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1.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(10): 480-488, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030369

RESUMO

People with chronic pain faced potential treatment disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore, as the focus of healthcare shifted. A model of rapid integration of a pain centre with community healthcare teams was implemented to care for vulnerable older patients with chronic pain and multiple comorbidities. Telemedicine and home visits by community nurses were used, with risk-mitigation measures, ensuring comprehensive assessment and treatment compliance. Medications from pain physicians were delivered at home through a hospital pharmacy. A secure national electronic health records system used by all teams ensured seamless access and documentation. Potential emergency department visits, admissions and delayed discharges were thus avoided. Integration of community teams with chronic pain management services can be recommended to ensure pandemic preparedness.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por Coronavirus , Visita Domiciliar , Clínicas de Dor , Manejo da Dor , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Singapura , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
J Christ Nurs ; 37(4): E43-E44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898076

RESUMO

Nurses have put themselves in precarious situations by caring for COVID-19 patients. Through the grid of faith, hope, and love as depicted in 1 Corinthians, the author commends the selfless work of nurses and esteems God's faithfulness to nurses who acknowledge him.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Religião e Medicina , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Empatia , Humanos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Pandemias , Filosofia em Enfermagem
3.
J Allied Health ; 49(3): 228-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877482

RESUMO

Local governments, especially in rural settings, may look to collaborate with neighboring communities to maintain public health services and efficiencies in face of restrictive local budgets. Cross-jurisdictional partnerships of rural health departments have allowed offering an increased range of prevention programs and community health initiatives. Genesee and Orleans counties, in rural Western New York, developed a cross-jurisdictional partnership 7 years ago which has been integral for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response for both county health departments. Using a cross-jurisdictional partnership and a joint incident command structure has allowed a coordinated approach towards contact tracing of COVID-19 confirmed cases.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo Local , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039711, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High levels of organisational citizenship behaviour can enable nurses to cooperate with coworkers effectively to provide a high quality of nursing care during the outbreak of COVID-19. However, the association between autonomy, optimism, work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to test if the effect of autonomy on organisational citizenship behaviour through the mediating effects of optimism and work engagement. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital in China. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 242 nurses who came from multiple areas of China to work at the Wuhan Jinyintan hospital during the COVID-19 epidemic participated in this study. METHODS: A serial mediation model (model 6) of the PROCESS macro in SPSS was adopted to test the hypotheses, and a 95% CI for the indirect effects was constructed by using Bootstrapping. RESULTS: The autonomy-organisational citizenship behaviour relationship was mediated by optimism and work engagement, respectively. In addition, optimism and work engagement mediated this relationship serially. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study may have implications for improving organisational citizenship behaviour. The effects of optimism and work engagement suggest a potential mechanism of action for the autonomy-organisational citizenship behaviour linkage. A multifaceted intervention targeting organisational citizenship behaviour through optimism and work engagement may help improve the quality of nursing care among nurses supporting patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Autonomia Profissional , Engajamento no Trabalho , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Pandemias , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 232-242, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) need a range of supports but may have difficulty accessing existing resources. An optimally connected network of organizations can help young parents navigate access to available services. Community organizations participating in the Pathways to Success (Pathways) initiative sought to strengthen their network of support for young parents through social network analysis (SNA) undertaken within an action research framework. METHOD: Evaluators and community partners utilized a survey and analysis tool to map and describe the local network of service providers offering resources to young parents. Respondents were asked to characterize their relationship with all other organizations in the network. Following survey analysis, all participants were invited to discuss and interpret the results and plan the next actions to improve the network on behalf of young parents. RESULTS: Scores described the diversity of organizations in the network, density of connections across the community, degree to which the network was centralized or decentralized, which organizations were central or outliers, frequency of contact, levels of collaboration, and levels of trust. Findings were interpreted with survey participants and used by Pathways staff for action planning to improve their network. DISCUSSION: SNA clarified complex relationships and set service providers on a path toward optimizing their network. The usefulness of SNA to impact and improve a network approach to supporting young parents is discussed, including lessons learned from this project.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Gravidez na Adolescência , Rede Social , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(9): e00132120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965375

RESUMO

Brazil is the country of the world with the second most COVID-19 cases and deaths, and the pandemic's impacts pose multiple challenges for mental health. This paper reports on experience with the emergency organization of the volunteer and collaborative Working Group (GT, in Portuguese) on mental health and psychosocial care aimed at producing rapid responses for health services in the context of COVID-19. The study involved the identification and systematization of current evidence in the scientific literature on mental health and psychosocial care in public health emergencies and pandemics, with the establishment of a network involving 117 researchers and 25 institutions, and the organization of themes for the elaboration of materials, referenced on the response phases in public health emergencies and pandemics. In less than 60 days, 18 technical documents were produced, ranging from services organization and management for different vulnerable groups. The materials became references in health institutions and services. A national course on mental health and psychosocial care in COVID-19 was also organized, with more than 60,000 people registered. The experience provides food for thought and a contribution for future experiences involving knowledge translation in the current pandemic and in future public health emergencies and pandemics, with the following: (1) combination of volunteer and collaborative work involving professionals with experience in the organization of services and care in past events; (2) reliance on institutional support and resources; (3) speed and credibility of work involving the establishment of networks of professionals and institutions; and (4) responses to the urgent needs with the capacity to shape paths for care in mental health and psychosocial care.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas
8.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 105, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943078

RESUMO

Mali, like the rest of the world, has seen a rapid spread of COVID-19 since the first report of imported cases. Despite being a low-income country, Mali has leveraged scientific research resources via coordinated approaches to enable public health emergency planning and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Mali's approach includes the harmonization of research activities; leveraging of research laboratory capacity of the University Clinical Research Center, Mali International Center for Excellence and three other in-country laboratories for community COVID-19 testing; strengthening relationships amongst local and international stakeholders; and collaboration with the Ministry of Health to integrate scientific evidence into public policy and emergency management of COVID-19 through a platform of consultation and open communication. The country has implemented national coordination of its COVID-19 response by establishing a COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Committee and a COVID-19 Technical Coordination Committee, both within the Ministry of Health and working collaboratively with other stakeholders. Members of Mali's COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Committee also serve as leaders of its principal academic and government clinical and public health research entities. This centralised approach has enabled the prioritisation of COVID-19 control activities, informed allocation of resources, evidence-based public health practices and timely decision-making in the pandemic setting. Though challenges remain, lessons learned from Mali's harnessing of clinical research capacity to guide and support its COVID-19 response can be applied to future global health research challenges and illustrate the power of building public health-responsive research capacity in resource-limited settings through international collaboration.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Governo , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mali/epidemiologia , Organizações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Política Pública , Alocação de Recursos
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201720, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993473

RESUMO

Although dominance hierarchies occur in most societies, our understanding of how these power structures influence individual investment in cooperative and competitive behaviours remains elusive. Both conflict and cooperation in animal societies are often environmentally regulated, yet how individuals alter their cooperative and competitive investments as environmental quality changes remain unclear. Using game theoretic modelling, we predict that individuals of all ranks will invest more in cooperation and less in social conflict in harsh environments than individuals of the same ranks in benign environments. Counterintuitively, low-ranking subordinates should increase their investment in cooperation proportionally more than high-ranking dominants, suggesting that subordinates contribute relatively more when facing environmental challenges. We then test and confirm these predictions experimentally using the Asian burying beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis. Ultimately, we demonstrate how social rank modulates the relationships between environmental quality and cooperative and competitive behaviours, a topic crucial for understanding the evolution of complex societies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Cooperativo , Predomínio Social , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200487, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900316

RESUMO

Cooperation among non-kin is well documented in humans and widespread in non-human animals, but explaining the occurrence of cooperation in the absence of inclusive fitness benefits has proven a significant challenge. Current theoretical explanations converge on a single point: cooperators can prevail when they cluster in social space. However, we know very little about the real-world mechanisms that drive such clustering, particularly in systems where cognitive limitations make it unlikely that mechanisms such as score keeping and reputation are at play. Here, we show that Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) use a 'walk away' strategy, a simple social heuristic by which assortment by cooperativeness can come about among mobile agents. Guppies cooperate during predator inspection and we found that when experiencing defection in this context, individuals prefer to move to a new social environment, despite having no prior information about this new social group. Our results provide evidence in non-human animals that individuals use a simple social partner updating strategy in response to defection, supporting theoretical work applying heuristics to understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the evolution of cooperation among non-kin.


Assuntos
Poecilia/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Heurística
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201023, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900314

RESUMO

Within cooperatively breeding societies, individuals adjust cooperative contributions to maximize indirect fitness and minimize direct fitness costs. Yet, little is known about the physiological costs of cooperation, which may be detrimental to direct fitness. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (by-products of energy production) and antioxidant protection, may represent such a cost when cooperative behaviours are energetically demanding. Oxidative stress can lead to the accumulation of cellular damage, compromising survival and reproduction, thus mediating the trade-off between these competing life-history traits. Here, we experimentally increased energetically demanding cooperative contributions in captive Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis). We quantified oxidative stress-related effects of increased cooperation on somatic and germline tissues, and the trade-off between them. Increased cooperative contributions induced oxidative stress in females and males, without increasing somatic damage. Males accumulated oxidative damage in their germline despite an increase in antioxidant defences. Finally, oxidative damage accumulation became biased towards the germline, while antioxidant protection remained biased towards the soma, suggesting that males favour the maintenance of somatic tissues (i.e. survival over reproduction). Our results show that heightened cooperative contributions can ultimately affect direct fitness through oxidative stress costs, which may represent a key selective pressure for the evolution of cooperation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Ratos-Toupeira/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 114, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944511

RESUMO

Solidarity in the general sense means unity or agreement of feeling or action, especially among individuals with a common interest; or mutual support within a group. There are different ways of standing in solidarity in different kinds of literatures. One of the most important ways is to advocate. Advocacy is a win-win strategy and a process of supporting and enabling people to express their views and concerns. In the end, I think sharing different types of solidarity can be one of the drivers that stimulate the solidarity itself, and I call on everyone to contribute to this sharing. I hope that this solidarity, which began in the world with the beginning of COVID-19, will not end with its end and will last forever because our world needs coexistence. This may be the only gift to the world from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Justiça Social , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/ética , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Justiça Social/ética , Justiça Social/tendências , Responsabilidade Social
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962172

RESUMO

With the development of the Internet, social networking sites have empowered the public to directly express their views about social issues and hence contribute to social change. As a new type of voice behavior, public voice on social media has aroused wide concern among scholars. However, why public voice is expressed and how it influences social development and betterment in times of public health emergencies remains unstudied. A key point is whether governments can take effective countermeasures when faced with public health emergencies. In such situation, public voice is of great significance in the formulation and implementation of coping policies. This qualitive study uses China's Health Code policy under COVID-19 to explore why the public performs voice behavior on social media and how this influences policy evolution and product innovation through cooperative governance. A stimulus-cognition-emotion-behavior model is established to explain public voice, indicating that it is influenced by cognitive processes and public emotions under policy stimulus. What is more, as a form of public participation in cooperative governance, public voice plays a significant role in promoting policy evolution and product innovation, and represents a useful form of cooperation with governments and enterprises to jointly maintain social stability under public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Betacoronavirus , China , Comportamento Cooperativo , Emergências , Política de Saúde , Humanos
16.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es11, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870086

RESUMO

Recent calls in biology education research (BER) have recommended that researchers leverage learning theories and methodologies from other disciplines to investigate the mechanisms by which students to develop sophisticated ideas. We suggest design-based research from the learning sciences is a compelling methodology for achieving this aim. Design-based research investigates the "learning ecologies" that move student thinking toward mastery. These "learning ecologies" are grounded in theories of learning, produce measurable changes in student learning, generate design principles that guide the development of instructional tools, and are enacted using extended, iterative teaching experiments. In this essay, we introduce readers to the key elements of design-based research, using our own research into student learning in undergraduate physiology as an example of design-based research in BER. Then, we discuss how design-based research can extend work already done in BER and foster interdisciplinary collaborations among cognitive and learning scientists, biology education researchers, and instructors. We also explore some of the challenges associated with this methodological approach.


Assuntos
Biologia/educação , Pesquisa/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Fisiologia/educação , Estudantes
18.
Trials ; 21(1): 815, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993804

RESUMO

An unprecedented volume of research has been generated in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are risks of inefficient duplication and of important work being impeded if efforts are not synchronized. Excessive reliance on observational studies, which can be more rapidly conducted but are inevitably subject to measured and unmeasured confounders, can foil efforts to conduct rigorous randomized trials. These challenges are illustrated by recent global efforts to conduct clinical trials of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as a strategy for preventing COVID-19. Innovative strategies are needed to help overcome these issues, including increasing communication between the Data Safety and Monitoring Committees (DSMCs) of similar trials. It is important to reinforce the primacy of high-quality trials in generating unbiased answers to pressing prevention and treatment questions about COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784648

RESUMO

The globally fast-spreading novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is now testing the abilities of all countries to manage its widespread implications on public health. To effectively contain its impacts, a nation-wide temporary lockdown was enforced in India. The resultant panic buying and stockpiling incidents together with spread of misinformation created a sense of food insecurity at local level. This paper discusses a specific case of Nagpur from the worst affected Maharashtra state of India, wherein the urban-rural food supply chains were reportedly disrupted. Based on formal interviews with local government officials, a month-long timeline of COVID-19 outbreak in Nagpur was studied along with the consequent government initiatives for maintaining public health and food supply. While the city residents were confined to their homes, this study then assessed their perceived food security at household level, along with their "Immediate Concerns" and "Key Information Sources". Through online surveys at two different time intervals, the concerns of "Food and Grocery" were found to be rising, and "Government Apps and Websites" were identified as the most reliable source of information. Based on the research findings, the authors further suggest specific policy recommendations for addressing the immediate and long-term concerns related to food systems in Nagpur.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Coronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias , Pânico , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 27(3)2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830110

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We present the integration of telemedicine into the healthcare system of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (WCH), one of the largest hospitals in the world with 4300 inpatient beds, as a means for maximising the efficiency of healthcare delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Implemented on 22 January 2020, the telemedicine technology allowed WCH providers to conduct teleconsultations, telerounds, teleradiology and tele-intensive care unit, which in culmination provided screening, triage and treatment for COVID-19 and other illnesses. To encourage its adoption, the government and the hospital publicised the platform on social media and waived fees. DISCUSSION: From 1 February to 1 April 2020, 10557 online COVID-19 consultations were conducted for 6662 individuals; meanwhile, 32676 patients without COVID completed virtual follow-ups. We discuss that high-quality, secure, affordable and user-friendly telemedical platforms should be integrated into global healthcare systems to help decrease the transmission of the virus and protect healthcare providers from infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , China , Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Triagem/organização & administração
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