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1.
J Helminthol ; 98: e41, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785193

RESUMO

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the gut. T. spiralis larvae (E/S Ags) loaded on calcium-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate metal-organic frameworks (Ca-BTC MOFs) were tested to determine whether they might prevent or cure acetic acid-induced murine colitis. Methods: T. spiralis larvae E/S Ags/Ca-BTC MOFs were used in prophylactic and therapeutic groups to either precede or follow the development of murine colitis. On the seventh day after colitis, mice were slaughtered. The effect of our target antigens on the progress of the colitis was evaluated using a variety of measures, including survival rate, disease activity index, colon weight/bodyweight, colon weight/length) ratios, and ratings for macroscopic and microscopic colon damage. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-4), oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde, and glutathione peroxidase in serum samples were evaluated. Foxp3 T-reg expression was carried out in colonic and splenic tissues. Results: T. spiralis larvae E/S Ags/Ca-BTC MOFs were the most effective in alleviating severe inflammation in murine colitis. The survival rate, disease activity index score, colon weight/length and colon weight/bodyweight ratios, and gross and microscopic colon damage scores have all considerably improved. A large decrease in proinflammatory cytokine (interferon-γ) and oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) expression and a significant increase in interleukin-4 and glutathione peroxidase expression were obtained. The expression of Foxp3+ Treg cells was elevated in colonic and splenic tissues. Conclusion: T. spiralis larvae E/S Ags/Ca-BTC MOFs had the highest anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytoprotective capabilities against murine colitis and might be used to develop new preventative and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Colite , Citocinas , Larva , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Trichinella spiralis , Animais , Camundongos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/parasitologia , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Colo/parasitologia , Colo/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Feminino , Masculino
2.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 13(5): e12448, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779712

RESUMO

The excretory-secretory proteome plays a pivotal role in both intercellular communication during disease progression and immune escape mechanisms of various pathogens including cestode parasites like Taenia solium. The cysticerci of T. solium causes infection in the central nervous system known as neurocysticercosis (NCC), which affects a significant population in developing countries. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are 30-150-nm-sized particles and constitute a significant part of the secretome. However, the role of EV in NCC pathogenesis remains undetermined. Here, for the first time, we report that EV from T. solium larvae is abundant in metabolites that can negatively regulate PI3K/AKT pathway, efficiently internalized by macrophages to induce AKT and mTOR degradation through auto-lysosomal route with a prominent increase in the ubiquitination of both proteins. This results in less ROS production and diminished bacterial killing capability among EV-treated macrophages. Due to this, both macro-autophagy and caspase-linked apoptosis are upregulated, with a reduction of the autophagy substrate sequestome 1. In summary, we report that T. solium EV from viable cysts attenuates the AKT-mTOR pathway thereby promoting apoptosis in macrophages, and this may exert immunosuppression during an early viable stage of the parasite in NCC, which is primarily asymptomatic. Further investigation on EV-mediated immune suppression revealed that the EV can protect the mice from DSS-induced colitis and improve colon architecture. These findings shed light on the previously unknown role of T. solium EV and the therapeutic role of their immune suppression potential.


Assuntos
Colite , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vesículas Extracelulares , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Taenia solium , Animais , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Taenia solium/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/parasitologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sulfato de Dextrana , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/metabolismo , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Apoptose
3.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(1): 79-97, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794678

RESUMO

Although rare in the developed world, amebiasis continues to be a leading cause of diarrhea and illness in developing nations with crowding, poor sanitation, and lack of clean water supply. Recent immigrants or travelers returning from endemic regions after a prolonged stay are at high risk of developing amebiasis. A high index of suspicion for amebiasis should be maintained for other high-risk groups like men having sex with men, people with AIDS/HIV, immunocompromised hosts, residents of mental health facility or group homes. Clinical presentation of intestinal amebiasis varies from diarrhea to colitis and dysentery. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common form of extraintestinal amebiasis. Various diagnostic tools are available and when amebiasis is suspected, a combination of stool tests and serology should be sent to maximize the yield of testing. Treatment with an amebicidal drug such as metronidazole/tinidazole and a luminal cysticidal agent such as paromomycin for clinical disease is indicated. However, for asymptomatic disease treatment with a luminal cysticidal agent to decrease chances of invasive disease and transmission is recommended.


Assuntos
Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/epidemiologia , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Amebíase/transmissão , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colite/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Água Potável/parasitologia , Disenteria Amebiana/epidemiologia , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/diagnóstico , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/transmissão , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Viagem
4.
Immunobiology ; 226(5): 152129, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433129

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic health problems of difficult management and treatment. Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse association between helminth infections and IBD, and experimental data confirm that helminth infections modulate the severity of experimental acute colitis in mice. However, the effects of helminth infections on chronic colitis, which is clinically more relevant, have been poorly explored. Herein, we investigated whether Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in BALB/c mice can ameliorate chronic colitis induced by the ingestion of water containing 2.5% Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) over three seven-day treatment cycles, with an interval of fourteen days between cycles. Infected-only, DSS-exposed-only, and non-exposed/uninfected experimental groups served as controls for comparing the severity of colitis and intestinal inflammation among different groups. Our data showed that S. venezuelensis infection in mice with DSS-induced chronic colitis reduced clinical signs, attenuated colon shortening and inflammation, and prevented mucus ablation. The modulatory effect was accompanied by a low concentration of IFN-γ, high concentrations of TGF-ß, IL-22, and IL-33 in the colon, and a significant increase of the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN). In conclusion, S. venezuelensis infection can reduce the severity of DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice possibly through the stimulation of Treg cells and modulatory cytokines, and induction of mucosal repair mechanisms.


Assuntos
Colite , Strongyloides , Estrongiloidíase , Animais , Doença Crônica , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/parasitologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrongiloidíase/imunologia , Estrongiloidíase/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107655, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901737

RESUMO

Sesquiterpene lactones are a class of anti-inflammatory molecules obtained from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family. In this study, the effects of 7-hydroxy frullanolide (7HF), a sesquiterpene lactone, in inhibiting CD4+ T cell and peritoneal macrophage responses were investigated. 7HF, in a dose dependent manner, lowers CD69 upregulation, IL2 production and CD4+ T cell cycling upon activation with the combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that 7HF, at early time points, increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts, over and above the levels induced upon activation. The functional relevance of 7HF-induced Ca2+ increase was confirmed using sub-optimal amounts of BAPTA, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, which lowers lactate and rescues CD4+ T cell cycling. In addition, 7HF lowers T cell cycling with the combination of PMA and Ionomycin. However, 7HF increases CD4+ T cell cycling with sub-optimal activating signals: only PMA or anti-CD3. Furthermore, LPS-induced nitrite and IL6 production by peritoneal macrophages is inhibited by 7HF in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Studies with Ca2+ channel inhibitors, Ruthenium Red and 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, lowers the inhibitory effects of 7HF on CD4+ T cell and macrophage responses. In silico studies demonstrated that 7HF binds to Ca2+ channels, TRPV1, IP3R and SERCA, which is mechanistically important. Finally, intraperitoneal administration of 7HF lowers serum inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ and IL6, and reduces the effects of DSS-induced colitis with respect to colon length and colon damage. Overall, this study sheds mechanistic light on the anti-inflammatory potential of 7HF, a natural plant compound, in lowering immune responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/parasitologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico
7.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(2): 433-444, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067820

RESUMO

Infection with parasitic worms (helminths) alters host immune responses and can inhibit pathogenic inflammation. Helminth infection promotes a strong Th2 and T regulatory response while suppressing Th1 and Th17 function. Th2 responses are largely dependent on transcriptional programs directed by Stat6-signaling. We examined the importance of intact T cell Stat6 signaling on helminth-induced suppression of murine colitis that results from T cell transfer into immune-deficient mice. Colonization with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri resolves WT T cell transfer colitis. However, if the transferred T cells lack intact Stat6 then helminth exposure failed to attenuate colitis or suppress MLN T cell IFN-γ or IL17 production. Loss of Stat6 signaling resulted in decreased IL10 and increased IFN-γ co-expression by IL-17+ T cells. We also transferred T cells from mice with constitutive T cell expression of activated Stat6 (Stat6VT). These mice developed a severe eosinophilic colitis that also was not attenuated by helminth infection. These results show that T cell expression of intact but regulated Stat6 signaling is required for helminth infection-associated regulation of pathogenic intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Nematospiroides dubius/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Colite/parasitologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/parasitologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/parasitologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/parasitologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 220: 108034, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188795

RESUMO

Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae represents a highly pathogenic coccidian parasite causing severe haemorrhagic typhlocolitis in goat kids worldwide. NETosis was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interactions of caprine PMN with parasitic stages of E. ninakohlyakimovae (i. e. oocysts and sporozoites) as well as soluble oocyst antigens (SOA) were analyzed at different ratios, concentrations and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate classical molecules induced during caprine NETosis [i. e. histones (H3) and neutrophil elastase (NE)] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses. Functional inhibitor treatments with DPI and DNase I were applied to unveil role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and characterize DNA-backbone composition of E. ninakohlyakimovae-triggered caprine NETosis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)- and immunofluorescence-analyses demonstrated that caprine PMN underwent NETosis upon contact with sporozoites and oocysts of E. ninakohlyakimovae, ensnaring filaments which firmly entrapped parasites. Detailed co-localization studies of E. ninakohlyakimovae-induced caprine NETosis revealed presence of PMN-derived DNA being adorned with nuclear H3 and NE corroborating molecular characteristics of NETosis. E. ninakohlyakoimovae-induced caprine NETosis was found to be NOX-independent since DPI inhibition led to a slight decrease of NETosis. Exposure of caprine PMN to vital E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites as well as SOA resulted in up-regulation of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2 and iNOS gene transcription in stimulated PMN. Since vital E. ninakohlyakimovae-sporozoites induced caprine NETosis, this effective entrapment mechanism might reduce initial sporozoite epithelial host cell invasion during goat coccidiosis ultimately resulting in less macromeront formation and reduced merozoites I production.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Citocinas/genética , Eimeria/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Neutrófilos/parasitologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Colite/parasitologia , Colite/veterinária , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/ultraestrutura , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/ultraestrutura , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Esporozoítos/genética , Esporozoítos/imunologia , Transcrição Gênica , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tiflite/parasitologia , Tiflite/veterinária , Regulação para Cima
9.
Parasitology ; 147(13): 1480-1487, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729450

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri shows enhanced survival in mice with colitis. As the antibody response plays an important role in antiparasitic immunity, antibodies against male and female L4 H. polygyrus were examined in mice with and without colitis. Levels of specific antibodies in the mucosa and serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunogenic proteins of male and female parasites were identified using 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The function of identified proteins was explored with Blast2Go. Nematodes in mice with colitis induced higher levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG1) and IgA, a lower level of IgE in the small intestine and a higher level of IgE in serum against female L4. Infected mice with colitis recognized 12 proteins in male L4 and 10 in female L4. Most of the recognized proteins from male L4 were intermediate filament proteins, whereas the proteins from female L4 were primarily actins and galectins. Nematodes from mice with colitis were immunogenically different from nematodes from control mice. This phenomenon gives new insights into helminth therapy as well as host-parasite interactions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Colite/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Nematospiroides dubius/fisiologia , Proteoma/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Animais , Colite/parasitologia , Feminino , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
10.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(1): e13237, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884694

RESUMO

Cystoisospora belli colitis is a rare complication of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients. We describe a case of Cystoisospora belli infection with colitis following renal transplantation.


Assuntos
Colite/parasitologia , Isosporíase/diagnóstico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/parasitologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Isospora , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(3): 360-368, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying the factors that contribute to chronicity in inflamed colitic tissue is not trivial. However, in mouse models of colitis, we can investigate at preclinical timepoints. We sought to validate murine Trichuris muris infection as a model for identification of factors that promote development of chronic colitis. METHODS: We compared preclinical changes in mice with a resolving immune response to T. muris (resistant) vs mice that fail to expel the worms and develop chronic colitis (susceptible). Findings were then validated in healthy controls and patients with suspected or confirmed IBD. RESULTS: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) was highly dysregulated between resistant and susceptible mice before the onset of any pathological signs. Increased soluble RAGE (sRAGE) in the serum and feces of resistant mice correlated with reduced colitis scores. Mouse model findings were validated in a preliminary clinical study: fecal sRAGE was differentially expressed in patients with active IBD compared with IBD in remission, patients with IBD excluded, or healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Preclinical changes in mouse models can identify early pathways in the development of chronic inflammation that human studies cannot. We identified the decoy receptor sRAGE as a potential mechanism for protection against chronic inflammation in colitis in mice and humans. We propose that the RAGE pathway is clinically relevant in the onset of chronic colitis and that further study of sRAGE in IBD may provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Tricuríase/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Colite/parasitologia , Colite/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Enteropatias Parasitárias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos AKR , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Tricuríase/patologia , Trichuris
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19127, 2019 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836772

RESUMO

The ability of helminth parasite infections to manipulate the immune system of their host towards T regulatory responses has been proposed to suppress the inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of Syphacia obvelata in the treatment of experimental DSS -induced colitis. 50 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 5 groups: healthy uninfected controls, DSS colitis, receiving only S. obv, preventive (S. obv + DSS) and therapeutic group (DSS + S.obv). Colitis intensity was investigated by measuring body weight changes, stool consistency/bleeding and colon length. To evaluate the immune responses induced by this nematode, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and expressing of FoxP3+ T cells were measured in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches cells. Mice in preventive and therapeutic groups treated with S. obv egg significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS colitis, indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved histopathological scores correlated with the up regulation of Treg responses and down regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. S. obv can prevention and reverse on-going murine DSS colitis. The data suggest that induction of Tregs and change in cytokine profiles during helminthic therapies were responsible for reversed inflammatory events in IBD.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Colite/parasitologia , Oxyuroidea/fisiologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Linfonodos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/parasitologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 443-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390438

RESUMO

Diseases related to the alimentary system are the main cause of death in horses. This retrospective study aimed to describe the pathological findings of fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis caused by cyathostominae, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli, and Strongyloides westeri in horses. The records of parasite-induced intestinal lesions in horses necropsied in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Ten horses had fatal parasitic enteritis and/or typhlocolitis, and the main causes were: cyathostominae typhlocolitis (6/10), E. leuckarti enteritis (1/10), S. westeri enteritis (1/10), B. coli colitis related to cyathostominae (1/10), and infection by multiple agents (1/10). Cyathostominae typhlocolitis showed marked mucosal thickening, with multifocal elevated nodules containing tangled filiform parasites. Microscopic examination revealed that the mucosa and submucosa had encysted parasitic structures surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation. E. leuckarti enteritis was microscopically characterized by macrogamonts, microgamonts, and oocysts inside the host cells. S. westeri enteritis showed microscopic atrophy of the villi with numerous mucosal encysted parasitic structures. B. coli typhlocolitis showed severe diffuse mucosal reddening, with microscopic superficial mucosal necrosis associated with multiple protozoan trophozoites. Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis are important causes of death in horses in Southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Colite/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Tiflite/parasitologia , Animais , Colite/mortalidade , Enterite/mortalidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Cavalos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Tiflite/mortalidade
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 443-450, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042526

RESUMO

Abstract Diseases related to the alimentary system are the main cause of death in horses. This retrospective study aimed to describe the pathological findings of fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis caused by cyathostominae, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli, and Strongyloides westeri in horses. The records of parasite-induced intestinal lesions in horses necropsied in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Ten horses had fatal parasitic enteritis and/or typhlocolitis, and the main causes were: cyathostominae typhlocolitis (6/10), E. leuckarti enteritis (1/10), S. westeri enteritis (1/10), B. coli colitis related to cyathostominae (1/10), and infection by multiple agents (1/10). Cyathostominae typhlocolitis showed marked mucosal thickening, with multifocal elevated nodules containing tangled filiform parasites. Microscopic examination revealed that the mucosa and submucosa had encysted parasitic structures surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation. E. leuckarti enteritis was microscopically characterized by macrogamonts, microgamonts, and oocysts inside the host cells. S. westeri enteritis showed microscopic atrophy of the villi with numerous mucosal encysted parasitic structures. B. coli typhlocolitis showed severe diffuse mucosal reddening, with microscopic superficial mucosal necrosis associated with multiple protozoan trophozoites. Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis are important causes of death in horses in Southern Brazil.


Resumo Doenças relacionadas ao sistema alimentar são as principais causas de morte em equinos. Esse estudo teve o objetivo de descrever aspectos patológicos de enterites e tiflocolites parasitárias fatais por ciatostomíneos, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli e Strongyloides westeri, em equinos. Foi revisado o banco de dados de lesões intestinais parasitárias em equinos necropsiados de 2005 a 2017, no Sul do Brasil. Dez equinos apresentaram enterite e/ou tiflocolite parasitária fatal, e as principais foram: tiflocolite por ciatostomíneos (6/10), enterite por E. leuckarti (1/10), enterite por S. westeri (1/10), colite por B. coli com ciatostomíneos (1/10), e infecção por múltiplos agentes (1/10). A tiflocolite por ciatostomíneos exibia acentuado espessamento da mucosa, com nódulos multifocais elevados contendo parasitas filiformes. Microscopicamente, a mucosa e submucosa apresentavam estruturas parasitárias encistadas envoltas por inflamação eosinofílica e granulomatosa. A enterite por E. leuckarti era caracterizada microscopicamente por macrogamontes, microgamontes e oocistos no interior de células do hospedeiro. Microscopicamente, a enterite por S. westeri apresentava atrofia de vilosidades com numerosas estruturas parasitárias encistadas na mucosa. A tiflocolite por B. coli exibia avermelhamento acentuado difuso da mucosa, e microscopicamente necrose superficial associada a múltiplos trofozoítos protozoáricos. Enterites e tiflocolites fatais parasitárias são importantes causas de morte em equinos no Sul do Brasil.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Colite/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/parasitologia , Tiflite/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Estudos Retrospectivos , Colite/mortalidade , Enterite/mortalidade , Tiflite/mortalidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Cavalos
16.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(Suppl 1): S32-S37, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica is 8.4%. The intestinal amebiasis in patients with acute leukemia of novo, after the start of chemotherapy (CT) in the Hematology Service of the CMN 20 de Noviembre is 12%, even if patients show a negative baseline coprological test. OBJECTIVE: To find out if the administration of tinidazole, in patients with acute leukemia and negative coprological test, at the beginning of the CT, decreases the incidence of amoebic colitis during the induction to remission. METHOD: Prospective and not comparative study. Patients with de novo diagnosis of acute leukemia who initiate induction and initial coprological CT. Tinidazole was indicated, 2 g/day for 5 days in the first week of CT started. They were monitored until the induction was concluded and hematopoietic recovery started. RESULTS: 38 patients, 15 women and 23 men with a mean age of 44 years (16-72), with acute lymphoblastic leukemia 19, myeloblastic 16 and promyelocytic 3. Cases without and with intestinal amebiasis were 35 and 3, respectively. Patients with amebiasis only received tinidazole for 3 days and it was given 2 days after the CT started. CONCLUSION: Tinidazole, in patients with acute de novo leukemia who initiate induction CT, is effective in the prevention of intestinal amebiasis, during the induction stage, if administered at 2 g/day, for five days, starting on day 1 of the CT.


INTRODUCCIÓN: En México la seroprevalencia de la Entamoeba histolytica es del 8.4%. La amebiasis intestinal en pacientes con leucemia aguda de novo posterior al inicio de quimioterapia (QT), en el Servicio de Hematología del CMN 20 de Noviembre, es del 12%, aún si muestran test coprológico negativo basal. OBJETIVO: Averiguar si la administración de tinidazol, en pacientes con leucemia aguda y coprológico negativo, al principio de la QT, disminuye la incidencia de colitis amebiana durante la inducción a la remisión. MÉTODO: Prospectivo y no comparativo. Enfermos con diagnóstico de leucemia aguda de novo que inician QT de inducción y coprológico inicial. Se indicó tinidazol, 2 g/día durante 5 días en la primera semana de comenzada QT. Se vigilaron hasta que la inducción concluyó y se inició la recuperación hematopoyética. RESULTADOS: 38 pacientes, 15 mujeres y 23 hombres con edad media de 44 años (16-72). Con leucemia aguda linfoblástica 19, con mieloblástica 16 y con promielocítica 3. Casos sin y con amebiasis intestinal, 35 y 3, respectivamente. Los pacientes con amebiasis solo recibieron tinidazol durante 3 días y se dio después de 2 días de empezada la QT. CONCLUSIÓN: El tinidazol, en pacientes con leucemia aguda de novo que inician QT de inducción, es efectivo en la prevención de la amebiasis intestinal, durante la etapa de inducción, si se administra a 2 g/día, durante cinco días, a partir del día 1 de la QT.


Assuntos
Colite/prevenção & controle , Colite/parasitologia , Disenteria Amebiana/prevenção & controle , Tinidazol/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Colite/complicações , Disenteria Amebiana/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 12(6): 530-533, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077082

RESUMO

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) comprise a spectrum of inflammatory diseases that can affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of these conditions is complex; differentiating between primary and secondary forms of these disorders can be clinically challenging. We report a case of primary EGID in a patient with remote parasite exposure, whose symptoms were initially attributed to irritable bowel syndrome. Endoscopy revealed the rare finding of EGID involving the entire gastrointestinal tract; symptoms improved with an elimination diet. This case raises the possibility of a link between prior parasite exposure and development of EGID, and underscores the necessity of exploring alternative diagnoses in patients with presumed IBS who present with severe symptoms.


Assuntos
Colite/parasitologia , Enterite/parasitologia , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/parasitologia , Gastrite/parasitologia , Toxocaríase , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/dietoterapia , Laticínios , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/dietoterapia , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/dietoterapia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/dietoterapia , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/dietoterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
FASEB J ; 33(4): 5676-5689, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668930

RESUMO

Macrophages play central roles in immunity as early effectors and modulating adaptive immune reponses; we implicated macrophages in the anticolitic effect of infection with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Here, gene arrays revealed that H. diminuta antigen (HdAg) evoked a program in murine macrophages distinct from that elicited by IL-4. Further, HdAg suppressed LPS-evoked release of TNF-α and IL-1ß from macrophages via autocrine IL-10 signaling. In assessing the ability of macrophages treated in vitro with an extract of H. diminuta [M(HdAg)] to affect disease, intravenous, but not peritoneal, injection of M(HdAg) protected wild-type but not RAG1-/- mice from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Administration of splenic CD4+ T cells from in vitro cocultures with M(HdAg), but not those cocultured with M(IL-4) cells, inhibited DNBS-induced colitis; fractionation of the T-cell population indicated that the CD4+CD25+ T cells from cocultures with M(HdAg) drove the suppression of DNBS-induced colitis. Use of IL-4-/- or IL-10-/- CD4+ T cells revealed that neither cytokine alone from the donor cells was essential for the anticolitic effect. These data illustrate that HdAg evokes a unique regulatory program in macrophages, identifies HdAg-evoked IL-10 suppression of macrophage activation, and reveals the ability of HdAg-treated macrophages to educate ( i.e., condition) and mobilize CD4+CD25+ T cells, which could be deployed to treat colonic inflammation.-Reyes, J. L., Lopes, F., Leung, G., Jayme, T. S., Matisz, C. E., Shute, A., Burkhard, R., Carneiro, M., Workentine, M. L., Wang, A., Petri, B., Beck, P. L., Geuking, M. B., McKay, D. M., Macrophages treated with antigen from the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta condition CD25+ T cells to suppress colitis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Cestoides/imunologia , Colite/imunologia , Hymenolepis diminuta/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Colite/parasitologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/parasitologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
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