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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2207436119, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939670

RESUMO

In scientific research, collaboration is one of the most effective ways to take advantage of new ideas, skills, and resources and for performing interdisciplinary research. Although collaboration networks have been intensively studied, the question of how individual scientists choose collaborators to study a new research topic remains almost unexplored. Here, we investigate the statistics and mechanisms of collaborations of individual scientists along their careers, revealing that, in general, collaborators are involved in significantly fewer topics than expected from a controlled surrogate. In particular, we find that highly productive scientists tend to have a higher fraction of single-topic collaborators, while highly cited-i.e., impactful-scientists have a higher fraction of multitopic collaborators. We also suggest a plausible mechanism for this distinction. Moreover, we investigate the cases where scientists involve existing collaborators in a new topic. We find that, compared to productive scientists, impactful scientists show strong preference of collaboration with high-impact scientists on a new topic. Finally, we validate our findings by investigating active scientists in different years and across different disciplines.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Médicos , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2120120119, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939706

RESUMO

Consider a cooperation game on a spatial network of habitat patches, where players can relocate between patches if they judge the local conditions to be unfavorable. In time, the relocation events may lead to a homogeneous state where all patches harbor the same relative densities of cooperators and defectors, or they may lead to self-organized patterns, where some patches become safe havens that maintain an elevated cooperator density. Here we analyze the transition between these states mathematically. We show that safe havens form once a certain threshold in connectivity is crossed. This threshold can be analytically linked to the structure of the patch network and specifically to certain network motifs. Surprisingly, a forgiving defector avoidance strategy may be most favorable for cooperators. Our results demonstrate that the analysis of cooperation games in ecological metacommunity models is mathematically tractable and has the potential to link topics such as macroecological patterns, behavioral evolution, and network topology.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo
3.
Exp Psychol ; 69(2): 83-103, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929473

RESUMO

The current study compared emotion perception in two cultures where display rules for emotion expression deviate. In Experiment 1, participants from America and Korea played a repeated prisoner's dilemma game with a counterpart, who was, in actuality, a programmed defector. Emotion expressions were exchanged via emoticons at the end of every round. After winning more points by defecting, the counterpart sent either a matching emoticon (a joyful face) or a mismatching emoticon (a regretful face). The results showed that Americans in the matching condition were more likely to defect, or to punish, compared to those in the mismatching condition, suggesting that more weight was given to their counterpart's joyful expression. This difference was smaller for Koreans, suggesting a higher disregard for the outward expression. In a second, supplementary experiment, we found that Korean participants were more likely to cooperate in the mismatching or regretful condition, when they thought their counterpart was a Westerner. Overall, our data suggest that emotion perception rules abide by the display rules of one's culture but are also influenced by the counterpart's culture.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Dilema do Prisioneiro , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(3): 273-278, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interprofessional disaster simulation exercises provide an opportunity for first responder students to learn about disaster response and recovery, to practice their roles and to learn to collaborate with other first responders. With the move to virtual education during the COVID-19 pandemic, a table-top disaster exercise is an alternative format to inperson exercises. To date, most disaster simulation exercises for students have focused on the roles of healthcare providers. As first responders play a critical role in disaster management, there is a need for interprofessional exercises that include students in first responder programs. METHODS: A table-top disaster simulation exercise was held with students from the police (n = 94) and firefighter (n = 30) programs at a large community college in Toronto, Canada, in February 2021. It was held virtually using the Zoom® platform, with college faculty as well as professionals from community partner sites. An evaluation survey that had open- and closed-ended items was administered to students following the event. RESULTS: Thirty-eight percent of the students participated in the survey, and the majority rated the event highly useful and reported that the exercise demonstrated the importance of interprofessional collaboration. Students' responses to the open-ended survey items yielded two themes: understanding roles and performing under duress. DISCUSSION: This evaluation demonstrates the value of using a simulated disaster exercise to teach first responder students about their role in disaster response and recovery, and the importance of interprofessional collaboration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desastres , Socorristas , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Pandemias , Estudantes
5.
Chaos ; 32(6): 063138, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778150

RESUMO

Public goods games are widely used to model social dilemmas involving multiple agents. Though defection is the only rational choice for an individual in a public goods game, cooperative behavior is observed in a variety of social dilemmas, which is the subject of our research. Punishing defectors has been shown to be an effective mechanism for promoting cooperation, but it relies on the third-party umpire being fair. In this article, an umpire intervention model with corruption is proposed to explore the impact of corruption on punishment mechanisms. In our model, players and umpires operate in a multilayer network. The players play public goods games, which are overseen by umpires. Fair umpires punish defectors, whereas corrupt umpires take bribes from defectors rather than meting out a punishment. We separately explore the effects of the fraction of fair umpires ρ, the spatial distribution, and the fine cost α and bribe cost ß. Our Monte Carlo simulation shows that the above factors have a significant impact on cooperation. Intervention by an umpire always improves social efficiency, even for an entirely corrupt system. Moreover, relatively developed systems can resist corruption. Staggered and centralized distributions always have opposite effects on cooperative behavior, and these effects depend on ρ and r. We also find that whether cooperators fully occupy the player layer depends only on whether ß reaches a certain threshold.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Simulação por Computador , Método de Monte Carlo , Punição
6.
Neurosci Lett ; 786: 136798, 2022 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843470

RESUMO

Stable synchronization with external auditory/visual events is important for cooperative behavior, such as playing music in an orchestra. One way to enhance synchronization in the auditory domain is by inserting different tones between tones to synchronize. Synchronized tapping for every other tone or more (1: n tapping) is less variable than that for each tone (1:1 tapping). This phenomenon is called the "subdivision benefit," which is interpreted as that additional temporal references by subdivided tones make synchronization more stable. However, it is unclear whether visuomotor synchronization becomes more stable by subdividing a stimulus sequence. To clarify this, the present study compared 1:3 tapping with a sequence of three-picture patterns and 1:1 tapping with a single picture repetition. When the inter-tap interval (ITI) was 1200 ms or more, the tapping variability showed a subdivision benefit, irrespective of the position of the pictures (1st, 2nd, or 3rd picture) in the three-picture pattern. However, when the ITI was <1000 ms, subdivision did not have any significant effect. These results imply that the subdivision benefit is due to the additional temporal reference provided by the subdivided stimuli, and the benefit depends on the ITI length.


Assuntos
Música , Desempenho Psicomotor , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Cafeína , Comportamento Cooperativo
7.
Sci Adv ; 8(30): eabo5553, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905190

RESUMO

Cooperation and communication likely coevolved in humans. However, the evolutionary roots of this interdependence remain unclear. We address this issue by investigating the role of vocal signals in facilitating a group cooperative behavior in an ape species: hunting in wild chimpanzees. First, we show that bark vocalizations produced before hunt initiation are reliable signals of behavioral motivation, with barkers being most likely to participate in the hunt. Next, we find that barks are associated with greater hunter recruitment and more effective hunting, with shorter latencies to hunting initiation and prey capture. Our results indicate that the coevolutionary relationship between vocal communication and group-level cooperation is not unique to humans in the ape lineage and is likely to have been present in our last common ancestor with chimpanzees.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Caça , Comportamento Predatório
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1859): 20210095, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876205

RESUMO

Joint commitment, the feeling of mutual obligation binding participants in a joint action, is typically conceptualized as arising by the expression and acceptance of a promise. This account limits the possibilities of investigating fledgling forms of joint commitment in actors linguistically less well-endowed than adult humans. The feeling of mutual obligation is one aspect of joint commitment (the product), which emerges from a process of signal exchange. It is gradual rather than binary; feelings of mutual obligation can vary in strength according to how explicit commitments are perceived to be. Joint commitment processes are more complex than simple promising, in at least three ways. They are affected by prior joint actions, which create precedents and conventions that can be embodied in material arrangements of institutions. Joint commitment processes also arise as solutions to generic coordination problems related to opening up, maintaining and closing down joint actions. Finally, during joint actions, additional, specific commitments are made piecemeal. These stack up over time and persist, making it difficult for participants to disengage from joint actions. These complexifications open up new perspectives for assessing joint commitment across species. This article is part of the theme issue 'Revisiting the human 'interaction engine': comparative approaches to social action coordination'.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Emoções , Adulto , Humanos , Eventos de Massa
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12730, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882900

RESUMO

Understanding the psychological causes of variation in climate change belief and pro-environmental behaviour remains an urgent challenge for the social sciences. The "cooperative phenotype" is a stable psychological preference for cooperating in social dilemmas that involve a tension between individual and collective interest. Since climate change poses a social dilemma on a global scale, this issue may evoke similar psychological processes as smaller social dilemmas. Here, we investigate the relationships between the cooperative phenotype and climate change belief and behaviour with a representative sample of New Zealanders (N = 897). By linking behaviour in a suite of economic games to self-reported climate attitudes, we show robust positive associations between the cooperative phenotype and both climate change belief and pro-environmental behaviour. Furthermore, our structural equation models support a motivated reasoning account in which the relationship between the cooperative phenotype and pro-environmental behaviour is mediated by climate change belief. These findings suggest that common psychological mechanisms underlie cooperation in both micro-scale social dilemmas and larger-scale social dilemmas like climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Comportamento Cooperativo , Atitude , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Fenótipo
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 570, 2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional collaboration is key to improving the health of individuals and communities. It is supported by provision of Interprofessional education (IPE) which has recently emerged in the Middle East region. This study investigated changes in healthcare students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after undertaking the Interprofessional Education and Collaboration (IPEC) course. METHODS: A paper-based anonymous survey using the Interprofessional Attitude Scale (IPAS) was administered to a sample of 346 health students (nursing, medicine, and public health) pre/post undertaking the IPEC course. Less than half of the students provided a post response, with pre/post survey results of 111 pairs subsequently matched and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed elevated pre-course scores, an improvement in students' attitudes towards the interprofessional biases domain of the IPAS, and a slight decline in their scores in the remaining 4 domains (team roles and responsibilities, patient centeredness, community centeredness, and diversity and ethics). These changes were not statistically significant, except for the patient centeredness domain (p = 0.003**). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided important results about attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration. These findings are essential because our institution is one of few in Lebanon that provides this mandatory course to a large group of health professionals. Future studies should investigate these changes in attitude scores in a larger sample size, and how these attitudes would influence collaboration post-graduation.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Educação Interprofissional , Líbano , Estudantes
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1859): 20210098, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876206

RESUMO

To understand the primate origins of the human interaction engine, it is worthwhile to focus not only on great apes but also on callitrichid monkeys (marmosets and tamarins). Like humans, but unlike great apes, callitrichids are cooperative breeders, and thus habitually engage in coordinated joint actions, for instance when an infant is handed over from one group member to another. We first explore the hypothesis that these habitual cooperative interactions, the marmoset interactional ethology, are supported by the same key elements as found in the human interaction engine: mutual gaze (during joint action), turn-taking, volubility, as well as group-wide prosociality and trust. Marmosets show clear evidence of these features. We next examine the prediction that, if such an interaction engine can indeed give rise to more flexible communication, callitrichids may also possess elaborate communicative skills. A review of marmoset vocal communication confirms unusual abilities in these small primates: high volubility and large vocal repertoires, vocal learning and babbling in immatures, and voluntary usage and control. We end by discussing how the adoption of cooperative breeding during human evolution may have catalysed language evolution by adding these convergent consequences to the great ape-like cognitive system of our hominin ancestors. This article is part of the theme issue 'Revisiting the human 'interaction engine': comparative approaches to social action coordination'.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Comportamento Cooperativo , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Comunicação , Humanos , Idioma , Vocalização Animal
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271164, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819966

RESUMO

Shaping one owns actions by observing others' actions is driven by the deep-rooted mechanism of perception-action coupling. It typically occurs automatically, expressed as for example the unintentional synchronization of reaction times in interactive games. Theories on perception-action coupling highlight its benefits such as the joint coordination of actions to cooperatively perform tasks properly, the learning of novel actions from others, and the bonding with likable others. However, such functional aspects and how they shape perception-action coupling have never been compared quantitatively. Here we tested a total of hundred-fifteen participants that played a stimulus-response task while, in parallel, they observed videos of agents that played the exact same task several milliseconds in advance. We compared to what degree the reaction times of actions of agents, who varied their behavior in terms of functionality and likability in preceding prisoner dilemma games and quizzes, shape the reaction times of human test participants. To manipulate functionality and likability, we varied the predictability of cooperative behavior and correctness of actions of agents, respectively, resulting in likable (cooperative), dislikable (uncooperative), functional (correct actions), and dysfunctional (incorrect actions) agents. The results of three experiments showed that the participants' reaction times correlated most with the reaction times of agents that expressed functional behavior. However, the likability of agents had no effects on reaction time correlations. These findings suggest that, at least in the current computer task, participants are more likely to adopt the timing of actions from people that perform correct actions than from people that they like.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Desempenho Psicomotor , Computadores , Humanos , Dilema do Prisioneiro , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e133, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875945

RESUMO

The target article interprets women's lower competitiveness than men's as evidence of adaptation to help women avoid physical conflicts and stay alive. This commentary advances the additional hypothesis that strategically suppressing competitiveness, thus signaling egalitarian intentions, could be an adaptation to catalyze cooperative behavior from males and females, turning natural competitors (other women) into allies and men into supportive partners.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Intenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Math Biol ; 85(2): 12, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864421

RESUMO

In many biological systems, natural selection acts simultaneously on multiple levels of organization. This scenario typically presents an evolutionary conflict between the incentive of individuals to cheat and the collective incentive to establish cooperation within a group. Generalizing previous work on multilevel selection in evolutionary game theory, we consider a hyperbolic PDE model of a group-structured population, in which members within a single group compete with each other for individual-level replication; while the group also competes against other groups for group-level replication. We derive a threshold level of the relative strength of between-group competition such that defectors take over the population below the threshold while cooperation persists in the long-time population above the threshold. Under stronger assumptions on the initial distribution of group compositions, we further prove that the population converges to a steady state density supporting cooperation for between-group selection strength above the threshold. We further establish long-time bounds on the time-average of the collective payoff of the population, showing that the long-run population cannot outperform the payoff of a full-cooperator group even in the limit of infinitely-strong between-group competition. When the group replication rate is maximized by an intermediate level of within-group cooperation, individual-level selection casts a long shadow on the dynamics of multilevel selection: no level of between-group competition can erase the effects of the individual incentive to defect. We further extend our model to study the case of multiple types of groups, showing how the games that groups play can coevolve with the level of cooperation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Teoria do Jogo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Seleção Genética
17.
Cell ; 185(15): 2609-2610, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868261
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12320, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853937

RESUMO

Cooperative behaviour can evolve through conditional strategies that direct cooperation towards interaction partners who have themselves been cooperative in the past. Such strategies are common in human cooperation, but they can be vulnerable to manipulation: individuals may try to exaggerate their past cooperation to elicit reciprocal contributions or improve their reputation for future gains. Little is known about the prevalence and the ramifications of misrepresentation in human cooperation, neither in general nor about its cultural facets (self-sacrifice for the group is valued differently across cultures). Here, we present a large-scale interactive decision making experiment (N = 870), performed in China and the USA, in which individuals had repeated cooperative interactions in groups. Our results show that (1) most individuals from both cultures overstate their contributions to the group if given the opportunity, (2) misrepresentation of cooperation is detrimental to cooperation in future interactions, and (3) the possibility to build up a personal reputation amplifies the effects of misrepresentation on cooperation in China, but not in the USA. Our results suggest that misrepresentation of cooperation is likely to be an important factor in (the evolution of) human social behaviour, with, depending on culture, diverging impacts on cooperation outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento Social , China , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(29): e2111233119, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858311

RESUMO

Organisms often cooperate through the production of freely available public goods. This can greatly benefit the group but is vulnerable to the "tragedy of the commons" if individuals lack the motivation to make the necessary investment into public goods production. Relatedness to groupmates can motivate individual investment because group success ultimately benefits their genes' own self-interests. However, systems often lack mechanisms that can reliably ensure that relatedness is high enough to promote cooperation. Consequently, groups face a persistent threat from the tragedy unless they have a mechanism to enforce investment when relatedness fails to provide adequate motivation. To understand the real threat posed by the tragedy and whether groups can avert its impact, we determine how the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum responds as relatedness decreases to levels that should induce the tragedy. We find that, while investment in public goods declines as overall within-group relatedness declines, groups avert the expected catastrophic collapse of the commons by continuing to invest, even when relatedness should be too low to incentivize any contribution. We show that this is due to a developmental buffering system that generates enforcement because insufficient cooperation perturbs the balance of a negative feedback system controlling multicellular development. This developmental constraint enforces investment under the conditions expected to be most tragic, allowing groups to avert a collapse in cooperation. These results help explain how mechanisms that suppress selfishness and enforce cooperation can arise inadvertently as a by-product of constraints imposed by selection on different traits.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Dictyostelium , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Motivação
20.
Chaos ; 32(7): 073118, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907736

RESUMO

In the evolution of cooperation, the individuals' payoffs are commonly random in real situations, e.g., the social networks and the economic regions, leading to unpredictable factors. Therefore, there are chances for each individual to obtain the exceeding payoff and risks to get the low payoff. In this paper, we consider that each individual's payoff follows a specific probability distribution with a fixed expectation, where the normal distribution and the exponential distribution are employed in our model. In the simulations, we perform the models on the weak prisoner's dilemmas (WPDs) and the snowdrift games (SDGs), and four types of networks, including the hexagon lattice, the square lattice, the small-world network, and the triangular lattice are considered. For the individuals' normally distributed payoff, we find that the higher standard deviation usually inhibits the cooperation for the WPDs but promotes the cooperation for the SDGs. Besides, with a higher standard deviation, the cooperation clusters are usually split for the WPDs but constructed for the SDGs. For the individuals' exponentially distributed payoff, we find that the small-world network provides the best condition for the emergence of cooperators in WPDs and SDGs. However, when playing SDGs, the small-world network allows the smallest space for the pure cooperative state while the hexagon lattice allows the largest.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Distribuição Normal , Dilema do Prisioneiro , Rede Social
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