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2.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252108

RESUMO

As of March 30 2021, over 5,193 COVID-19 clinical trials have been registered through Clinicaltrial.gov. Among them, 191 trials were terminated, suspended, or withdrawn (indicating the cessation of the study). On the other hand, 909 trials have been completed (indicating the completion of the study). In this study, we propose to study underlying factors of COVID-19 trial completion vs. cessation, and design predictive models to accurately predict whether a COVID-19 trial may complete or cease in the future. We collect 4,441 COVID-19 trials from ClinicalTrial.gov to build a testbed, and design four types of features to characterize clinical trial administration, eligibility, study information, criteria, drug types, study keywords, as well as embedding features commonly used in the state-of-the-art machine learning. Our study shows that drug features and study keywords are most informative features, but all four types of features are essential for accurate trial prediction. By using predictive models, our approach achieves more than 0.87 AUC (Area Under the Curve) score and 0.81 balanced accuracy to correctly predict COVID-19 clinical trial completion vs. cessation. Our research shows that computational methods can deliver effective features to understand difference between completed vs. ceased COVID-19 trials. In addition, such models can also predict COVID-19 trial status with satisfactory accuracy, and help stakeholders better plan trials and minimize costs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/virologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Indústria Farmacêutica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Placebos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Estados Unidos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204475

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system mainly of adults ranging from 20 to 45 years of age. The risk of developing MS is 50% higher in women than in men. Most people with MS (PwMS) experience a spectrum of symptoms such as spasticity, continence dysfunctions, fatigue, or neurobehavioral manifestations. Due to the complexity of MS and the variety of patient-centered needs, a comprehensive approach of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) of multiple health care professionals (HCP) is necessary. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of IPC in the comprehensive care of PwMS from a HCP perspective. Focus groups (FG) with HCP were conducted, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. The sample contained HCP from three MS clinics in different phases of care and rehabilitation. Four main categories emerged: (a) experience with IPC, (b) relevant aspects for IPC in patients' treatment, (c) differences in in- and outpatient settings, and (d) influence of patient perspective. IPC plays a crucial role in HCP perspective when treating PwMS, which can benefit from an IPC therapeutic approach because HCP work together in a patient-centered way. The inpatient setting of HCP strongly supports the implementation of IPC. This prerequisite does not exist in outpatient settings.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Suíça
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300387

RESUMO

This paper proposes a new haptic shared control concept between the human driver and the automation for lane keeping in semi-autonomous vehicles. Based on the principle of human-machine interaction during lane keeping, the level of cooperativeness for completion of driving task is introduced. Using the proposed human-machine cooperative status along with the driver workload, the required level of haptic authority is determined according to the driver's performance characteristics. Then, a time-varying assistance factor is developed to modulate the assistance torque, which is designed from an integrated driver-in-the-loop vehicle model taking into account the yaw-slip dynamics, the steering dynamics, and the human driver dynamics. To deal with the time-varying nature of both the assistance factor and the vehicle speed involved in the driver-in-the-loop vehicle model, a new ℓ∞ linear parameter varying control technique is proposed. The predefined specifications of the driver-vehicle system are guaranteed using Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed haptic shared control method is validated under various driving tests conducted with high-fidelity simulations. Extensive performance evaluations are performed to highlight the effectiveness of the new method in terms of driver-automation conflict management.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Automação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Torque , Carga de Trabalho
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199519

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical care necessitates significant efforts from patients, informal caregivers, the interprofessional team of health care professionals and health care system administrators. Collaboration, mutual respect and agreement amongst all stakeholders regarding responsibilities throughout the complex process of pharmaceutical care is needed before patients can take full advantage of modern medicine. Based on the literature and policy documents, in this position paper, we reflect on opportunities for integrated evidence-based pharmaceutical care to improve care quality and patient outcomes from a nursing perspective. Despite the consensus that interprofessional collaboration is essential, in clinical practice, research, education and policy-making challenges are often not addressed interprofessionally. This paper concludes with specific advises to move towards the implementation of more interprofessional, evidence-based pharmaceutical care.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Farmacêutica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Assistência ao Paciente , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
6.
Turk Neurosurg ; 31(4): 481-483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270082

RESUMO

In the past decade or perhaps a little earlier than that the concept of teamwork evolved among the circles of surgeons especially among those involved in complicated and time consuming surgeries. Skull base surgeries were one of those surgeries where the role of teamwork was acutely felt owing to innumerable specialties involved in the consummation of such surgeries. Although teamwork in this specialty is the need of the hour but, achieving the spirit of teamwork is not that easy and perhaps a challenging task. This manuscript tackles the much needed demand of teamwork in this arena of surgery and unveils whether such a teamwork is achievable or is just an utopian dream.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Estudos de Viabilidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Utopias
7.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(6): 309-316, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing interprofessional education (IPE) is mandated by accrediting agencies for health professions education; however, pedagogical, logistical, and financial challenges exist in implementing and sustaining high-quality IPE. After executing several IPE activities, an IPE team developed a structured approach for organizing, sustaining, and ensuring high-quality IPE. This article introduces the Design-Implement-Assess-Modify (DIAM) Model. A portfolio spreadsheet was developed and includes components from each of the DIAM phases. METHOD: The team documented characteristics from five IPE activities conducted annually for 5 years and tracked progress. RESULTS: The DIAM approach has allowed the team to develop a detailed and living portfolio to design, implement, assess, and modify several IPE activities across different professions. CONCLUSION: This approach has led to the intentional planning and development of multiple IPE activities that include the integration of standards of best practice and accreditation, while preparing practitioners for collaborative practice. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(6):309-316.].


Assuntos
Educação Interprofissional , Acreditação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Educação em Enfermagem , Humanos , Educação Interprofissional/métodos , Relações Interprofissionais
8.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 24(1): 100729, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147197

RESUMO

Since the introduction of uterine artery embolization as a treatment option for symptomatic leiomyomas, there has been a growing interest in expanding the role of interventional radiology (IR) in the evaluation and treatment of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) patients. This review provides an overview of opportunities for collaboration between IR and OBGYN. This can include medically and/or surgically complex patients, efforts to reduce quantitative blood loss, obstetrical emergencies, and consideration of fertility or uterine preservation. Increased collaborative efforts between IR and OBGYN would allow for patients to be fully informed regarding the complete spectrum of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options available to them. The purpose of this review is to foster opportunities to improve outcomes and respect patient values.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista , Embolização da Artéria Uterina , Neoplasias Uterinas/terapia , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Leiomioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Leiomioma/patologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3567, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117236

RESUMO

Humans typically consider altruism a moral good and condition their social behavior on the moral reputations of others. Indirect reciprocity explains how social norms and reputations support cooperation: individuals cooperate with others who are considered good. Indirect reciprocity works when an institution monitors and publicly broadcasts moral reputations. Here we develop a theory of adherence to public monitoring in societies where individuals are, at first, independently responsible for evaluating the reputations of their peers. Using a mathematical model, we show that adherence to an institution of moral assessment can evolve and promote cooperation under four different social norms, including norms that previous studies found to perform poorly. We determine how an institution's size and its degree of tolerance towards anti-social behavior affect the rate of cooperation. Public monitoring serves to eliminate disagreements about reputations, which increases cooperation and payoffs, so that adherence evolves by social contagion and remains robust against displacement.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Altruísmo , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Evolução Social , Valores Sociais
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068044

RESUMO

Evidence is mounting regarding the positive effects of Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (IPECP) on healthcare outcomes. Despite this, IPECP is only in its infancy in several Australian rural healthcare settings. Whilst some rural healthcare teams have successfully adopted an interprofessional model of service delivery, information is scarce on the factors that have enabled or hindered such a transition. Using a combination of team surveys and individual semi-structured team member interviews, data were collected on the enablers of and barriers to IPECP implementation in rural health settings in one Australian state. Using thematic analysis, three themes were developed from the interview data: IPECP remains a black box; drivers at the system level; and the power of an individual to make or break IPECP. Several recommendations have been provided to inform teams transitioning from multi-disciplinary to interprofessional models of service delivery.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Austrália , Educação Interprofissional , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Saúde da População Rural
14.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 5): e20200910, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Description and discussion dimensions of Integrated Care Model. METHODS: A descriptive study is done that describe a technological innovation, intervention strategies for professional performance. RESULTS: Integrated Care Model (ICM) has two main categories include individual and Group-and disease-specific Model. First, is used for risky patients or with comorbidities. In second category; Chronic Care Model (CCM) is common form of Integrated Care Model to improve resultants in the patients with chronic condition, to move from acute care to integrate, regular, long-lasting, preventative and community-based nursing. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It is important to consider patient as an active member of the treatment team. It seems to be essential to monitor performance of care system. On the other hand, offer multidisciplinary care leads to present desirable care, tailored to the specific needs of patients regarding safety, patient-centered care and their culture.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência de Longa Duração , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Modelos de Enfermagem , Modelos Organizacionais , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração
15.
Nurse Educ Today ; 104: 104995, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126324

RESUMO

Working effectively with other disciplines has become an important competency as a graduate attribute in higher education institutions. Educational experiences should begin to foster the prerequisite competencies needed to collaborate successfully with other healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine how ready first year students are for interprofessional learning, and whether this readiness improves along the continuum of learning into their final year of undergraduate studies. First year undergraduate students from ten disciplines completed the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale prior to participating in a compulsory interprofessional module, and the results were compared with that of senior students who completed the same questionnaire. Results for the study show that there were significant differences between first and senior-year level students on the subscales of negative professional identity (0.02 < 0.05); positive professional identity (0.00 < 0.05); and teamwork and collaboration (0.00 < 0.05). There was no significant difference found on the subscale roles and responsibilities (0.54 > 0.05). The results clearly show that senior students are more ready for learning interprofessionally compared to first year students. It is recommended that a scaffolded approach to learning be adopted, to ensure that students attain competence in all Interprofessional Education (IPE) core competencies when reaching their final year of study. This type of curriculum, with its specific activities and assessment methods, should be packaged in the form of an IPE model to create a clear understanding of the type of health profession graduate that will be produced.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Universidades , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , África do Sul , Estudantes
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26184, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087883

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level of health care professionals, as well as the differences by sex, age, academic background, and among different health care professions.This is an cross-sectional study.Health care settings in the Valencian Community, Spain.A total of 647 health care professionals.Physical activity was assessed with the European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) that includes the assessment of work-related physical activity, transport-related physical activity, health-enhancing physical activity, muscle-strengthening physical activity, and total physical activity.93.51% of all health care professionals were physically active at work. Transport-related physical activity and health-enhancing physical activity were significantly lower in women (21.62% vs 41.86%, P < .001; and 50.19% vs 68.99%, P < .001, respectively). In addition, compliance with health-enhancing and muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelines were lower in older professionals (42.7% vs 61.84%, P < .001; and 47.57% vs 61.84%, P < .001, respectively). Those with higher education were more compliant with health-enhancing and muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelines (58.55% vs 45.69%, P = .002; and 60.24% vs 48.28%, P = .003, respectively). Moreover, 67.98% of physiotherapists performed health-enhancing physical activity and 67.54% muscle-strengthening physical activity regularly, and significant differences in all outcomes were observed compared to the rest of health care professionals (P < .05). Technicians showed lower work-related and total physical activity than nurses and nursing assistants (74.55% vs 90.37%, P = .002; and 83.64% vs 95.72%, P < .001, respectively). Additionally, nursing assistants showed higher work-related physical activity compared to nurses (97.18% vs 90.37%, P = .008).Most health care professionals showed an appropriate level of physical activity. Men performed more transport-related and health-enhancing physical activity than women. Younger professionals and those with higher education were more compliant with health-enhancing and muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelines. Physiotherapists were more physically active when compared to the rest of health care professionals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fisioterapeutas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Estudos Transversais , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 218: 103337, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091392

RESUMO

The Joint Simon Effect (JSE) is known to reflect the natural and spontaneous tendency to integrate actions from another individual into our own action system during joint action. This tendency to co-represent others' actions positively correlates with the dispositional tendency to take others' perspective. However, a quick episode of social exclusion has been shown to erase the tendency to co-represent others' actions. From a theoretical viewpoint, excluded individuals should still show signs of co-representation as ostracism tends to increase attention paid to others and Perspective Taking. In this context, this study challenges the idea that social exclusion eliminates all forms of co-representation (or JSE) by using an in-person version of the Task. We also intend to replicate findings on a positive link between Perspective Taking and the size of the JSE. To this end, participants played either an inclusive or exclusive version of the Cyberball game, then performed a joint go-nogo Simon Task. Perspective Taking was measured by using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. By contrast to previous results, our results revealed that excluded individuals co-represented others' actions as much as included ones. However, a positive correlation between Perspective Taking and the JSE was limited to included participants. We discuss these findings in terms of methodological differences and in the light of the social exclusion literature.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Isolamento Social , Atenção , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
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