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1.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 266, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of children experience difficulties with social communication and this has long-term deleterious effects on their mental health, social development and education. The E-PLAYS-2 study will test an intervention ('E-PLAYS') aimed at supporting such children. E-PLAYS uses a dyadic computer game to develop collaborative and communication skills. Preliminary studies by the authors show that E-PLAYS can produce improvements in children with social communication difficulties on communication test scores and observed collaborative behaviours. The study described here is a definitive trial to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of E-PLAYS delivered by teaching assistants in schools. METHODS: The aim of the E-PLAYS-2 trial is to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of care as usual plus the E-PLAYS programme, delivered in primary schools, compared to care as usual. Cluster-randomisation will take place at school level to avoid contamination. The E-PLAYS intervention will be delivered by schools' teaching assistants. Teachers will select suitable children (ages 5-7 years old) from their schools using guidelines provided by the research team. Assessments will include blinded language measures and observations (conducted by the research team), non-blinded teacher-reported measures of peer relations and classroom behaviour and parent-reported use of resources and quality of life. A process evaluation will also include interviews with parents, children and teaching assistants, observations of intervention delivery and a survey of care as usual. The primary analysis will compare pragmatic language scores for children who received the E-PLAYS intervention versus those who did not at 40 weeks post-randomisation. Secondary analyses will assess cost-effectiveness and a mixed methods process evaluation will provide richer data on the delivery of E-PLAYS. DISCUSSION: The aim of this study is to undertake a final, definitive test of the effectiveness of E-PLAYS when delivered by teaching assistants within schools. The use of technology in game form is a novel approach in an area where there are currently few available interventions. Should E-PLAYS prove to be effective at the end of this trial, we believe it is likely to be welcomed by schools, parents and children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 17561417, registration date 19th December 2022. PROTOCOL VERSION: v1.1 19th June 2023.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtorno de Comunicação Social/terapia
2.
J Phys Ther Educ ; 38(2): 141-149, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effective academic-clinical partnerships require a greater understanding of how academic programs can best support clinical education (CE) faculty. This study aimed to determine resources and support that clinical partners need. REVIEW OF LITERATURE: As the number of physical therapist (PT) programs, cohort sizes, and CE weeks have risen, so has demand for CE sites. Conversely, staffing reductions, increased administrative duties, and rising productivity expectations have decreased the time available for clinical instruction. To promote a successful CE experience, there must be a renewed understanding of CE faculty needs. SUBJECTS: Clinical education faculty affiliated with any of the 8 contributing programs from the Ohio-Kentucky Consortium participated in survey research (n = 24) and subsequent interview (n = 4) and focus group (n = 6) research. METHODS: Constructivist grounded theory design was used to explore the needs of CE faculty. Academic and clinical partners developed the initial survey and used survey results to establish interview questions. The investigators iteratively assessed data saturation and clarity of results of coded survey, interview, and focus group data to determine whether the study's aims of identifying CE faculty needs had been met. RESULTS: The aggregated results yielded 5 main themes of Director of Clinical Education support for CE faculty needs: student readiness for CE experience; effective academic-clinical partner communication; collaborative management of exceptional students; judicious standardization of CE processes; and provision of CE faculty development resources. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Clinical education faculty have noted challenges that affect their ability to mentor students. They want academic programs to be more collaborative and proactive with communication, resources, and support. Future research should address aids and barriers to proactive communication, resource provision, and academic-clinical partner collaboration.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Docentes , Teoria Fundamentada , Fisioterapeutas/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Ohio
3.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241252574, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742705

RESUMO

Despite decades of faculty professional development programs created to prepare women for leadership, gender inequities persist in salary, promotion, and leadership roles. Indeed, men still earn more than women, are more likely than women to hold the rank of professor, and hold the vast majority of positions of power in academic medicine. Institutions demonstrate commitment to their faculty's growth by investing resources, including creating faculty development programs. These programs are essential to help prepare women to lead and navigate the highly matrixed, complex systems of academic medicine. However, data still show that women persistently lag behind men in their career advancement and salary. Clearly, training women to adapt to existing structures and norms alone is not sufficient. To effectively generate organizational change, leaders with power and resources must commit to gender equity. This article describes several efforts by the Office of Faculty in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine to broaden inclusivity in collaborative work for gender equity. The authors are women and men leaders in the Office of Faculty, which is within the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine dean's office and includes Women in Science and Medicine. Here, we discuss potential methods to advance gender equity using inclusivity based on our institutional experience and on the findings of other studies. Ongoing data collection to evaluate programmatic outcomes in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine will be reported in the future.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Equidade de Gênero , Liderança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Comportamento Cooperativo , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Médicas , Salários e Benefícios , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Sexismo , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 634, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multisectoral collaboration is essential for advancing primary health care (PHC). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limited institutional capacities, governance issues, and inadequate stakeholder engagement impede multisectoral collaboration. India faces similar challenges, especially at the meso-level (districts and subdistricts). Owing to its dependence on context, and insufficient evidence, understanding "How" to improve multisectoral collaboration remains challenging. This study aims to elicit specific recommendations to strengthen meso-level stewardship in India for multisectoral collaboration. The findings from this study may offer lessons for other LMICs. METHODS: Using purposive, maximum variation sampling, the study team conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 diverse participants, including policymakers, implementers, development agency representatives, and academics experienced in multisectoral initiatives. The interviews delved into participants' experiences, the current situation, enablers, and recommendations for enhancing stakeholder engagement and capacities at the meso-level for multisectoral collaboration. RESULTS: Context and power are critical elements to consider in fostering effective collaboration. Multisectoral collaboration was particularly successful in three distinct governance contexts: the social-democratic context as in Kerala, the social governance context in Chhattisgarh, and the public health governance context in Tamil Nadu. Adequate health system input and timely guidance instil confidence among local implementers to collaborate. While power plays a role through local leadership's influence in setting agendas, convening stakeholders, and ensuring accountability. To nurture transformative local leaders for collaboration, holistic, equity-driven, community-informed approaches are essential. The study participants proposed several concrete steps: at the state level, establish "central management units" for supervising local implementers and ensuring bottom-up feedback; at the district level, rationalise committees and assign deliverables to stakeholders; and at the block level, expand convergence structures and involve local self-governments. Development partners can support data-driven priority setting, but local implementers with contextual familiarity should develop decentralised plans collaboratively, articulating rationales, activities, and resources. Finally, innovative training programs are required at all levels, fostering humility, motivation, equity awareness, leadership, problem- solving, and data use proficiency. CONCLUSION: This study offers multiple solutions to enhance local implementers' engagement in multisectoral efforts, advocating for the development, piloting, and evaluation of innovative approaches such as the block convergence model, locally-led collaboration efforts, and novel training methods for local implementers.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Índia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Participação dos Interessados , Entrevistas como Assunto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Colaboração Intersetorial , Política de Saúde
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(10)2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793851

RESUMO

Investigating the neural mechanisms underlying both cooperative and competitive joint actions may have a wide impact in many social contexts of human daily life. An effective pipeline of analysis for hyperscanning data recorded in a naturalistic context with a cooperative and competitive motor task has been missing. We propose an analytical pipeline for this type of joint action data, which was validated on electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded in a proof-of-concept study on two dyads playing cooperative and competitive table tennis. Functional connectivity maps were reconstructed using the corrected imaginary part of the phase locking value (ciPLV), an algorithm suitable in case of EEG signals recorded during turn-based competitive joint actions. Hyperbrain, within-, and between-brain functional connectivity maps were calculated in three frequency bands (i.e., theta, alpha, and beta) relevant during complex motor task execution and were characterized with graph theoretical measures and a clustering approach. The results of the proof-of-concept study are in line with recent findings on the main features of the functional networks sustaining cooperation and competition, hence demonstrating that the proposed pipeline is promising tool for the analysis of joint action EEG data recorded during cooperation and competition using a turn-based motor task.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Feminino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
6.
Rev Infirm ; 73(301): 23-24, 2024 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796238

RESUMO

The role of advanced practice nursing in France is still in its definition phase. While the prefiguration of the model was mainly in primary care, notably through the activities of the Asalée association, the first university graduates are mainly future hospital professionals, with a specialized orientation. Whether working in general or organ medicine, the advanced practice nurse (APN) is committed to making the patient's care experience more fluid, as part of a multi-professional team. Thanks to the acquisition of new skills and a structuring legal framework, collaboration between doctors and APNs is becoming a lace-making process, to best meet local needs.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem , Humanos , Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/organização & administração , França , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Médico-Enfermeiro , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração
7.
Patient Educ Couns ; 125: 108295, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To confirm described dimensions of making care fit and explore how patients and clinicians collaborate to make care fit in clinical practice. METHODS: As part of an ongoing study, we audiotaped and transcribed patient-clinician consultations in diabetes care. We purposively selected consultations based on participants' demographical, biomedical and biographical characteristics. We analysed transcripts using reflexive thematic analysis. We combined a deductive and inductive approach, using the pre-described dimensions of making care fit and adding new (sub-)dimensions when pertinent. RESULTS: We analysed 24 clinical consultations. Our data confirmed eight previously described dimensions and provided new sub-dimensions of making care fit with examples from clinical practice (problematic situation, influence of devices, sense of options, shared agenda setting, clinician context, adapting to changing organization of care, and possibility to reconsider). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed, specified and enriched the conceptualization of making care fit through practice examples. We observed patient-clinician collaboration in exploration of patients' context, and by responsively changing, adapting or maintaining care plans. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Our findings support clinicians and researchers with insights in important aspects of patient-clinician collaboration. Ultimately, this would lead to optimal design of care plans that fit well in each patient life.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Diabetes Mellitus , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Participação do Paciente , Comunicação
8.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371867, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737859

RESUMO

This study analyzes panel data of Chinese cities from 2003 to 2018 as a sample in the context of the dual circulation strategy in China to ascertain the impact of urban healthcare development on medical collaborative innovation efficiency by using the GS2SLS method. Furthermore, it empirically examines the influence mechanism of regional healthcare development on medical collaborative innovation efficiency by using a threshold regression model. Additionally, we identified the heterogeneity of this impact in different cities. The results show the following: (1) There is a significant positive spatial correlation between regional healthcare development and medical collaborative innovation efficiency; (2) Under the dual circulation strategy, the regional investment level in international circulation has the most significant role in the overall strategy, and domestic circulation has been significantly improved after the launch of the innovation-driven strategy; (3) The results of the threshold test show that while domestic and international circulation promote the efficiency of collaborative innovation by 0.83, the promotion effect is more obvious under a higher regional healthcare development level. The research in this paper can provide specific guidance for the development of China's healthcare industry under the background of dual-cycle strategy, and can also provide valuable reference for developing countries in the world.


Assuntos
Cidades , China , Humanos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Eficiência Organizacional
9.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 25: e24, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721698

RESUMO

AIM: This constructivist grounded theory study aimed to (1) explore patients' experiences of and roles in interprofessional collaborative practice for chronic conditions in primary care and (2) consider the relevance and alignment of an existing theoretical framework on patients' roles and based on the experiences of patient advocates. BACKGROUND: High-quality management of chronic conditions requires an interprofessional collaborative practice model of care considering an individual's mental, physical, and social health situation. Patients' experiences of this model in the primary care setting are relatively unknown. METHODS: A constructivist grounded theory approach was taken. Interview data were collected from primary care patients with chronic conditions across Australia in August 2020 - February 2022. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed by (1) initial line-by-line coding, (2) focused coding, (3) memo writing, (4) categorisation, and (5) theme and sub-theme development. Themes and sub-themes were mapped against an existing theoretical framework to expand and confirm the results from a previous study with a similar research aim. FINDINGS: Twenty adults with chronic conditions spanning physical disability, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, autoimmune, and mental health conditions participated. Two themes were developed: (1) Adapting to Change with two sub-themes describing how patients adapt to interprofessional team care and (2) Shifting across the spectrum of roles, with five sub-themes outlining the roles patients enact while receiving care. The findings suggest that patients' roles are highly variable and fluid in interprofessional collaborative practice, and further work is recommended to develop a resource to support greater patient engagement in interprofessional collaborative practice.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria Fundamentada , Relações Interprofissionais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Austrália , Adulto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Participação do Paciente
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303912, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781139

RESUMO

Despite organizations' documented tendency to repeat research collaborations with prior partners, scholarly understanding on the implications of recurring interactions for the content of the collaboration has been fairly limited. This paper investigates whether and under what conditions organizations use repeated research partnerships to explore new topics, as opposed to deepening their expertise in a single one (exploitation). The empirical analysis is based on the Spanish region of Valencia and its publicly funded R&D network. Employing lexical similarity to compare the topic and content of project abstracts, we find that strong ties are not always associated with the exploitation of the same topic. Yet, exploration is more likely when at least one of the partners mobilizes a network of distinct contacts and can access novel knowledge.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Pesquisa , Espanha
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2319519121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753508

RESUMO

Transforming smallholder farms is critical to global food security and environmental sustainability. The science and technology backyard (STB) platform has proved to be a viable approach in China. However, STB has traditionally focused on empowering smallholder farmers by transferring knowledge, and wide-scale adoption of more sustainable practices and technologies remains a challenge. Here, we report on a long-term project focused on technology scale-up for smallholder farmers by expanding and upgrading the original STB platform (STB 2.0). We created a formalized and standardized process by which to engage and collaborate with farmers, including integrating their feedback via equal dialogues in the process of designing and promoting technologies. Based on 288 site-year of field trials in three regions in the North China Plain over 5 y, we find that technologies cocreated through this process were more easily accepted by farmers and increased their crop yields and nitrogen factor productivity by 7.2% and 28.1% in wheat production and by 11.4% and 27.0% in maize production, respectively. In promoting these technologies more broadly, we created a "one-stop" multistakeholder program involving local government agencies, enterprises, universities, and farmers. The program was shown to be much more effective than the traditional extension methods applied at the STB, yielding substantial environmental and economic benefits. Our study contributes an important case study for technology scale-up for smallholder agriculture. The STB 2.0 platform being explored emphasizes equal dialogue with farmers, multistakeholder collaboration, and long-term investment. These lessons may provide value for the global smallholder research and practitioners.


Assuntos
Agricultura , China , Agricultura/métodos , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Cooperativo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola/métodos
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11887, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789442

RESUMO

Translational data is of paramount importance for medical research and clinical innovation. It has the potential to benefit individuals and organizations, however, the protection of personal data must be guaranteed. Collecting diverse omics data and electronic health records (EHR), re-using the minimized data, as well as providing a reliable data transfer between different institutions are mandatory steps for the development of the promising field of big data and artificial intelligence in medical research. This is made possible within the proposed data platform in this research project. The established data platform enables the collaboration between public and commercial organizations by data transfer from various clinical systems into a cloud for supporting multi-site research while ensuring compliant data governance.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Big Data , Pesquisa Biomédica , Comportamento Cooperativo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(20): e2400689121, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717858

RESUMO

Social reputations facilitate cooperation: those who help others gain a good reputation, making them more likely to receive help themselves. But when people hold private views of one another, this cycle of indirect reciprocity breaks down, as disagreements lead to the perception of unjustified behavior that ultimately undermines cooperation. Theoretical studies often assume population-wide agreement about reputations, invoking rapid gossip as an endogenous mechanism for reaching consensus. However, the theory of indirect reciprocity lacks a mechanistic description of how gossip actually generates consensus. Here, we develop a mechanistic model of gossip-based indirect reciprocity that incorporates two alternative forms of gossip: exchanging information with randomly selected peers or consulting a single gossip source. We show that these two forms of gossip are mathematically equivalent under an appropriate transformation of parameters. We derive an analytical expression for the minimum amount of gossip required to reach sufficient consensus and stabilize cooperation. We analyze how the amount of gossip necessary for cooperation depends on the benefits and costs of cooperation, the assessment rule (social norm), and errors in reputation assessment, strategy execution, and gossip transmission. Finally, we show that biased gossip can either facilitate or hinder cooperation, depending on the direction and magnitude of the bias. Our results contribute to the growing literature on cooperation facilitated by communication, and they highlight the need to study strategic interactions coupled with the spread of social information.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Teóricos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297475, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748693

RESUMO

The profound changes brought about by informatization and digitalization have given rise to the user-centered innovation concept, and value co-creation by enterprises has become an inevitable trend. It has become a pressing issue for scholars to analyze the mechanism of consumer participation in the value co-creation of innovative enterprises. In this paper, by establishing an evolutionary game model between consumers and innovative enterprises, we analyze in depth the mechanism of consumer participation in the value co-creation of innovative enterprises. The results show that the initial cooperation probability between consumers and innovative enterprises directly affects their strategic choices; the establishment of reward mechanisms makes consumers more inclined to choose active participation in value co-creation strategies; as the probability of non-cooperation between the two parties being reported increases, the probability of consumers and innovative enterprises choosing cooperation also increases. Studying the mechanism of consumer participation in the value co-creation of innovative enterprises has essential theoretical and practical significance for enterprises to achieve value creation, enhance competitiveness, and promote innovation. This study not only enriches and develops relevant theories but also provides guidance and support for the practice of enterprises, promoting sustainable development and successful co-creation.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Teoria dos Jogos , Humanos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Modelos Teóricos , Comportamento Cooperativo
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302943, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748705

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in the subject of product-service system (PSS) and collaborative servitization in academia and practice. However, the focus is on exploring the growth of manufacturing companies without specifically analyzing the growth of service companies in applying PSS. There are companies, especially in the telco industry, that expand their service business to complex bundles of products and services. The paper investigates PSS in the service company and the role of collaboration in different PSS development phases: idea generation, development and go to market phase. The study adopted case-based research conducted in international Telco organization. The research demonstrates how a company creates and commercializes integrated packets of products and services, it identifies partners company works with and the benefits and challenges of their cooperation. The study addresses collaboration with customers and identifies five different customer profiles according to their openness to participate in the development of PSS. The study highlights the importance of (1) collaboration models, (2) customer involvement, and (3) strategic focus in successful application of collaborative servitization. The findings complement the literature for collaborative servitization and offer concrete input for companies in terms of how to better organize business, profit from collaboration models and gain market advantage.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Comércio , Indústrias , Comportamento do Consumidor
17.
Trials ; 25(1): 323, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The value of using qualitative methods within clinical trials is widely recognised. How qualitative research is integrated within trials units to achieve this is less clear. This paper describes the process through which qualitative research has been integrated within Cardiff University's Centre for Trials Research (CTR) in Wales, UK. We highlight facilitators of, and challenges to, integration. METHODS: We held group discussions on the work of the Qualitative Research Group (QRG) within CTR. The content of these discussions, materials for a presentation in CTR, and documents relating to the development of the QRG were interpreted at a workshop attended by group members. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used to structure analysis. A writing group prepared a document for input from members of CTR, forming the basis of this paper. RESULTS: Actions to integrate qualitative research comprised: its inclusion in Centre strategies; formation of a QRG with dedicated funding/roles; embedding of qualitative research within operating systems; capacity building/training; monitoring opportunities to include qualitative methods in studies; maximising the quality of qualitative research and developing methodological innovation. Facilitators of these actions included: the influence of the broader methodological landscape within trial/study design and its promotion of the value of qualitative research; and close physical proximity of CTR qualitative staff/students allowing sharing of methodological approaches. Introduction of innovative qualitative methods generated interest among other staff groups. Challenges included: pressure to under-resource qualitative components of research, preference for a statistical stance historically in some research areas and funding structures, and difficulties faced by qualitative researchers carving out individual academic profiles when working across trials/studies. CONCLUSIONS: Given that CTUs are pivotal to the design and conduct of RCTs and related study types across multiple disciplines, integrating qualitative research into trials units is crucial if its contribution is to be fully realised. We have made explicit one trials unit's experience of embedding qualitative research and present this to open dialogue on ways to operationalise and optimise qualitative research in trials. NPT provides a valuable framework with which to theorise these processes, including the importance of sense-making and legitimisation when introducing new practices within organisations.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , País de Gales , Fortalecimento Institucional , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo
18.
Bull Math Biol ; 86(6): 67, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700758

RESUMO

In biology, evolutionary game-theoretical models often arise in which players' strategies impact the state of the environment, driving feedback between strategy and the surroundings. In this case, cooperative interactions can be applied to studying ecological systems, animal or microorganism populations, and cells producing or actively extracting a growth resource from their environment. We consider the framework of eco-evolutionary game theory with replicator dynamics and growth-limiting public goods extracted by population members from some external source. It is known that the two sub-populations of cooperators and defectors can develop spatio-temporal patterns that enable long-term coexistence in the shared environment. To investigate this phenomenon and unveil the mechanisms that sustain cooperation, we analyze two eco-evolutionary models: a well-mixed environment and a heterogeneous model with spatial diffusion. In the latter, we integrate spatial diffusion into replicator dynamics. Our findings reveal rich strategy dynamics, including bistability and bifurcations, in the temporal system and spatial stability, as well as Turing instability, Turing-Hopf bifurcations, and chaos in the diffusion system. The results indicate that effective mechanisms to promote cooperation include increasing the player density, decreasing the relative timescale, controlling the density of initial cooperators, improving the diffusion rate of the public goods, lowering the diffusion rate of the cooperators, and enhancing the payoffs to the cooperators. We provide the conditions for the existence, stability, and occurrence of bifurcations in both systems. Our analysis can be applied to dynamic phenomena in fields as diverse as human decision-making, microorganism growth factors secretion, and group hunting.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria dos Jogos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Humanos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Simulação por Computador , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Retroalimentação
19.
Bull Math Biol ; 86(6): 69, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714590

RESUMO

We unify evolutionary dynamics on graphs in strategic uncertainty through a decaying Bayesian update. Our analysis focuses on the Price theorem of selection, which governs replicator(-mutator) dynamics, based on a stratified interaction mechanism and a composite strategy update rule. Our findings suggest that the replication of a certain mutation in a strategy, leading to a shift from competition to cooperation in a well-mixed population, is equivalent to the replication of a strategy in a Bayesian-structured population without any mutation. Likewise, the replication of a strategy in a Bayesian-structured population with a certain mutation, resulting in a move from competition to cooperation, is equivalent to the replication of a strategy in a well-mixed population without any mutation. This equivalence holds when the transition rate from competition to cooperation is equal to the relative strength of selection acting on either competition or cooperation in relation to the selection differential between cooperators and competitors. Our research allows us to identify situations where cooperation is more likely, irrespective of the specific payoff levels. This approach provides new perspectives into the intended purpose of Price's equation, which was initially not designed for this type of analysis.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Teoria dos Jogos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Seleção Genética , Simulação por Computador , Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento Competitivo , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11429, 2024 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763960

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the perception of an underutilised collaborative information system through qualitative research, utilizing semi-structured, in-depth interviews with independent midwives and physician. PROSPERO, is a collaborative information system designed to bridge the communication gap between community-based healthcare workers and hospital-based care teams for parturients in Lyon, France. Through 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews with midwives, obstetricians, and general practitioners, we identified key themes related to the system's adoption: implementation challenges, utilisation barriers, interprofessional dynamics, and hidden variables affecting system use. Participants recognised the potential of PROSPERO to improve information sharing and care coordination but expressed concerns about the system's integration into existing workflows, time constraints, and the need for adequate training and technical support. Interprofessional dynamics revealed differing perspectives between hospital and independent practitioners, emphasising the importance of trust-building and professional recognition. Hidden variables, such as hierarchical influences and confidentiality concerns, further complicated the system's adoption. Despite the consensus on the benefits of a collaborative information system, its implementation was hindered by mistrust between healthcare workers (i.e. between independent practitioners and hospital staff). Our findings suggest that fostering trust and addressing the identified barriers are crucial steps towards successful system implementation. The study contributes to understanding the complex interplay of factors influencing the adoption of collaborative healthcare technologies and highlights the need for strategies that support effective interprofessional collaboration and communication.ClinicalTrials ID NCT02593292.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , França , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Sistemas de Informação , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tocologia , Masculino , Relações Interprofissionais
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