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1.
Life Sci ; 236: 116836, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493479

RESUMO

AIMS: The present experiment was conceptualised to explore the therapeutic response of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a major active constituent of Ligusticum chuanxiong, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, in high-fat diet (HFD)-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and to identify the possible mechanism of action. MAIN METHODS: Dose-reliant effect of oral treatment of TMP (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg/day) for 28 days was evaluated by calculating the alteration in body weight, level of fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), serum lipids, oral glucose & intraperitoneal insulin tolerance and glycosylated haemoglobin in HFD-STZ-induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats and underlying molecular mechanisms of TMP was also studied. KEY FINDINGS: TMP treatment prominently reduced the level of FBG, glycosylated haemoglobin and revived body weight gain and level of serum insulin dose-dependently in diabetic rats. TMP treatment considerably improved insulin resistance, as observed in oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Moreover, dose-dependent reduction in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was observed and their level was found to be significantly reduced in highest dose TMP (200 mg/kg) treated diabetic rats, pointing towards TMP mediated recovery of insulin signalling and a decrease in insulin resistance. The expressions of p-PI3K-p85/p-Akt/GLUT-4 were also significantly up-regulated by TMP (200 mg/kg), suggesting the connection of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway in the anti-hyperglycemic action of TMP. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that TMP may be used as a potential agent for type-2 diabetes treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108819, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499052

RESUMO

Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound obtained from Cannabis sativa, has wide range of therapeutic properties, including mitigation of diabetes and neurodegeneration. Cerebral ischemia and consequent learning disabilities are aggravated in elderly diabetic subjects. However, there are no studies showing the effect of CBD treatment in elderly diabetes patients suffering cerebral ischemia. The present work tested the hypothesis that CBD treatment improves metabolic dysfunctions in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In this work, 350-day-old male Wistar streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used. To induce cerebral ischemia was used a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), surgically, via the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4-VO/ICA). Four diabetic groups were established: Non-CCH Treated Diabetic (DNT), CCH Treated Diabetic (DCT), Non-CCH Vehicle Diabetic (DNV), and CCH Vehicle Diabetic (DCV). Vehicle groups were not treated with CBD. The animals were treated during 30 days with 10 mg CBD/Kg bw/day. After treatment, the animals were euthanized, and blood levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, fructosamine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. DCT group presented reduction of hyperglycemia and an increase of insulinemia. Also was observed lower fructosamine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. AST and ALT concentration were reduced in CBD treated groups. CBD may be used as therapeutic tool to protect metabolism against injuries from diabetes aggravated by cerebral ischemia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Life Sci ; 233: 116728, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386877

RESUMO

Impaired wound healing is a serious concern of uncontrolled hyperglycemia that can lead to gangrene, and even death. There is an urgent need to look for better alternative therapy because of the undesirable side effects of currently available synthetic drugs in the market. Syringic acid (SA) is a natural phenolic compound abundantly available in edible fruits and plants. In this study, wound healing activities of 2.5% and 5.0% SA were evaluated in type 2 diabetic rats using incisional wound model. SA-treated diabetic wounds showed faster rate of wound closure and epithelization with enhanced contents of hydroxyproline and protein compared to diabetic wounds. SA effectively prevents alterations in blood glucose levels, serum insulin and dyslipidemia in diabetic wound rats. The SA-treated diabetic wounds after 14 days of treatment demonstrated inhibition of pro-inflammatory response (NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-8 and IL-2) with improvement in anti-inflammatory response (IL-10), inhibited the elevated oxidative stress and decreased the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -8 and -9) and increased the concentrations of TIMP-1 & TIMP- 2. Furthermore, the diabetic wounds were presented with an increase in expression of CD 31 and 68, growth factors (TGF-ß1, collagen-I and α-SMA and VEGF) with significant improvement in collagen deposition, re-epithelialization and complete skin structure as revealed by histological analysis after treatment of diabetic wounds with SA for 14 days. Hence, the results of this study designate that SA significantly improves wound healing in diabetic rats and could be used as a potential therapy for treatment of diabetic wounds.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1134-1142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433203

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease, which results in mortality in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of applying spironolactone (S), captopril (C), and their combination (S+C) on some renal performance indices and microRNAs' (miRNAs) expression. A total of 35 two-month-old male Wistar rats were provided for the study. Intraperitoneal injection of freshly dissolved streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) in cold citrate buffer was used to induce diabetes. Blood samples were examined through calorimetry to assess serum concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine. To measure the microalbuminuria and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) levels and to evaluate the miRNAs expression levels of the kidney tissue, the ELISA method and the real-time PCR were used. The obtained results serve as in vivo evidence for the positive relationship between miR-192 and TGF-ß levels in the DN rats. A significant increase and decrease were found for miR-29a/b/c and the miR-192 expression of DN after treatment with S, C, and S+C. TGF-ß levels and microalbuminuria of diabetic rats also increased. The results obtained from this research study suggest that S, C, and S + C can improve DN by targeting miR-192 and miR-29 family and changing their expression. These findings suggest that miR-192 and miRs-29a/b/c can be potential targets for DN remediation.


Assuntos
Captopril/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Life Sci ; 235: 116796, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470003

RESUMO

AIM: Depressor arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exerts reno-protective effects in chronic kidney diseases like diabetic nephropathy. However, same is still elusive under AKI and hyperglycaemia comorbidity. Hence, the present study delineates the role of angiotensin-II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in AKI under normal and hyperglycaemia condition. METHODS: Non-diabetic (ND) and Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats were subjected to ischemic renal injury (IRI). Rats underwent IRI were treated with an AT2R agonist, C21 (0.3 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or ACE2 activator, Dize, (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) either alone or as combination therapy. Renal histopathology and immunohistochemistry, proximal tubular fraction isolation, ELISA, immunoblotting and qRT-PCR were performed for subsequent analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Rats subjected to IRI displayed an increase in plasma ACE, AT1R, AT2R, Ang II, and reduction in ACE2, Ang-(1-7) expressions, with augmented renal inflammation and apoptosis. These changes were more prominent in diabetic rats with IRI. Co-administration of C21 and Dize augmented ACE2, Ang-(1-7), AT2R and MasR expressions, and attenuated tubular injury in both DM and ND rats. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that pharmacological activation of AT2R and ACE2 protects DM and ND rats from IRI by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-mediated tubular damage.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Animais , Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/química
6.
Life Sci ; 234: 116755, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415769

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin D and its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR), have renoprotection effect against diabetic nephropathy (DN). But the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid, protecting against diabetes and DN. Herein, we hypothesized that activation of VDR attenuated high glucose-induced cellular injury in renal tubular epithelial cells partially through up-regulating CYP2J5 expression. MAIN METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) was injected to induce diabetic in wild type and Vdr-/- mice. The effects of VDR knockout and an activator of VDR, paricalcitol, on the renal injury were detected. In vitro, a murine kidney proximal tubule epithelial cell line BU.MPT induced by high glucose were treated with or without paricalcitol (30 mM) for 12 h or 24 h. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of CYP2J5 was significantly decreased both in wild type and Vdr-/- diabetic mice induced by STZ. The STZ-induced kidney architecture damage and apoptosis rate in Vdr-/- mice were more severe. In vitro, high glucose treatment strongly reduced the CYP2J5 expression and the synthesis of 14,15-EET in BU.MPT cells. Supplement of 14,15-EET significantly reduced the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by high glucose in BU.MPT cells. Furthermore, treatment with paricalcitol attenuated cellular injury and restored the expression of CYP2J5 reduced by high glucose in BU.MPT cells. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that activation of VDR attenuates high glucose-induced cellular injury partially dependent on CYP2J5 in murine renal tubule epithelial cells and paricalcitol may represent a potential therapy for DN.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Ergocalciferóis/farmacologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Calcitriol/agonistas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Ergocalciferóis/uso terapêutico , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 234: 116773, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422095

RESUMO

AIMS: NLRP3 inflammasome activation is essential for the development and prognosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The anti-aging protein Klotho is suggested to modulate tissue inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of Klotho on DCM. MAIN METHODS: A streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model was established to assess the effects of Klotho in vivo, which was administered for 12 weeks. The characteristics of type 1 DCM were evaluated by general status, echocardiography, and histopathology. The expression of associated factors was determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Parallel experiments to determine the molecular mechanism through which Klotho prevents DCM were performed using H9C2 cells exposed to high glucose (35 mM). KEY FINDINGS: Diabetes-induced increases in serum creatine kinase-muscle/brain and lactate dehydrogenase levels, cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction were ameliorated by Klotho. Additionally, Klotho suppressed TXNIP expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ɑ, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-18 in vivo. In high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes, Klotho and N-acetylcysteine significantly downregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Pretreatment of H9C2 cells with NLRP3 siRNA or Klotho prevented high glucose-induced inflammation and apoptosis in H9C2 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the protective effect of Klotho on diabetes-induced cardiac injury is associated with inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, suggesting its therapeutic potential for DCM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Glucuronidase/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/imunologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Glucuronidase/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia
8.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 144-149, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322533

RESUMO

There have been presented the results of the histomorphological research of the effect of the beans' thick extract (BTE) on the state of the pancreas on the model of diabetes mellitus type 2 on the background of obesity in the rats in our research. The simulation of type 2 diabetes on the background of obesity in the animals has led to the development of signs of insulin's inhibition of insulin producing apparatus - some different expressions of dystrophy and degeneration of the ß-cells. The consequence of the hyperfunction has been exhaustion and even death of ß-cells, the development of the diabetic condition. The redistribution of pancreatic islet ß-content of cells has contributed to the increase of the small islands and had a compensatory nature. The treatment of the animals by the BTE has fully prevented an excessive negative impact on revenues of carbohydrates insulin producing apparatus, because it improves the morphological status of ß-cells, reduces the part of small pancreatic islets, almost restores medium and large islets to the level of the «Intact control¼ group. The comparison drug - metformin - has a positive effect on the morphological status of the pancreatic ß-cells, but this effect is obviously not enough for improving or restoring the normal % of distribution of islets.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sementes/química , Animais , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Açúcares
9.
Life Sci ; 233: 116698, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356906

RESUMO

AIM: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a common chronic disease in childhood. Increasing insulin resistance in puberty gives rise to higher doses of insulin usage in treatment. Of this reason new approaches in treatment are needed. Noopept researches suggest it to have anti-diabetic properties. We tried to determine the effects of noopept on pubertal diabetes. MAIN METHOD: The research was made with 60 prepubertal, 28 day-old, male, Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were divided into randomised 6 groups (n = 10/group). i) Control, ii) Diabetes Control, iii) Noopept Control, iv) Diabetes + Noopept, v) Diabetes + Insulin, vi) Diabetes + Insulin + Noopept. T1DM model was induced by streptozotocin on postnatal 28th day. 0.5 mg/kg noopept and 1 IU insulin were administered intraperitoneally for 14 days. Blood glucose and body weight measurements, puberty follow-up and MWM tests were performed. Hippocampus, hypothalamus and testis were evaluated histologically. Hypothalamic GnRH and kisspeptin were studied immunohistochemically. Serum LH, FSH and insulin, hippocampal homogenate NGF and BDNF levels were determined by ELISA. KEY FINDINGS: Delayed puberty was normalized by noopept (p < 0.05). Blood glucose levels were lower in noopept-administered diabetic groups (p < 0.05). Noopept decreased HOMA-IR in insulin administered diabetic group (p < 0.05). Number of degenerated cells in hippocampus and testis were higher in diabetes control group when compared with other groups (p < 0.05). GnRH immunoreactivity in Diabetes + Noopept group was increased when compared to insulin + noopept group (p = 0.018). There was no difference in kisspeptin, serum LH, FSH, hippocampal NGF-BDNF levels and spatial learning assessment among groups (p > 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Noopept may have positive effect in treatment of pubertal diabetes.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Gene ; 715: 143995, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336140

RESUMO

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) refers to the myocardial dysfunction in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRs) in gene expression regulation has attracted much more attention. Studies have shown that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the growth, metabolism and apoptosis of myocardial cells. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the regulatory role of miR-203 in myocardial fibrosis in mice with DCM via involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Firstly, mouse model of diabetes mellitus (DM) was established and injected with agomir, antagomir or IGF-1 (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activator) for investigating the role of miR-203 in PIK3CA and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PIK3CA was identified as a target gene of miR-203, and overexpressed miR-203 inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The obtained results indicated that up-regulation of miR-203 reduced myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial apoptosis, and levels of PIK3CA, PI3K, Akt, CoI I, CoI III, ANP, MDA and ROS in the myocardial tissues, by which DM-induced cardiac dysfunction and pathological changes could be ameliorated. Collectively, our present study highlighted that overexpression of miR-203 may function as a cardioprotective regulator in DCM by targeting PIK3CA via inactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Fibrose , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4383-4395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354267

RESUMO

Background: The bioactive compounds glycyrrhizin (GL) and thymoquinone (TQ) have been reported for antidiabetic activity in pure and nanoformulation (NF) form. However, the antidiabetic effect of a combined nanoformulation of these two has not been reported in the literature. Here, a combinational nanomedicine approach was investigated to enhance the antidiabetic effects of the two bioactive compounds of GL and TQ (GT), in type 2 diabetic rats in reference to metformin. Methods: Two separately prepared NFs of GL (using polymeric nanoparticles) and TQ (using polymeric nanocapsules) were mixed to obtain a therapeutic cargo of nanomedicine and then characterized with respect to particle size, stability, morphology, chemical interaction, and in vivo behavior. Additionally, NFs were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell lines compared to the pure form. This nanomedicine was administered orally, both independently and in combination (pure form or NF) for 21 successive days to type 2 diabetic rats and the effect assessed in term of body weight, fasting blood-glucose level, and various biochemical parameters (such as lipid-profile parameters and HbA1c). Results: When these nanomedicines were applied in combined rather than individual forms, significant decreases in blood glucose and HbA1c and significant improvements in body weight and lipid profile were observed, despite them containing lower amounts than the pure forms. The treatment of diabetic rats with GL and TQ, when administered independently in either pure or NF forms, did not lead to favorable trends in any studied parameters. Conclusion: The administration of combined GT NFs exhibited significant improvement in studied parameters. Improvements in antidiabetic activity could have been due to a synergistic effect of combined NFs, leading to enhanced absorption of NFs and lesser cytotoxic effects compared to pure bioactive compounds. Therefore, GT NFs demonstrated potential as a new medicinal agent for the management of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Animais , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Niacinamida , Polímeros/efeitos adversos , Ratos Wistar , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estreptozocina
12.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(7): 667-678, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250581

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate how type I diabetes mellitus (T1D) affects the folliculogenesis and oocyte development, fertilization, and embryo development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative animal study was conducted using two different mouse models of T1D, a genetic AKITA model and a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. Ovarian function was assessed by gross observation, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, oocyte counting, and ELISA for serum hormones (insulin, anti-Mullerian hormone, estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone). Maturation and developmental competence of metaphase II oocytes from control and T1D animals was evaluated by immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical detection of biomarkers and in vitro fertilization. RESULTS: Animals from both T1D models showed increased blood glucose levels, while only streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice showed reduced body weight. Folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and preimplantation embryogenesis were impaired in both T1D mouse models. Interestingly, exogenous streptozotocin injection to induce T1D led to marked decreases in ovary size, expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the ovaries, the number of corpora lutea per ovary, oocyte maturation, and serum progesterone levels. Both T1D models exhibited significantly reduced pre-implantation embryo quality compared with controls. There was no significant difference in embryo quality between STZ-injected and AKITA diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that T1D affects folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and embryo development in mice. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the observed reproductive effects of diabetes need to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Fertilidade , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Oócitos/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Receptores do LH/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(4): 815-824, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic hyperglycemia is caused by diabetes mellitus-committed genital morphophysiology, and oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in this process. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can prevent metabolic and morphological changes in diabetic individuals. OBJECTIVES: In present study, we evaluated the effects of regular ALA consumption on the spermatogenesis and histoarchitecture in the male genital system of diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into groups: Control (CG); Diabetic Control (DCG), receiving commercial diet: ALA Group (ALAG) and Diabetic ALA Group (DALAG), fed diets with added ALA (300 mg/Kg bw). The diabetic groups received a single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After sixty days of the diet, the animals were euthanized, and semen, testis and epididymis samples were collected. A histomorphometric analysis was performed to determine the epithelial height, tubular and luminal diameter, tubular and luminal area of seminiferous tubules and each epididymal region. Sertoli cells were evidenced using the antivimentin antibody and were quantified. The results were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA test. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the DALAG glycemia was signifi cantly lower than DCG. The histomorphometric parameters of the seminiferous and epididymal tubules did not show improvement in the DALAG. However, there was an improvement in the DALAG in terms of the concentration, motility and percentage of spermatic pathologies, as well as in the number of Sertoli cells (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that supplementation with the ALA antioxidant retards testicular lesions and preserve the process of spermatogenesis in diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Epididimo/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células de Sertoli , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 309: 108689, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173751

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for renal impairment in patients exposed to contrast media. It doubles the risk and decreases survival rate of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). Sulforaphane has antioxidant properties via Nrf2 activation. The interaction of diabetes and/or sulforaphane with contrast media on Nrf2 regulation is not yet understood. Herein, diabetes was induced by a single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin. Animals were then divided into five groups; control non-diabetic group; diabetic group; diabetic/sulforaphane group; diabetic/CIN group; diabetic/CIN/sulforaphane group. Animals were assessed 24 h after CIN induction. Sulforaphane improved the impaired nephrotoxicity parameters, histopathological features, and oxidative stress markers induced by contrast media (meglumine diatrizoate) in diabetic rats. Immunofluorescence detection revealed increased Nrf2 expression in kidney sections after sulforaphane pretreatment. Moreover, gene expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 were up-regulated, while IL-6 and caspase3 were down-regulated in kidney tissues of animals pretreated with sulforaphane. In NRK-52E cells, sulforaphane pretreatment significantly ameliorated the cytotoxicity of meglumine diatrizoate. However, silencing Nrf2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the cytoprotective effects of sulforaphane. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that Nrf2/HO-1 pathway has a protective role against CIN and support the clinical implication of Nrf2 activators, such as sulforaphane, in CIN particularly in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Contraste/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diatrizoato de Meglumina/toxicidade , Isotiocianatos/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Contraste/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diatrizoato de Meglumina/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Nefrite/induzido quimicamente , Nefrite/metabolismo , Nefrite/patologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 152(3): 217-225, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197456

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for congenital heart defects. Our previous results indicated that a decrease in myocardial cells and an increase in apoptotic cells leads to heart defects under hyperglycemia, but much work remains to elucidate this important mechanism of myocardial cell apoptosis induced by high glucose (HG). In this study, we found that a decrease in GSK3ß phosphorylation on Ser9 occurred concomitantly with HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and in the heart tissues of the offspring of diabetic rats in vitro and in vivo. Decreases in GSK3ß (Ser9) phosphorylation in response to HG were remarkably restored after treatment with SC79, an activator of the Akt signaling pathway. SB216763, an effective inhibitor of the GSK3ß signaling pathway, suppressed HG-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Further studies showed a decrease in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 was associated with GSK3ß-mediated apoptosis. MCL-1 overexpression partly inhibits HG-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Herein, this study revealed the roles of GSK3ß and MCL-1 in modulating HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and maternal diabetes-induced abnormalities.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosforilação , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 606-611, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002265

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the expression levels of the dental pulp to elucidate the role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and CD68 on vascular angiogenesis, inflammation and odontoblast differentiation in the pulp tissue of diabetic rats depending on the effect of possible damage induced by diabetes. Wistar rats were used in the study, divided into two groups. Control group was fed with standard rat chow and drinking water ad libitum for 8 weeks. Single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg), was disolved in sodium citrate buffer and administered by intraperitoneal injection. Blood glucose concentration of rats exceeding 250 mg/dl were accepted as diabetic. Rats were sacrificed under anesthesia. Tissues were immediately dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin and cut with a microtome then examined under light microscope. In the cross-sections of pulp tissue of diabetic group; the dilation of blood vessels besides hemorrhage and a significant increase in inflammatory cells were seen. The expression of VEGF in the blood vessel endothelial cells of the pulp was increased. VEGF showed positive reaction for degenerative odontoblast cells in the pulp. In this study, increase in VEGF and CD68 expressions in pulp tissue due to the effect of diabetes was thought to delay pulp treatment by inducing soft tissue damage and hypoxia.


El propósito de este estudio fue examinar los niveles de expresión en la pulpa dental para dilucidar el papel del Factor de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular (VEGF) y el CD68 en la angiogénesis, la inflamación y la diferenciación de odontoblastos en el tejido pulpar de ratas diabéticas, dependiendo del efecto de daño inducido por la diabetes. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar divididas en dos grupos. El grupocontrol se alimentó con comida estándar para ratas y agua potable ad libitum durante 8 semanas. Se administró mediante inyección intraperitoneal dosis única de estreptozotocina (STZ) (55 mg / kg), se disolvió en tampón de citrato de sodio. La concentración de glucosa en sangre de ratas que excedían los 250 mg / dl se aceptó como diabética. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas bajo anestesia. Los tejidos se disecaron de inmediato, se fijaron en parafina y se cortaron para luego ser examinados con un microscopio óptico. En las secciones transversales del tejido pulpar del grupo diabético se observó la dilatación de los vasos sanguíneos además de hemorragia y un aumento significativo de células inflamatorias. La expresión de VEGF se incrementó en las células endoteliales de los vasos sanguíneos de la pulpa. VEGF mostró una reacción positiva para las células odontoblásticas degenerativas en la pulpa. El aumento en la expresión de VEGF y CD68 en el tejido de la pulpa debido al efecto de la diabetes puede retrasar el tratamiento de la pulpa al inducir hipoxia y daños en los tejidos blandos.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Polpa Dentária/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Ratos Wistar , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Inflamação , Neovascularização Patológica
17.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 76-86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes causes damage to the enteric nervous system. The enteric nervous system consists of neurons and enteric glial cells (EGCs). The present study evaluated the effects of an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) from Trichilia catigua (T. catigua; 200 mg/kg) on the total population of enteric neurons (HuC/D-immunoreactive [IR]) and EGCs (S100-IR and glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]-IR) in the total preparation and jejunal mucosa in diabetic rats. METHODS: The animals were distributed into four groups: normoglycemic rats (N), diabetic rats (D), normoglycemic rats that received the EAF (NC), and diabetic rats that received the EAF (DC). The jejunum was processed for immunohistochemistry to evaluate HuC/D, S100, and GFAP immunoreactivity. The expression of S100 and GFAP proteins was also quantified by Western blot. RESULTS: The D group exhibited a decrease in the number of neurons and EGCs, an increase in the area of cell bodies, an increase in S100 protein expression, a decrease in GFAP protein expression, and a decrease in S100-IR and GFAP-IR EGCs in the jejunal mucosa. The DC group exhibited a decrease in the number of neurons and EGCs, a decrease in the area of cell bodies, a decrease in S100 and GFAP protein expression, and a decrease in S100-IR and GFAP-IR EGCs in the jejunal mucosa. The NC group exhibited maintenance of the number of neurons and EGCs, an increase in the area of cell bodies, and a decrease in S100 and GFAP protein expression. CONCLUSION: The EAF from T. catigua partially conferred protection against diabetic neuropathy in the enteric nervous system.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Jejuno/inervação , Meliaceae/química , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/patologia , Masculino , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas S100/análise
18.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3): 687-694, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162036

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of exogenous insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the healing of skin ulcers in diabetic rats, male Sprague Dawleys (SD) rats with back skin ulcers were selected and divided into control group, model group and IGF-1 treatment group which received different doses of IGF-1 (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0mg/L). The results showed that the healing speed of the skin ulcers was significantly affected by IGF-1, which reduced the size of wound (P less than 0.05). The expression of MMP-9 was enhanced while the expression of TIMP-1 was decreased in diabetic rats with skin ulcers. The IGF-1 treatment helped to re¬store the normal expression of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in diabetic rats with skin ulcers, and diabetic skin ulcers in the 1.5 mg/L IGF-1 group showed the best healing. Histological examination showed that after 20 days, fibroblasts in the IGF-1 experimental group with an appropriate concentration increased and the numbers of fibroblasts and capillaries were significantly higher than those of the other groups. Moreover, there were obvious wound surface contractions and re-epithelialization, and the new epithelium moved to the center of the wound faster. Therefore, it is concluded that an appropriate concentration of IGF-1 can significantly promote the healing of skin ulcers in diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Úlcera Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização , Animais , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo
19.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 155-159, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes of blood biochemical index and the pathological changes of myocardium and kidney in type 2 diabetic mouse at different time points, which can provide the basis for the selection of type 2 diabetic modeling time for later research. METHODS: After 6 weeks of feeding with high-fat diet, 24 healthy male ICR mice were injected with streptozocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 5 days to establish diabetic models. After 9 days, a random blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol / L was measured as diabetic mice. 4, 6 and 8 weeks after successfully preparing the diabetic mouse, 8 diabetic mice (a group)would be sacrificed each time. Then the biochemical and pathological conditions were analyzed: ① the indexes of heart and kidney were calculated. ②the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine (Cr) and blood urine nitrogen (BUN) were determined. ③ Histopathological changes of myocardium and renal tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Masson staining was used to observe the fibrosis of myocardium. PAS staining was adopted to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue. In addition, 8 ICR male mice were taken as the control group. RESULTS: At the 4th, 6th and 8th week, cardiac organ coefficient, the values of LDH and CK were all increased compared with the control group. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis could be observed. Renal organ coefficient, the values of Cr and BUN were increased. Glomerular hypertrophy, basement membrane thickening and atrophy could be perceived. CONCLUSION: At the 6th week, related biochemical and pathological changes in diabetic mice were comparatively obvious and breeding time was relatively short. Thus, 6 weeks after the preparation of the diabetic mice would be the optimal time for type 2 diabetes mellitus modeling, proper for inventions of drugs and other research purposes including pathology, physiology, biochemistry, etc.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estreptozocina
20.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5377-5385, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059096

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia promotes the growth and reproduction of bacteria, thereby increasing the probability of infection, which also causes rebound hyperglycemia. Therefore, the interactions of infection and hyperglycemia lead to the progression and deterioration of these diseases. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease. Studies have shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in maintaining islet­specific tolerance. Treg deficiency may lead to the development of early pancreatitis and T1DM, and sufficient amounts of Tregs can restore this tolerance, thereby inhibiting the occurrence of T1DM. Moreover, different subpopulations of dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in activating autoreactive T cells and inducing autoimmune tolerance to autoantigens, which are closely related to the functional diversity caused by different phenotypes, maturation status, and the immune microenvironment of DC subpopulations. In the present study, we used streptozotocin­induced hyperglycemic mice to model T1DM and induced a Salmonella infection in the mouse model, leading to aggravated inflammation, which resulted in an elevated proportion of CD103+CD11b+ DCs and a significantly elevated proportion of CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs in the intestinal lamina propria. After co­culturing CD4+ T cells and DCs, we found that CD103+CD11b+ DCs could significantly promote the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. The elevated proportions of CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs were considered to be correlated with the increased number of CD103+CD11b+ DCs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/sangue , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Inflamação , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas/patologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
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