessed potential sustainable release of nanoparticles following oral administration of NPG to fish, their ability to cross sub-cellular membranes in several tissues and efficacy to cross blood-brain-barrier. Next, protective ability of NPG, if any, against CM in fish was evaluated deploying parameters like % cell viability, DNA damage in muscle cells and modulation of anti-oxidative-enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidase. Modulation of reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear condensation and alteration in stress related protein signalling cascade were assessed in L6 cells. Results revealed that NPG had nano-size range (~10-12 nm) and negative zeta potential (-17 mV). Bioavailability and distribution of NPG could be followed by spectrophotometric absorbance of pelargonidin at 293 nm from 6 h onward till 24 h in all important tissues including the brain. Thus, 0.5 mg/g b.w. NPG could demonstrate protective ability in CM-intoxicated fish muscle cells in respect of % cell viability, DNA damage and stress related enzymes. Similar alterations could also be found in signalling protein cascade in L6 cells in response to treatment of 5 µg/ml NPG against CM-induced toxicity and depletion of overall ROS generation and nuclear condensation. Therefore, NPG could be used as a potential drug in management of pesticide toxicity in cultured edible fish.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers. METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model. RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.


Assuntos
Alpinia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pironas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofórmio/química , Flores/química , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Pironas/farmacologia , Solventes , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(30): 16515-16525, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298238

RESUMO

Isoniazid (INH) is converted into isonicotinyl radical through its interaction with the catalase-peroxidase (katG) enzyme present in the cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.), the bacteria that causes the tuberculosis disease. This process is important because resistance of M. tb. cells to INH treatment has been associated with the failure of completion of this process. However, this process is poorly understood and there are a variety of conflicting theories about the details of the mechanism of this process. One theory suggests that INH binds to katG and transfers a single electron to the heme while the heme is in its two electron oxidized state, compound I [Fe(iv)Por˙+] (CpdI). In this study, DFT calculations at the UB3LYP/6-31g(d)-LANL2DZ level of theory are used to study the M. tb. katG CpdI molecule. Different models of the M. tb. CpdI molecule were prepared and the calculations revealed the impact of Trp321 on the electronic properties of the heme. Without Trp321 the heme assumed a triradical state with single electrons on the πxy and πyz orbitals of Fe and another on the a2u orbital of the porphyrin ring that can either be coupled with the first two, to assume a quartet state, or decoupled to form a doublet state. With Trp321, however, a transfer of an electron from the πTrp orbital to a2u porphyrin orbital leads to loss of radical character of the porphyrin and leaves the Trp321 group with a radical character. INH was observed to have strong interaction with CpdI and the absence of Trp321 significantly decreased the binding energy by 2 kcal mol-1 explaining the importance of Trp321 in the binding of INH. The results in this study show the importance of Trp321 in the binding of INH and its effect on its electronic properties, which is consistent with previous experimental findings that mutation of Trp321 results in an increase in drug resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Catalase/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Isoniazida/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/metabolismo
15.
Gene ; 712: 143945, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279712

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species, generated in all the aerobic organisms, can cause oxidative stress. Excessive ROS may become a source of carcinogen due to DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, cell injury, and cell death. In order to prevent these adverse effects of ROS, antioxidant enzymes have evolved in aerobic organisms. Catalase is a major antioxidant enzyme that breaks down excessive H2O2 and inhibits apoptotic cell death. Here we molecularly characterized catalase from red-lip mullet. The cDNA sequence of LhCAT consists of an ORF of 1545 bp, which encodes a 527 amino acid peptide (~60 kDa). Based on bioinformatics analysis, LhCAT possesses a domain architecture characteristic of catalases, including a catalase proximal active site signature and a catalase proximal heme-ligand signature. It also has heme and NADPH binding sites homologous to previously described catalases. Pairwise alignment with its homologs revealed that LhCAT shares 95.1% identity with Oplegnathus fasciatus catalase and 97.4% similarity with Sparus aurata catalase. An uprooted phylogenetic tree demonstrated that LhCAT resides in a clade with catalases from other teleosts and exhibits a close relationship with Oplegnathus fasciatus catalase. Among twelve tissue types, we observed the highest LhCAT mRNA expression in the liver, followed by blood. Immune challenge by Lactococcus garvieae, or Poly I:C in the blood or spleen resulted in up-regulation at 24 h post injection. We also tested the antioxidant activity of recombinant LhCAT against hydrogen peroxide and found its optimal concentration to be 12.5 µg/mL. Collectively, these data suggested that LhCAT play an important role in antioxidant defense and immune response of red-lip mullet.


Assuntos
Catalase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Heme/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Sistema Imunitário , Ligantes , Fígado/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108746, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301288

RESUMO

Utilizing food additives at their optimized concentration is believed to be relatively safe, but their combinatorial effects remain largely unexplored. The influence of mixed food additives on the macromolecules may be altered by synergistic or antagonistic effects. It is previously shown that curcumin enhances the catalase activity by affecting its structural pocket in the active site. The aim of this study was to investigate the combination effects of food colorants sunset yellow FCF (SNY) and curcumin on the activation and/or inactivation of catalase activity using multispectral (fluorescence, FTIR, and UV-vis) analysis and simultaneous docking simulations. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SNY could significantly decrease catalase activity through a non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Fluorescence data indicated that SNY reduces intrinsic emission of catalase via a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic and molecular docking investigations suggested that catalase has one binding site for SNY, and hydrogen binding plays a main role in the binding reaction of catalase -SNY complex. Molecular dynamic simulation data indicated that the curcumin binding to the cavity, in the middle of the catalase helical domain, facilitates SNY binding to the enzyme pocket. For this purpose, the equilibrium dialysis system was used to study the stability and reversibility of SNY-catalase in the absence or presence of curcumin. The obtained data indicated that the binding of SNY-catalase is reversible and the stability of the complex is time-dependent. However, curcumin could make the complex more stable enhancing the SNY inhibition of catalase activity.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Curcumina/química , Corantes de Alimentos/química , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Catalase/antagonistas & inibidores , Domínio Catalítico , Curcumina/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Corantes de Alimentos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Termodinâmica
17.
Life Sci ; 232: 116607, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254582

RESUMO

AIMS: Poisoning with aluminium phosphide (AlP) commonly has a high rate of mortality and morbidities. Phosphine gas is the main cause of AlP poisoning that has deleterious effect on multi-organs especially heart, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, several studies reported that resveratrol has cytoprotective effects through its pleiotropic property. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose-dependent role of resveratrol on phosphine induced acute hepatic toxicity in rat model. MAIN METHODS: The rats have been exposed to LD50 of AlP (12 mg/kg) by gavage, and resveratrol doses (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) were injected 30 min after intoxication. After 24 h, the serum and liver tissue were collected for present study. KEY FINDINGS: The results indicated that phosphine causes an alteration in oxidative stress markers including elevation of ROS, and GSH level, MPO activity, reduction in SOD, catalase and G6PD activity as well as reduction in SOD1 and catalase expression. Furthermore, phosphine significantly induced phosphorylation of IkappaB, NF-kappaB and up-regulation of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and ICAM-1 expression. Also, phosphine induces markedly reduced hepatocytes lives cell and elevated apoptosis and necrosis. Co-treatment of resveratrol in a dose-dependent manner reversed aforementioned alterations. All in all, histological analysis indicated a deleterious effect of phosphine on the liver, which is mitigated by resveratrol administration. SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest targeting ROS/NF-kappaB signalling pathway by resveratrol may have a significant effect on the improvement of hepatic injury induced by phosphine. It also may be a possible candidate for the treatment of phosphine-poisoning.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fosfinas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185429

RESUMO

Significant fish kills have been attributed to Prymnesium parvum in coastal and inland waters around the world. However, specific mechanisms responsible for adverse outcomes resulting from this harmful algal bloom (HAB) species remain unclear, though the gill has previously been identified as an important target organ. In the present study, an in vitro approach was used to examine cytotoxicity and antioxidant responses in fish liver (Hepa-E1 and PLHC-1) and gill (G1B and RTgill-W1) cell lines, following exposure to P. parvum grown at different salinities and nutrient concentrations, which can influence the magnitude of acute toxicity. Cultures from high salinity compromised survival of hepatic cell lines exposed to high dilutions, whereas no significant cytotoxicity was observed for gill cell lines. With respect to control groups, catalase showed significant activity in both gill cell lines, especially RTgill-W1, following exposure to high salinity cultures. High levels of superoxide dismutase were measured in Hepa-E1 cells exposed to all experimental treatment combinations and in RTgill-W1 cells following exposure to high salinity conditions, with respect to non-exposed cells Glutathione peroxidase activity was also detected at significant levels in Hepa-E1 cells after exposure to cultures from high salinity and the low salinity X low nutrients. Slight GPx increases were only observed in PLHC-1 and G1B exposed to P. parvum grown at high salinity. These results suggest that: 1. specific combinations of salinity and nutrient levels may contribute to production and potency of P. parvum toxins resulting in sub-lethal effects, and 2. sub-lethal responses are more prominent than cytotoxicity, and that oxidative stress may be a significant adverse effect of toxins produced by P. parvum.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Haptófitas/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Salinidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hemólise , Modelos Biológicos , Ovinos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105219, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195325

RESUMO

Nrf2 is a crucial transcription factor that regulates the expression of cytoprotective enzymes and controls cellular redox homeostasis. Both arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants that are known to induce Nrf2. They are reported to coexist in many areas of the world leading to complex mixture effects in exposed organisms. The present study investigated the expression of Nrf2 and related xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes along with other stress markers such as histopathological alterations, catalase activity, reduced glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in zebrafish liver as a function of combined exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic (37.87 µgL-1 or 5.05 × 10-7 M) and fluoride (6.8 mg L-1 or 3.57 × 10-4 M) for 60 days. The decrease in the total reduced glutathione level was evident in all treatment conditions. Hyperactivity of catalase along with conspicuous elevation in reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content and histo-architectural anomalies signified the presence of oxidative stress in the treatment groups. Nrf2 was seen to be induced at both transcriptional and translational levels in case of both individual and co-exposure. The same pattern was observed in case of its nuclear translocation also. From the results of qRT-PCR it was evident that at each time point co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride seemed to alter the gene expression of Cu/Zn Sod, Mn Sod, Gpx and Nqo1 just like their individual exposure but at a very low magnitude. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time the differential expression and activity of Nrf2 and other stress response genes in the zebrafish liver following individual and combined exposure to arsenic and fluoride.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105223, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207538

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As(III)) are among the most toxic metals in aquatic systems that have been associated with multiple animal and human health problems. This study investigated cytotoxic, oxidative stress, and apoptosis effects on fish leukocytes following their exposure to metals. A preliminary study indicated that leukocytes exposed to MeHg at a concentration of 0.01 mM, Cd at 0.05 mM, and As(III) at 2 mM showed a time-dependent cell viability reduction (around 40%), so they were selected for further experiments. To evaluate the effect of MeHg, Cd and As(III) on Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, we measured cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)), nitric oxide production, apoptosis-related and immune-related genes on head-kidney and spleen leukocytes following exposure to MeHg (0.01 mM), Cd (0.05 mM) and As(III) (2 mM) for 30 min and 2 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation highly increased in time-dependent doses in head-kidney leukocytes compared with the control group. Regarding antioxidant activity, SOD increased significantly in leukocytes exposed to any heavy metals after two h. Expressly, CAT activity decreased in those leukocytes exposed to Cd and As(III). Apoptotic function genes (Casp-2, Casp-3, and Casp-7) strongly up-regulated after heavy metal exposure, but Cd was more toxic. Finally, granzyme A and perforin 1 strongly up-regulated in leukocytes exposed to MeHg and As(III) compared with the control group. Our data showed that MeHg, Cd, and As(III) might have been cytotoxic and induced oxidative stress and apoptosis with possible biological consequences in fish.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Granzimas/metabolismo , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Perforina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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