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1.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 22: 22808000241245298, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733215

RESUMO

In the current study, Cnicus benedictus extract was loaded into electrospun gelatin scaffolds for diabetic wound healing applications. Scaffolds were characterized in vitro by mechanical testing, cell culture assays, electron microscopy, cell migration assay, and antibacterial assay. In vivo wound healing study was performed in a rat model of diabetic wound. In vitro studies revealed fibrous architecture of our developed dressings and their anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, Cnicus benedictus extract-loaded wound dressings prevented bacterial penetration. In vivo study showed that wound size reduction, collagen deposition, and epithelial thickness were significantly greater in Cnicus benedictus extract-loaded scaffolds than other groups. Gene expression studies showed that the produced wound dressings significantly upregulated VEGF and IGF genes expression in diabetic wounds.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Gelatina , Cicatrização , Animais , Gelatina/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Humanos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Alicerces Teciduais/química
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1388361, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745946

RESUMO

Introduction: The pathogenesis of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM) is complex and multifactorial and it resembles that of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). One risk factor specific to PTDM differentiates both entities: the use of immunosuppressive therapy. Specifically, Tacrolimus interacts with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in accelerating the onset of PTDM. In a genotypic model of IR, the obese Zucker rats, Tacrolimus is highly diabetogenic by promoting the same changes in beta-cell already modified by IR. Nevertheless, genotypic animal models have their limitations and may not resemble the real pathophysiology of diabetes. In this study, we have evaluated the interaction between beta-cell damage and Tacrolimus in a non-genotypic animal model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat enriched diet during 45 days to induce obesity and metabolic dysregulation. On top of this established obesity, the administration of Tacrolimus (1mg/kg/day) during 15 days induced severe hyperglycaemia and changes in morphological and structural characteristics of the pancreas. Results: Obese animals administered with Tacrolimus showed increased size of islets of Langerhans and reduced beta-cell proliferation without changes in apoptosis. There were also changes in beta-cell nuclear factors such as a decrease in nuclear expression of MafA and a nuclear overexpression of FoxO1A, PDX-1 and NeuroD1. These animals also showed increased levels of pancreatic insulin and glucagon. Discussion: This model could be evidence of the relationship between the T2DM and PTDM physiopathology and, eventually, the model may be instrumental to study the pathogenesis of T2DM.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tacrolimo , Animais , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Masculino , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10855, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740782

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can compromise the functioning of various organs, including the salivary glands (SG). The purinergic system is one of the most important inflammatory pathways in T2DM condition, and P2X7R and P2X4R are the primary purinergic receptors in SG that regulate inflammatory homeostasis. This study aimed to evaluate P2X7R and P2X4R expression, and morphological changes in the submandibular gland (SMG) in T2DM. Twenty-four 5-week-old mice were randomly assigned to control (CON) and diabetes mellitus (DM) groups (n = 12 each). Body weight, diet, and blood glucose levels were monitored weekly. The histomorphology of the SMG and the expression of the P2X7R, and P2X7R was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) at 11 and 13 weeks of age. Our findings indicate a significant increase in food consumption, body weight, and blood glucose levels in the DM group. Although a significant increase in P2X7R and P2X4R expression was observed in the DM groups, the receptor location remained unchanged. We also observed a significant increase in the acinar area in the DM13w group, and a significant decrease in the ductal area in the DM11w and DM13w groups. Targeting purinergic receptors may offer novel therapeutic methods for diabetic complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4 , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7 , Glândula Submandibular , Animais , Glândula Submandibular/metabolismo , Glândula Submandibular/patologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Camundongos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Estreptozocina , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
FASEB J ; 38(9): e23638, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713098

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with ocular inflammation leading to retinal barrier breakdown, vascular leakage, macular edema, and vision loss. DR is not only a microvascular disease but also involves retinal neurodegeneration, demonstrating that pathological changes associated with neuroinflammation precede microvascular injury in early DR. Macrophage activation plays a central role in neuroinflammation. During DR, the inflammatory response depends on the polarization of retinal macrophages, triggering pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) activity. This study aimed to determine the role of macrophages in vascular leakage through the tight junction complexes of retinal pigment epithelium, which is the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether interleukin-10 (IL-10), a representative M2-inducer, can decrease inflammatory macrophages and alleviate outer-BRB disruption. We found that modulation of macrophage polarization affects the structural and functional integrity of ARPE-19 cells in a co-culture system under high-glucose conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intravitreal IL-10 injection induces an increase in the ratio of anti-inflammatory macrophages and effectively suppresses outer-BRB disruption and vascular leakage in a mouse model of early-stage streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Our results suggest that modulation of macrophage polarization by IL-10 administration during early-stage DR has a promising protective effect against outer-BRB disruption and vascular leakage. This finding provides valuable insights for early intervention in DR.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematorretiniana , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Retinopatia Diabética , Interleucina-10 , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Animais , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Barreira Hematorretiniana/metabolismo , Barreira Hematorretiniana/patologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Camundongos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Masculino , Humanos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 219: 76-87, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604315

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a highly hazardous and widespread complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in DR development. The aim of this research was to examine the impact and mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEV) on regulating ROS and retinal damage in DR. Intravitreal injection of sEV inhibited Cullin3 neddylation, stabilized Nrf2, decreased ROS, reduced retinal inflammation, suppressed Müller gliosis, and mitigated DR. Based on MSC-sEV miRNA sequencing, bioinformatics software, and dual-luciferase reporter assay, miR-143-3p was identified to be the key effector for MSC-sEV's role in regulating neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8)-mediated neddylation. sEV were able to be internalized by Müller cells. Compared to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)-induced Müller cells, sEV coculture decreased Cullin3 neddylation, activated Nrf2 signal pathway to combat ROS-induced inflammation. The barrier function of endothelial cells was impaired when endothelial cells were treated with the supernatant of AGEs-induced Müller cells, but was restored when treated with supernatant of AGEs-induced Müller cells cocultured with sEV. The protective effect of sEV was, however, compromised when miR-143-3p was inhibited in sEV. Moreover, the protective efficacy of sEV was diminished when NEDD8 was overexpressed in Müller cells. These findings showed MSC-sEV delivered miR-143-3p to inhibit Cullin3 neddylation, stabilizing Nrf2 to counteract ROS-induced inflammation and reducing vascular leakage. Our findings suggest that MSC-sEV may be a potential nanotherapeutic agent for DR, and that Cullin3 neddylation could be a new target for DR therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Culina , Retinopatia Diabética , Vesículas Extracelulares , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , MicroRNAs , Proteína NEDD8 , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Proteínas Culina/genética , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína NEDD8/metabolismo , Proteína NEDD8/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 715: 149996, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678781

RESUMO

Diabetes is linked to male infertility, but the mechanisms and therapeutic options remain unclear. This study investigates the effects of semaglutide on testicular function in a diabetes mouse model. Clinical data shows that diabetes affects blood glucose, lipid levels, and sperm quality. Single-cell and transcriptome analyses reveal changes in testicular tissue cell proportions and activation of ferroptosis pathways in diabetic patients/rats. In the diabetes mouse model, sperm quality decreases significantly. Treatment with semaglutide (Sem) and the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) alleviates testicular damage, as evidenced by improved lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis markers. Moreover, the diabetes-induced decrease in the TM-3 cell line's vitality, increased lipid peroxidation, ROS, ferrous ions, and mitochondrial membrane potential damage are all improved by semaglutide and ferrostatin-1 intervention. Overall, these findings highlight semaglutide's potential as a therapeutic approach for mitigating diabetes-induced testicular damage through modulation of the ferroptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Testículo , Masculino , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 140, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic vascular remodeling is the most important pathological basis of diabetic cardiovascular complications. The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) caused by elevated blood glucose promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), leading to arterial wall thickening and ultimately vascular remodeling. Therefore, the excessive proliferation and migration of VSMCs is considered as an important therapeutic target for vascular remodeling in diabetes mellitus. However, due to the lack of breakthrough in experiments, there is currently no effective treatment for the excessive proliferation and migration of VSMCs in diabetic patients. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a multifunctional protein highly expressed in skeletal muscle and myocardium. Previous research has confirmed that BAG3 can not only regulate cell survival and apoptosis, but also affect cell proliferation and migration. Since the excessive proliferation and migration of VSMCs is an important pathogenesis of vascular remodeling in diabetes, the role of BAG3 in the excessive proliferation and migration of VSMCs and its molecular mechanism deserve further investigation. METHODS: In this study, BAG3 gene was manipulated in smooth muscle to acquire SM22αCre; BAG3FL/FL mice and streptozotocin (STZ) was used to simulate diabetes. Expression of proteins and aortic thickness of mice were detected by immunofluorescence, ultrasound and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Using human aorta smooth muscle cell line (HASMC), cell viability was measured by CCK-8 and proliferation was measured by colony formation experiment. Migration was detected by transwell, scratch experiments and Phalloidin staining. Western Blot was used to detect protein expression and Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) was used to detect protein interaction. RESULTS: In diabetic vascular remodeling, AGEs could promote the interaction between BAG3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), leading to the enhanced interaction between STAT3 and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and reduced interaction between STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), resulting in accumulated p-STAT3(705) and reduced p-STAT3(727). Subsequently, the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) is upregulated, thus promoting the migration of VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: BAG3 upregulates the expression of MMP2 by increasing p-STAT3(705) and decreasing p-STAT3(727) levels, thereby promoting vascular remodeling in diabetes. This provides a new orientation for the prevention and treatment of diabetic vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Músculo Liso Vascular , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Transdução de Sinais , Remodelação Vascular , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Animais , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Masculino , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos Knockout , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2803: 75-86, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676886

RESUMO

Mitochondria within a cardiomyocyte form a highly dynamic network that undergoes fusion and fission events in response to acute and chronic stressors, such as hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Changes in mitochondrial architecture and morphology not only reflect their capacity for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis but also impact their subcellular localization and interaction with other organelles. The role of these ultrastructural abnormalities in modulating electrophysiological properties and excitation-contraction coupling remains largely unknown and warrants direct investigation considering the growing appreciation of the functional and structural coupling between the mitochondrial network, the calcium cycling machinery, and sarcolemmal ion channels in the cardiac myocyte. In this Methods in Molecular Biology chapter, we provide a protocol that allows for a quantitative assessment of mitochondrial shape and morphology in control and diabetic hearts that had undergone detailed electrophysiological measurements using high resolution optical action potential (AP) mapping.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas , Miócitos Cardíacos , Animais , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/ultraestrutura , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Ratos , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673892

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle plays a critical role in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Muscle atrophy, characterized by a decrease in muscle mass and function, occurs due to an imbalance between the rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms that lead to muscle atrophy in obese and T2DM mouse models. Additionally, the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the protein synthesis and degradation pathways was examined. Male mice were divided into three groups: a control group that was fed a standard chow diet, and two experimental groups that were fed a Western diet. After 8 weeks, the diabetic group was injected with streptozotocin to induce T2DM. Each group was then further divided into NGF-treated or non-treated control group. In the gastrocnemius muscles of the Western diet group, increased expressions of myostatin, autophagy markers, and ubiquitin ligases were observed. Skeletal muscle tissue morphology indicated signs of muscle atrophy in both obese and diabetic mice. The NGF-treated group showed a prominent decrease in the protein levels of myostatin and autophagy markers. Furthermore, the NGF-treated group showed an increased Cyclin D1 level. Western diet-induced obesity and T2DM may be linked to muscle atrophy through upregulation of myostatin and subsequent increase in the ubiquitin and autophagy systems. Moreover, NGF treatment may improve muscle protein synthesis and cell cycling.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Músculo Esquelético , Atrofia Muscular , Fator de Crescimento Neural , Obesidade , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Miostatina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664033

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of salvia miltiorrhiza combined with roxadustat on wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in diabetic rats and its mechanism. Methods: This study was an experimental study. Twenty male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used to successfully establish diabetic model, then full-thickness skin defect wounds on their backs were made. The rats were divided into normal saline group, roxadustat alone group, salvia miltiorrhiza alone group, and roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group according to the random number table, with 5 rats in each group. Immediately after injury, the rats in normal saline group were given 5 mL normal saline by gavage, the rats in roxadustat alone group were given 1.5 mg/mL roxadustat suspension by gavage at 25 mg/kg, the rats in salvia miltiorrhiza alone group were given 18 mg/mL salvia miltiorrhiza suspension by gavage at 300 mg/kg, and the rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were given 19.5 mg/mL roxadustat and salvia miltiorrhiza suspension at roxadustat 25 mg/kg and salvia miltiorrhiza 300 mg/kg. All were administered once a day for 2 weeks. The wounds at 0 (immediately), 4, 8, and 12 d after injury were observed, and the wound healing rates at 4, 8, and 12 d after injury were calculated (n=5). At 14 d after injury, abdominal aortic blood was collected, and hemoglobin, red cell count, and white blood cell count were detected (n=5). The wound tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin staining to observe inflammatory infiltration, skin tissue structure, and neovascularization, for Masson staining to observe the proportion of collagen fiber (n=3), for Western blotting to detect the protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and IL-1ß (n=3), and for immunohistochemical staining to determine the protein expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), with sample number of 3. Results: From 0 to 12 d after injury, the wound areas of rats in 4 groups were gradually decreased. At 4 d after injury, the wound healing rates of rats in salvia miltiorrhiza alone group and roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were significantly higher than those in normal saline group and roxadustat alone group (P<0.05). At 8 d after injury, the wound healing rates of rats in roxadustat alone group and salvia miltiorrhiza alone group were significantly higher than the rate in normal saline group (P<0.05), and the wound healing rate of rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group was significantly higher than the rates in the other 3 groups (with P values all <0.05). At 12 d after injury, the wound healing rates of rats in roxadustat alone group, salvia miltiorrhiza alone group, and roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were significantly higher than the rate in normal saline group (P<0.05). At 14 d after injury, there were no statistically significant differences in the hemoglobin or red blood cell count of rats in 4 groups (P<0.05). The white blood cell count of rats in roxadustat alone group, salvia miltiorrhiza alone group, and roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were respectively (24.3±1.2)×109/L, (26.3±2.4)×109/L, and (15.0±0.7)×109/L, which were significantly lower than (33.8±2.7)×109/L in normal saline group (P<0.05); the white blood cell count of rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group was significantly lower than that in roxadustat alone group and salvia miltiorrhiza alone group (with P values both <0.05). At 14 d after injury, a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration, disordered skin tissue structure, and few new blood vessels were observed in the wounds of rats in normal saline group; while a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration, tight skin tissue structure, and rich neovascularization were observed in the wounds of rats in the other 3 groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of collagen fiber of wounds in rats among the 4 groups (P>0.05). At 14 d after injury, the protein expression levels of VEGF and CD31 in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat alone group, salvia miltiorrhiza alone group, and roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were significantly higher than those in normal saline group (P<0.05), the protein expression level of CD31 in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group was significantly higher than the levels in roxadustat alone group and salvia miltiorrhiza alone group (with P values both <0.05). At 14 d after injury, the protein expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat alone group, salvia miltiorrhiza alone group, and roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were significantly lower than those in normal saline group (P<0.05); the protein expression levels of IL-6 and IL-1ß in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were significantly lower than those in roxadustat alone group and salvia miltiorrhiza alone group (P<0.05); the protein expression level of TNF-α in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group was significantly lower than that in salvia miltiorrhiza alone group (P<0.05). At 14 d after injury, the protein expression level of EGFR in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group was significantly higher than the levels in the other 3 groups (with P values all <0.05); the protein expression levels of HIF-1α in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat alone group and roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group were significantly higher than the level in normal saline group (P<0.05), and the protein expression level of HIF-1α in the wound tissue of rats in roxadustat+salvia miltiorrhiza group was significantly higher than that in salvia miltiorrhiza alone group (P<0.05); there were no statistically significant differences in the protein expression level of PCNA in the wound tissue of rats in 4 groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: Roxadustat combined with salvia miltiorrhiza can promote the wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in diabetic rats by promoting blood vessel regeneration and reducing inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Cicatrização , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/lesões , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(4): e4024, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666564

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a significant complication of diabetes that often leads to blindness, impacting Müller cells, the primary retinal macroglia involved in DR pathogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the development of DR. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of sestrin2 in DR using a high-glucose (HG)-induced Müller cell model and assessing cell proliferation with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling. Following this, sestrin2 was upregulated in Müller cells to investigate its effects on ROS, tube formation, and inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, as well as its interaction with the nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. The findings demonstrated a gradual increase in the number of EdU-positive cells over time, with a subsequent decrease after 72 h of exposure to high glucose levels. Additionally, the expression of sestrin2 exhibited a progressive increase over time, followed by a decrease at 72 h. The rh-sestrin2 treatment suppressed the injury of Müller cells, decreased ROS level, and inhibited the tube formation. Rh-sestrin2 treatment enhanced the expression of sestrin2, Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutamine synthetase (GS); however, the ML385 treatment reversed the protective effect of rh-sestrin2. Finally, we evaluated the effect of sestrin2 in a DR rat model. Sestrin2 overexpression treatment improved the pathological injury of retina and attenuated the oxidative damage and inflammatory reaction. Our results highlighted the inhibitory effect of sestrin2 in the damage of retina, thus presenting a novel therapeutic sight for DR.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Sestrinas , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Animais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 326(5): E723-E734, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506753

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of beta cells by immune cells. The interactions among cells within the islets may be closely linked to the pathogenesis of T1D. In this study, we used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) to analyze the cellular heterogeneity within the islets of a T1D mouse model. We established a T1D mouse model induced by streptozotocin and identified cell subpopulations using scRNA-Seq technology. Our results revealed 11 major cell types in the pancreatic islets of T1D mice, with heterogeneity observed in the alpha and beta cell subgroups, which may play a crucial role in the progression of T1D. Flow cytometry further confirmed a mature alpha and beta cell reduction in T1D mice. Overall, our scRNA-Seq analysis provided insights into the cellular heterogeneity of T1D islet tissue and highlighted the potential importance of alpha and beta cells in developing T1D.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we created a comprehensive single-cell atlas of pancreatic islets in a T1D mouse model using scRNA-Seq and identified 11 major cell types in the islets, highlighting the role of alpha and beta cells in T1D. This study revealed a significant reduction in the maturity alpha and beta cells in T1D mice through flow cytometry. It also demonstrated the heterogeneity of alpha and beta cells, potentially crucial for T1D progression. Overall, our scRNA-Seq analysis provided new insights for understanding and treating T1D by studying cell subtype changes and functions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Camundongos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/metabolismo , Feminino , RNA-Seq/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 223: 116135, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508421

RESUMO

Empagliflozin as an antioxidant decreases blood glucose and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Base on the empagliflozin antioxidant properties we decided to investigate the its effects on the testis histological changes through stereological techniques and biochemical evaluations in T2 diabetes mellitus rats. Rats were divided into: control, diabetes mellitus (DM, streptozotocin + nicotinamide) and diabetes mellitus + empagliflozin (DM + EMPA, 10 mg/kg/day) groups. 56 days after inducing diabetes mellitus testis histological changes and serum biochemical factors along with the level of Bax, Bcl2 and Nrf2 genes expression in the testicular tissue were assessed. A significant decrease in the mean total volume of testis and its components, the level of Bcl2 and Nrf2 gene expression (p < 0.001) along with a significant increase in the level of IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, Bax gene expression were observed in the DM group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). In the DM + EMPA group, the mean total volume of testis and its components, the level of Bcl2 gene expression (p< 0.01) and Nrf2 (p < 0.001) significantly increased whereas the mean level of IL-6 (p < 0.01), TNF-α (p < 0.001), MDA (p < 0.001), Bax (p < 0.001) gene expression significantly decreased compared to the DM group. Our results showed that empagliflozin, by improving the antioxidant defense system, can reduce testicular inflammation and apoptosis and partly prevent the adverse effects of diabetes mellitus on testicular tissue.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Glucosídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(7): e18204, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506068

RESUMO

Podocyte apoptosis exerts a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DN. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been gradually identified to be functional in a variety of different mechanisms associated with podocyte apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether lncRNA Glis2 could regulate podocyte apoptosis in DN and uncover the underlying mechanism. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) was measured using JC-1 staining. Mitochondrial morphology was detected by MitoTracker Deep Red staining. Then, the histopathological and ultrastructure changes of renal tissues in diabetic mice were observed using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and transmission electron microscopy. We found that lncRNA Glis2 was significantly downregulated in high-glucose cultured podocytes and renal tissues of db/db mice. LncRNA Glis2 overexpression was found to alleviate podocyte mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. The direct interaction between lncRNA Glis2 and miR-328-5p was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, lncRNA Glis2 overexpression alleviated podocyte apoptosis in diabetic mice. Taken together, this study demonstrated that lncRNA Glis2, acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miRNA-328-5p, regulated Sirt1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and podocyte apoptosis in DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , MicroRNAs , Doenças Mitocondriais , Podócitos , RNA Longo não Codificante , Camundongos , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Podócitos/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição , Apoptose/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Glucose
15.
Cell Rep ; 43(4): 114007, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517889

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) commonly afflict people with diabetes. To better understand the mechanisms that predispose diabetics to UTIs, we employ diabetic mouse models and altered insulin signaling to show that insulin receptor (IR) shapes UTI defenses. Our findings are validated in human biosamples. We report that diabetic mice have suppressed IR expression and are more susceptible to UTIs caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Systemic IR inhibition increases UPEC susceptibility, while IR activation reduces UTIs. Localized IR deletion in bladder urothelium promotes UTI by increasing barrier permeability and suppressing antimicrobial peptides. Mechanistically, IR deletion reduces nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-dependent programming that co-regulates urothelial tight junction integrity and antimicrobial peptides. Exfoliated urothelial cells or urine samples from diabetic youths show suppressed expression of IR, barrier genes, and antimicrobial peptides. These observations demonstrate that urothelial insulin signaling has a role in UTI prevention and link IR to urothelial barrier maintenance and antimicrobial peptide expression.


Assuntos
Receptor de Insulina , Transdução de Sinais , Bexiga Urinária , Infecções Urinárias , Urotélio , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/metabolismo , Infecções Urinárias/patologia , Animais , Urotélio/metabolismo , Urotélio/patologia , Urotélio/microbiologia , Humanos , Bexiga Urinária/microbiologia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Camundongos , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Feminino , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Masculino
16.
Acta Neuropathol ; 147(1): 60, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526612

RESUMO

Preclinical studies indicate that diverse muscarinic receptor antagonists, acting via the M1 sub-type, promote neuritogenesis from sensory neurons in vitro and prevent and/or reverse both structural and functional indices of neuropathy in rodent models of diabetes. We sought to translate this as a potential therapeutic approach against structural and functional indices of diabetic neuropathy using oxybutynin, a muscarinic antagonist approved for clinical use against overactive bladder. Studies were performed using sensory neurons maintained in vitro, rodent models of type 1 or type 2 diabetes and human subjects with type 2 diabetes and confirmed neuropathy. Oxybutynin promoted significant neurite outgrowth in sensory neuron cultures derived from adult normal rats and STZ-diabetic mice, with maximal efficacy in the 1-100 nmol/l range. This was accompanied by a significantly enhanced mitochondrial energetic profile as reflected by increased basal and maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity. Systemic (3-10 mg/kg/day s.c.) and topical (3% gel daily) oxybutynin reversed paw heat hypoalgesia in the STZ and db/db mouse models of diabetes and reversed paw tactile allodynia in STZ-diabetic rats. Loss of nerve profiles in the skin and cornea of db/db mice was also prevented by daily topical delivery of 3% oxybutynin for 8 weeks. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled interventional trial was performed in subjects with type 2 diabetes and established peripheral neuropathy. Subjects received daily topical treatment with 3% oxybutynin gel or placebo for 6 months. The a priori designated primary endpoint, significant change in intra-epidermal nerve fibre density (IENFD) in skin biopsies taken before and after 20 weeks of treatments, was met by oxybutynin but not placebo. Secondary endpoints showing significant improvement with oxybutynin treatment included scores on clinical neuropathy, pain and quality of life scales. This proof-of-concept study indicates that muscarinic antagonists suitable for long-term use may offer a novel therapeutic opportunity for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Trial registry number: NCT03050827.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Ácidos Mandélicos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Muscarínicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1
17.
Nature ; 628(8008): 604-611, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538784

RESUMO

The immune system has a critical role in orchestrating tissue healing. As a result, regenerative strategies that control immune components have proved effective1,2. This is particularly relevant when immune dysregulation that results from conditions such as diabetes or advanced age impairs tissue healing following injury2,3. Nociceptive sensory neurons have a crucial role as immunoregulators and exert both protective and harmful effects depending on the context4-12. However, how neuro-immune interactions affect tissue repair and regeneration following acute injury is unclear. Here we show that ablation of the NaV1.8 nociceptor impairs skin wound repair and muscle regeneration after acute tissue injury. Nociceptor endings grow into injured skin and muscle tissues and signal to immune cells through the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) during the healing process. CGRP acts via receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages to inhibit recruitment, accelerate death, enhance efferocytosis and polarize macrophages towards a pro-repair phenotype. The effects of CGRP on neutrophils and macrophages are mediated via thrombospondin-1 release and its subsequent autocrine and/or paracrine effects. In mice without nociceptors and diabetic mice with peripheral neuropathies, delivery of an engineered version of CGRP accelerated wound healing and promoted muscle regeneration. Harnessing neuro-immune interactions has potential to treat non-healing tissues in which dysregulated neuro-immune interactions impair tissue healing.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Macrófagos , Neutrófilos , Nociceptores , Cicatrização , Animais , Camundongos , Comunicação Autócrina , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Eferocitose , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/deficiência , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/complicações , Proteína 1 Modificadora da Atividade de Receptores/metabolismo , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
18.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 588: 112199, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552944

RESUMO

Maternal diabetes may influence glucose metabolism in adult offspring, an area with limited research on underlying mechanisms. Our study explored the impact of maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy on insulin resistance development. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats from control and diabetic mothers were mated, and their female offspring were monitored for 150 days. The rats were euthanized for blood and muscle samples. Maternal diabetes led to heightened insulin levels, increased HOMA-IR, elevated triglycerides, and a raised TyG index in adult offspring. Muscle samples showed a decreased protein expression of AMPK, PI3K, MAPK, DRP1, and MFF. These changes induced intergenerational metabolic programming in female pups, resulting in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance by day 150. Findings highlight the offspring's adaptation to maternal hyperglycemia, involving insulin resistance, metabolic alterations, the downregulation of insulin signaling sensors, and disturbed mitochondrial morphology. Maintaining maternal glycemic control emerges as crucial in mitigating diabetes-associated disorders in adult offspring.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Gestacional , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina , Músculo Esquelético , Fenótipo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Ratos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo
19.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 588: 112213, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Difficult-to-heal wound is a prevalent and significant complication of diabetes, characterized by impaired functionality of epithelial cells such as fibroblasts. This study aims to investigate the potential mechanism of ADSC-Exos promoting diabetic wound healing by regulating fibroblast function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ADSC-Exos were confirmed through TEM, NTA, and Western Blot techniques. The study conducted on rat skin fibroblasts (RSFs) exposed to 33 mmol/L glucose in vitro. We used cck-8, EDU, transwell, and scratch assays to verify the proliferation and migration of RSFs. Furthermore, levels of TGF-ß1 and α-SMA proteins were determined by immunofluorescence and Western Blot. RSFs were transfected with miR-128-1-5p mimics and inhibitors, followed by quantification of TGF-ß1, α-SMA, Col I and Smad2/3 protein levels using Western Blot. In vivo, the effects of ADSC-Exos on diabetic wounds were assessed using digital imaging, histological staining, as well as Western Blot analysis. RESULTS: In vitro, ADSC-Exos significantly enhanced proliferation and migration of RSFs while reducing the expression of TGF-ß1 and α-SMA. In vivo, ADSC-Exos effectively promoted diabetic wound healing and mitigated scar fibrosis. Additionally, ADSC-Exos exhibited elevated levels of miR-128-1-5p, which targets TGF-ß1, resulting in a notable reduction in TGF-ß1, α-SMA, Col I and smad2/3 phosphorylation in RSFs. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ADSC-Exos promoted diabetic wound healing, and inhibited skin fibrosis by regulating miR-128-1-5p/TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway, which provides a promising innovative treatment for diabetic wound healing.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Exossomos , Fibroblastos , Fibrose , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , MicroRNAs , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Cicatrização , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Ratos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proliferação de Células , Movimento Celular , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo
20.
Cell Signal ; 117: 111121, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417635

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is still the major cause of visual loss in working-aged people, one of the critical pathological processes are retinal microglia-mediated inflammation. Our previous study demonstrated that enhanced M1 microglial polarization was involved in retinal inflammation in DR, but the detailed mechanism needs further investigation. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important kind of noncoding RNAs involved in the regulation of various cell biological processes. Herein, the circRNA expression profiles of BV2 mouse microglia treated with or without glucose were detected, and a total of 347 differentially expressed circRNAs were identified in glucose-treated BV2 cells. The key circRNA mm9_circ_014683 increased after glucose stimulation. Inhibiting or overexpressing mm9_circ_014683 showed no effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of microglia. Inhibiting mm9_circ_014683 impeded M1 polarization and promoted M2 polarization, and overexpressing mm9_circ_014683 showed the opposite effect. A total of 216 differentially expressed genes were identified in mm9_circ_014683-knockdown BV2 cells, which were enriched in several signaling pathways, including the NFκB signaling pathway. Moreover, mm9_circ_014683 positively regulated the canonical, NFκB signaling pathway. Besides, mm9_circ_014683 was highly expressed in the retinal microglia of diabetic mice, and intraocular injection of Lv-circRNA inhibited M1 but enhanced M2 retinal microglial polarization. In conclusion, mm9_circ_014683 regulates microglial polarization through the canonical NFκB signaling pathway in diabetic retinopathy. This study may provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Retinopatia Diabética , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Idoso , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
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