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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692862

RESUMO

The role of a Medical Science Liaison (MSL) is of growing importance to pharmaceutical, biotechnology, diagnostic and medical device companies. Through scientific engagement MSLs add value to clinical practice, ultimately benefiting patients. The MSL role is dynamic and encompasses in-depth product and disease knowledge together with the ability to communicate relevant, unbiased scientific information concisely and timely. Tasks are focused on contributing towards the advancement of medical knowledge, scientific data generation and dissemination. Professional relationships are developed, fostering collaboration between external experts and typically the medical affairs departments of pharmaceutical companies through a credible liaison. Through such relationships, critical insights are shared that shape the development pipeline, promote successful clinical translation and guide the market deployment strategy of therapeutic interventions through-out their life cycle. Despite the rising number of MSLs in the field and the implicit medical value of the role, there remains a lack of understanding for what the roles of a MSL entails. In Africa, where exponential growth of the pharmaceutical industry is expected, the number of MSLs will increase rapidly. Given the complexities of the African continent, the MSLs in this burgeoning environment will face various challenges including remote locations, time-constraints, regulatory and bureaucratic hurdles and importantly physician misperception of the MSL role that collectively may thwart the goal of meaningful scientific engagement; but these challenges can be surmounted through astute proactive planning and utilization of opportunities including digital communication strategies.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , África , Humanos , Indústria Manufatureira/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
2.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(5): 385-401, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736045

RESUMO

Situated in Yogyakarta's northern region, Merapi is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Surrounded by densely populated farming communities, Merapi has had 68 eruptions since 1548. Merapi's 2010 eruption was marked by bursts of ash clouds, subsidence of its top-most layer, inundation of rivers and soils by lava currents, and the alteration of its surrounding natural landscapes. Local communities depend on the natural resources on Merapi's slope for farming, livelihood, and subsistence. The eruption had sizable impacts on community lives in terms of living conditions, livelihood, and social and political structures. The dynamics of community life in response to Merapi's volcanic activities are highlighted. Using a particular focus on farming communities as the case study, the article discusses community user groups' adaptive management capacity to dynamic natural landscape frequently marked by volcanic eruptions. The discussions support local government in fostering community resilience and social cohesion in response to Merapi's activities. Empirical findings suggest that social institutions and local rules come into play and the people practice collective disaster management on behalf of the community. These social institutions take the form of neighborly ties, reciprocity, collective identity, and social and ecological responsibilities. Merapi's pasture is not free access, but dynamically governed by local and informal rules to maintain its benefits for the safety of the community.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Participação da Comunidade , Comportamento Cooperativo , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Desastres , Erupções Vulcânicas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Indonésia , Resiliência Psicológica
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(669): 1962-1966, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663695

RESUMO

In ambulatory care, the community pharmacist and the general practitioner most often interact through the dispensing of medicines in pharmacies following a prescription from the physician. However, this interaction can be reinforced by other practices that can increase the quality and safety of care. Interprofessional collaboration is possible through the development of increasing interrelationships, particularly in the sharing of information through dialogue on common objectives that integrate the perspectives of patients and professionals, and through joint decision-making. In this article, interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists and general practitioners is described, as well as data from the literature and some concrete examples from the regular practice of pharmacists and physicians in Unisanté.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Farmacêuticos , Médicos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente
7.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 475-479, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveitis is an inflammatory disorder of the uveal tract of the eye that can affect both adults and children. Non-infectious uveitis can be an expression of a systemic autoimmune condition, or it can be idiopathic. It is a serious disease, associated with possible severe complications leading to visual impairment and blindness. For this reason, a prompt diagnosis and assessment of an appropriate treatment, with the collaboration of specialists such as ophthalmologists and rheumatologists, are extremely important. Many treatment options may be associated to side effects; therefore, clinicians should follow a stepladder approach starting with the least aggressive treatments to induce remission of inflammation. In this review, we reported the current evidence-based treatments for non-infectious uveitis in pediatric and adult patients with particular attention to the biologic response modifier treatment options. Important multicenter studies have demonstrated the efficacy of adalimumab, both in adults (VISUAL I, VISUAL II, VISUAL III) and in children (SYCAMORE, ADJUVITE), while for other agents data are still scarce.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/patologia
8.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 30-32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540654

RESUMO

Vascular surgery is a specialty discipline highlighted by a lifelong learning process from which new endovascular devices and techniques will continue to emerge. Industry partnerships can provide a safe learning environment for trainees, with a focus on maximizing learning opportunities during fellowship or residency. Unlike other surgical specialties, vascular surgery empowers its trainees to become competent in both open and image-guided endovascular interventions, requiring two unique skill sets to become a contemporary vascular surgeon. Due to the rapid growth of technology and innovations, industry partnerships enhance and maximize the learning experience of the trainee by often providing the products, education, research support, and financial assistance. This can come in the form of innovative and educational activities, including simulation, exposure to thought leaders, attendance at conferences and workshops, and one-on-one assistance with cases. In this article, we review the role that industry can serve in vascular education to support budding vascular surgeons through exposure and repetition as they lay down the fundamentals of their careers.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Relações Interinstitucionais , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Parcerias Público-Privadas/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Cirurgiões/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/economia
9.
Environ Manage ; 64(5): 580-592, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555874

RESUMO

Traditional cultural landscapes are of special value not only for reasons of nature conservation and high species diversity but also because they intersect with the identity of local communities, support recreation and tourism, and preserve cultural heritage. Structural changes in rural areas threaten these unique sceneries and environments in Europe and worldwide. As a result, the question of how to maintain and manage cultural landscapes where economic benefits are not assured has become a priority in science and in practice. Considering this context, community-based collaborative landscape management (CLM) can be considered an innovative and promising approach. This paper presents results from a stakeholder analysis examining the preconditions and opportunities for initiating a CLM in the biosphere reserve known as 'Spreewald'. The results indicate that due to the type of problem (landscape change)-which is characterised by complexity, beneficial linkages to a multitude of actor groups, and broad problem awareness-CLM appears to be feasible. However, other preconditions related to social relationships among actor groups, questions of legitimate coordination and the collaborative capacity of the community are not met, thus reducing the likelihood of success. To address these challenges, we discuss the potential of transdisciplinary processes (TD) to assist local communities in establishing such a collaborative problem-solving and management approach. We show that TD is highly valuable and supportive during this critical stage of emerging collaboration.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Comportamento Social
11.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(4): 210-223, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386248

RESUMO

Primate individuals use a variety of strategies in intergroup encounters, from aggression to tolerance; however, recent focus on the evolution of either warfare or peace has come at the cost of characterizing this variability. We identify evolutionary advantages that may incentivize tolerance toward extra-group individuals in humans and nonhuman primates, including enhanced benefits in the domains of transfer, mating, and food acquisition. We highlight the role these factors play in the flexibility of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo, and human behavior. Given humans have an especially broad range of intergroup behavior, we explore how the human foraging ecology, especially large spatial and temporal fluctuations in resource availability, may have selected for a greater reliance on tolerant between-community relationships-relationships reinforced by status acquisition and cultural institutions. We conclude by urging careful, theoretically motivated study of behavioral flexibility in intergroup encounters in humans and the nonhuman great apes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Primatas/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Int J Med Inform ; 129: 60-68, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445290

RESUMO

It is known that excessive levels of occupational stress affect professionals' technical and non-technical skills and surgeons are no exception. However, very few studies address this problem in neurosurgeons. A system for monitoring cardiovascular strain and autonomic imbalance during intracranial aneurysm procedures is proposed in order to obtain overall cardiac measures from those procedures. Additionally, this study also allows to detect stressful events and compare their impact with the surgeon's own appraisal. Linear and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) features were extracted from surgeon's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal using wearable ECG monitors and mobile technology during 10 intracranial aneurysm surgeries with two surgeons. Stress appraisal and cognitive workload were assessed using self-report measures. Findings suggest that the surgeon associated to the main role during the clipping can be exposed to high levels of stress, especially if a rupture occurs (pNN20 = 0%), while the assistant surgeon tends to experience mental fatigue. Cognitive workload scores of one of the surgeons were negatively correlated with AVNN, SDNN, pNN20, pNN50, 1 V, 2 L V, SD2 and CVI measures. Cognitive workload was positively related with stress appraisal, suggesting that more mentally demanding procedures are also assessed as more stressful. Finally, pNN20 seems to better mirror behavior during stress moments than pNN50. Additionally, a sympathovagal excitation occurs in one of the professionals after changing to main role. The present methodology shows potential for the identification of harmful events. This work may be of importance for the design of effective interventions in order to reduce surgeons stress levels. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to other professions.


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Cirurgiões , Carga de Trabalho
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1179, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National and international strategies have increasingly promoted chronic patient participation at different levels of the health care system, building the image of an 'active' chronic patient engaged for example in his/her daily self-care and within associations dealing with service delivery and/or policy advocacy. Drawing upon examples of the fight against diabetes and HIV/AIDS in Mali, this article explores the factors that influence the engagement of patient associations at policy level. We focus on the openness of the institutionalised political system, and explore the role that public authorities, caregivers and donors give to diabetes and HIV/AIDS patients. METHODS: Data was collected between 2008 and 2014 in Bamako in the framework of a qualitative research. Thirty-eight actors fighting against diabetes were interviewed, as well as 17 representatives of donors. For HIV/AIDS, 27 actors were interviewed. In both cases, non-participant observation was carried out and documentary sources were collected. Based on theory of public and collective action, a historical and cognitive approach was adopted. Data analysis followed an inductive and iterative method. RESULTS: Partnerships between public authorities and diabetes patient associations have been intermittent over time and remained rather informal. In the case of people living with HIV/AIDS, the partnership between their associations and public authorities has steadily grown and was progressively institutionalised. Three political factors explain this difference: focus and extent of the commitment of public authorities, existing policy-making processes, and how the law frames patients' roles. Moreover, opportunities for patient participation depend on the nature and extent of the support provided by international donors. Finally, the cognitive dimension is also at stake, notably in relation to the way the two diseases and patients have been perceived by public authorities, caregivers, and donors. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic patients are intermittent partners for policy-makers. Despite the image of chronic active patients conveyed by national and international public health strategies, patient participation is not straightforward. Rather, political, economic, and cognitive factors underpin the presence of political opportunities that enable patient participation. Chronicity of the disease appears to play an ambiguous role in the shaping of these factors.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente , Doença Crônica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Mali , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e133, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407993

RESUMO

We focus on the implications of De Dreu and Gross's findings for the evolutionary perspective on out-group aggression and in-group cooperation. Although their experimental protocols are potentially useful in determining the origins of out-group aggression in humans, they so far provide inconclusive evidence only. We suggest ways of furthering our understanding of the connection between parochial cooperation and intergroup conflict.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 239-248, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468403

RESUMO

The effects of taurine have been characterized primarily in mammals, and insects are not generally used to study taurine. In this study, ants were used to examine the effect of taurine on eusociality. Ants are the principal models for studying eusociality and superorganisms. Japanese carpenter ants (Camponotus japonicus) were fed a taurine-supplemented diet and tested using ant eusocial indexes. Ant farm structures were constructed using transparent PET bottles containing autoclaved soil. Three categories of vital index were used to study the effect of taurine on group activity: creation of formicaries (residence chambers), cooperative defense efforts, and population density (or group size and composition). Control, low-, and high-taurine diets were prepared using three different levels of taurine in sucrose powder: 0, 5, and 20% (g/g), respectively. The cooperative defense efforts against exogenous queen ants were recorded daily. The high-taurine group took less time to complete their defense formation than the other groups. At least 16% more formicaries (chambers) were observed in the taurine-fed groups than in the control. There were evident differences between control and taurine-fed groups in the total numbers of ants and eggs. The taurine-fed group sustained higher total numbers of ants, excluding the queen. Taurine-fed groups showed a significant increase both in the number of workers and eggs. When fed with taurine, ants responded positively on the eusocial vitality indexes. These results show that taurine exerts a positive effect on the eusociality of ants at the level of the superorganism.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Social , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448030

RESUMO

Introduction: Field Epidemiology Training Programmes (FETPs) are functional ways of strengthening epidemiology, surveillance and outbreak response capacity in countries. However, sustainability of FETPs is a major challenge facing most countries especially in Africa. The Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (GFELTP) started in 2007 in the University of Ghana School of Public Health as a solution to gaps in the public health workforce. This paper assessed the sustainability strategies embedded in the Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme. Methods: We assessed the sustainability of GFELTP by document reviews and interviews with programme staff and stakeholders to identify sustainability structures (programme, financial and institutional) that were in place. We grouped information into the following headings: programme structure, institutional, financial and political structures. Results: As of July 2017, a total of 350 public health experts have been trained in both frontline and advanced courses since the programme's inception. For funding structures, the programme is funded mainly by its partners and stakeholders who are local government organisations. They provide resources for running of programme activities. Under institutional and political structures, the programme was established as a Ministry of Health/Ghana Health Service programme based in the University of Ghana. The programme steering committee which is currently chaired by the Director Public Health of Ghana Health Service, jointly ensures its implementation. Other structures of sustainability observed were involvement of stakeholders and alumni in human resource of the programme; use of stakeholders as faculty for the programme. These stakeholders include staff from University of Ghana School of Public Health, Ghana Health Service and Veterinary Service Department, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The programme showed evidence of stable sustainability strategies in all four structures evaluated. Conclusion: The assessment found the GFELTP to be sustainable. The main factors that contributed to rendering it sustainable were funding, programme, institutional and political structures embedded in the programme. One remarkable sustainability element observed was the strong collaboration that existed between stakeholders of the programme who worked hand in hand to ensure the programme runs smoothly. However, more sources of funding and other essential resources need to be considered to help the programme obtain a pool of resources for carrying out its activities.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Epidemiologia/educação , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública/educação , Fortalecimento Institucional , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório/educação , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
Public Health ; 173: 120-125, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore facilitating factors for collaboration at hackathons, intensive events bringing together data scientists ('hackers') with experts in particular subject areas. STUDY DESIGN: This is a qualitative study. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with organisers before and after the event. The initial exploratory interviews influenced the content of questionnaires which were distributed to all participants asking about their motivations and experiences. Thematic analysis was used to explore key features of collaboration. RESULTS: Facilitating factors were clustered under the themes of preparation (the right amount of pre-event information, methods to maximise attendance and identification of suitable challenges), participants (enough people to progress and a mixture of skills and experience), working together (mutual understanding of the aim, getting the best out of each other, overcoming challenges together, effective facilitation and an enjoyable and valuable experience) and follow-up (recognised process for feedback and support for the development of prototypes). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study provide insight into fostering collaboration in this context and provide evidence that may be used to tailor future events for the effective delivery of technological and marketing-based solutions to public health challenges. Hackathons provide a methodological advance with potential for broad public health application.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Ciência de Dados , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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