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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 41(1): 39-49, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587516

RESUMO

Ghrelin is known to be a feeding stimulatory hormone in mammals, but in birds, in contrast to mammals, the feeding behavior is regulated in inhibitory manners. This is because the neuropeptides associated with the regulation in the brain are different from those in mammals, i.e., it has been shown that, in chickens, a corticotropin-releasing hormone family peptide, urocortin, which is a feeding-inhibitory peptide, is mainly involved in the inhibitory mechanism. However, feeding is also regulated by various neurotransmitters in the brain, and recently, their interaction with the mechanisms underlying feeding inhibition by ghrelin in birds has been intensively studied and clarified. This review summarizes these findings.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Grelina , Animais , Encéfalo , Mamíferos
2.
Sci Signal ; 17(831): eadp6031, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593155

RESUMO

Food intake activates a mechanosensitive ion channel that inhibits ghrelin production and reduces appetite.


Assuntos
Apetite , Grelina , Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 327: 117989, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462026

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Massa Medicata Fermentata, a fermented Chinese medicine, is produced by the fermentation of six traditional Chinese medicines. Liu Shenqu (LSQ) and charred Liu Shenqu (CLSQ) have been used for strengthening the spleen and enhancing digestion for over a thousand years, and CLSQ is commonly used in clinical practice. However, it is unclear whether there is a difference in the spleen strengthening and digestion effects between LSQ and CLSQ, as well as their mechanisms of action. AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to compare the effects of LSQ and CLSQ on the digestive function of functional dyspepsia (FD) rats and reveal their mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPF grade SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group, model group, Liu Shenqu decoction low-dosage (LSQ LD) group, Liu Shenqu decoction high-dosage (LSQ HD) group, charred Liu Shenqu decoction low-dosage (CLSQ LD) group, and charred Liu Shenqu decoction high-dosage (CLSQ HD) group. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with reserpine to create an FD model and then treated by intragastric administration. During this period, record the weight and food intake of the animals. After 18 days of treatment, specimens of the gastric antrum, spleen, and duodenum of rats were taken for pathological staining and immunohistochemical detection of Ghrelin protein expression. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the concentration of relevant gastrointestinal hormones in serum. The 16 S rDNA sequencing method was used to evaluate the effect of cecal contents on the structure of the gut microbiota in experimental rats. Plasma metabolomics analysis was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) to further reveal their mechanism of action. RESULTS: LSQ and CLSQ improved the pathological tissue histological structure of FD rats and increased the levels of MTL and GAS hormones in serum and the levels of ghrelin in the gastric antrum, spleen, and duodenum, while reducing VIP, CCK, and SP hormone levels. The above results showed that the therapeutic efficacy of CLSQ is better than that of LSQ. Futhermore, the mechanism of action of LSQ and CLSQ were revealed. The 16 S rDNA sequencing results showed that both LSQ and CLSQ can improve the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota. And metabolomic analysis demonstrated that 20 metabolites changed after LSQ treatment, and 16 metabolites underwent continuous changes after CLSQ treatment. Further analysis revealed that LSQ mainly intervened in the metabolic pathways of glycerol phospholipid metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism, but CLSQ mainly intervened in the metabolic pathways of ether lipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Both LSQ and CLSQ can improve functional dyspepsia in FD rats, but CLSQ has a stronger improvement effect on FD. Although their mechanisms of action are all related to regulating gastrointestinal hormone secretion, significantly improving intestinal microbiota disorders, and improving multiple metabolic pathways, but the specific gut microbiota and metabolic pathways they regulate are different.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Dispepsia , Microbiota , Ratos , Animais , Grelina/uso terapêutico , Dispepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Metabolômica/métodos , DNA Ribossômico
4.
Nat Metab ; 6(3): 458-472, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467889

RESUMO

Ghrelin, produced mainly by gastric X/A-like cells, triggers a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate appetite. It remains unclear whether X/A-like cells sense gastric distention and thus regulate ghrelin production. Here we show that PIEZO1 expression in X/A-like cells decreases in patients with obesity when compared to controls, whereas it increases after sleeve gastrectomy. Male and female mice with specific loss of Piezo1 in X/A-like cells exhibit hyperghrelinaemia and hyperphagia and are more susceptible to overweight. These phenotypes are associated with impairment of the gastric CaMKKII/CaMKIV-mTOR signalling pathway. Activation of PIEZO1 by Yoda1 or gastric bead implantation inhibits ghrelin production, decreases energy intake and induces weight loss in mice. Inhibition of ghrelin production by Piezo1 through the CaMKKII/CaMKIV-mTOR pathway can be recapitulated in a ghrelin-producing cell line mHypoE-42. Our study reveals a mechanical regulation of ghrelin production and appetite by PIEZO1 of X/A-like cells, which suggests a promising target for anti-obesity therapy.


Assuntos
Grelina , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Grelina/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Canais Iônicos/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299203, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483864

RESUMO

This study was performed to assess the impacts of introducing diets containing different levels of soybean meal (SBM) to sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus) larvae on growth performance, body composition, and molecular responses in the juvenile stage. The sterlet larvae (57.68 ± 0.66 mg) were weaned onto the formulated diets as follows: a control diet containing 60% fishmeal (FM), and three experimental diets with replacement levels of 15% (SBM15), 30% (SBM30), and 45% (SBM45) of FM with SBM. Then, a total of 260 fish (initial weight: 323.33 ± 11.76 mg) were fed the four different diets for 28 days in triplicates (phase 1, nutritional programming, NP). All treatments were then fed with the FM diet in phase 2 (common phase), and in phase 3 (challenge phase), all experimental groups (6.14 ± 0.08 g) were transitioned to SBM45 for 28 days. At the end of phases 1 and 2, growth performance showed no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05), while significantly improved in SBM45 than the control at the end of phase 3 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in any phases for whole body composition (P > 0.05). Additionally, the total saturated fatty acids were significantly higher in SBM-based diets than FM at the end of phase 3 (P < 0.05). The mRNA of GH, IGF-I was significantly affected by variation of FM replacement level (P < 0.05). The expression level of Ghrelin was up-regulated in fish fed SBM at the end of phase 3 (P < 0.05). Our findings revealed that NP can positively enhance the adaptation of juvenile sterlet sturgeon to 45% SBM when exposed to the same diets at the larval stage. Further research is being carried out to provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of digestive performance for this species.


Assuntos
Grelina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Farinha , Dieta/veterinária , Peixes , Composição Corporal , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 70(1): e20230263, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diet and exercise, which are the building blocks of obesity management, provide weight loss by creating a negative energy balance. However, the effect of energy deficit induced by long-term diet and exercise on appetite hormones remains unclear. The study was designed to determine the effect of a 12-week diet and exercise program applied to obese individuals on the levels of appetite hormones, namely, ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY. METHODS: A total of 62 obese individuals (BMI≥30) and 48 healthy controls (BMI 18.50-29.99) participated in the study. Appropriate diet (1000-1500 kcal/day) and exercise (at least 5000 steps/day) programs were applied to obese individuals according to age, gender, and BMI. The ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY values of the participants were analyzed by the ELISA method and commercial kit by taking venous blood samples before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: While ghrelin levels of individuals decreased significantly after diet and exercise, PYY levels increased significantly. However, despite the treatment applied, the GLP-1 and PYY levels of the case group did not reach the levels of the control group. CONCLUSION: Long-term diet and exercise intervention had a positive effect on appetite regulation hormones. It reduced ghrelin levels after treatment. Associated weight loss was facilitated. In the case group, increased satiety hormones after combined treatment supported the maintenance of body weight by increasing satiety.


Assuntos
Grelina , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Humanos , Peptídeo YY , Obesidade/terapia , Redução de Peso/fisiologia , Dieta
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1348146, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544692

RESUMO

Introduction: Motilin is a hormone secreted by specialised enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine, and is known to modulate gastrointestinal motility in humans, regulating the migratory motor complex. It is understudied at least in part due to the lack of commercially available immunoassays. Method: A multiplexed liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was optimised to measure motilin, insulin, C-peptide, GIP (1-42) and GIP (3-42). Corresponding active ghrelin concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Ten healthy volunteers with no prior history of gastroenterological or endocrine condition attended after overnight fast and had blood samples taken every 15 minutes for 4 hours whilst continuing to fast, and then further sampling for 2 hours following a liquid mixed meal. Hunger scores were taken at each time point using a visual analogue scale. Normal bowel habit was confirmed by 1 week stool diary. Results: Motilin levels fluctuated in the fasting state with an average period between peaks of 109.5 mins (SD:30.0), but with no evidence of a relationship with either ghrelin levels or hunger scores. The mixed meal interrupted cyclical motilin fluctuations, increased concentrations of motilin, insulin, C-peptide, GIP(1-42) and GIP(3-42), and suppressed ghrelin levels. Discussion: This study highlights the utility of LC-MS/MS for parallel measurement of motilin alongside other peptide hormones, and supports previous reports of the cyclical nature of motilin levels in the fasting state and interruption with feeding. This analytical method has utility for further clinical studies into motilin and gut hormone physiology in human volunteers.


Assuntos
Grelina , Motilina , Humanos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Peptídeo C , Cromatografia Líquida , Duodeno/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 351: 114475, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382621

RESUMO

Several metabolic hormones signal an organism's energy balance to the brain and modulate feeding behaviours accordingly. These metabolic signals may also regulate other behaviour related to energy balance, such as food caching or hoarding. Ghrelin is one such hormone, but it appears to exert different effects on appetite and fat levels in birds and mammals. Ghrelin treatment inhibits food intake and decreases fat stores in some bird species, but these effects may differ between acylated and unacylated (des-acyl) forms of ghrelin. The effect of ghrelin on food caching in birds has been examined in only one study, that found both leptin and unacylated ghrelin reduced food caching and mass gain in coal tits (Periparus ater). We expanded on this to test how both forms of ghrelin affect food caching and body composition in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). We injected each bird with acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, and a saline control and then measured food caching every 20 min for two hours post-injection. We also measured body mass fat levels the day before, and after treatment using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). Contrary to prior work, we found no effects of either form of ghrelin on food caching, or body or fat mass. Future work is required to determine if the difference between our results and those of the prior study stems from species differences in response to ghrelin and/or in the motivation to cache food, or ghrelin effects being modulated by energy reserves.


Assuntos
Grelina , Aves Canoras , Animais , Grelina/farmacologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Alimentos , Composição Corporal , Mamíferos
9.
In Vivo ; 38(2): 975-981, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prediabetic stages of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) exhibit differences in the sites of insulin resistance. Serum Zinc α-2 glycoprotein (ZAG), acylated ghrelin (AG), and zinc (Zn) levels can affect IFG, IGT, and diabetic glucose tolerance (DGT) differently. This study examined the importance of ZAG, AG, and serum Zn levels in prediabetic individuals with IFG, IGT, and DGT, compared to those with normal glucose levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Istanbul University Cerrahpasa-Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine. A total of n=151 volunteers were classified according to the WHO criteria for diabetes after undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma and serum samples were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy, ELISA, and immunoassay. RESULTS: Prediabetic conditions became more prominent with the decrease in ZAG levels. ZAG levels showed a negative correlation with acylated ghrelin and Homeostatic Model Assessment for assessing beta-cell function and insulin resistance. Zinc levels were significantly lower in DGT. CONCLUSION: ZAG levels have regulatory effects on insulin resistance and plasma glucose levels are mediated by zinc and acylated ghrelin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Glicemia , Jejum , Grelina , Insulina
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the glucose-related hormone profile of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and assess the association between neonatal hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance during the admission period. DESIGN: A prospective observational study-the Very Low Birth Weight Infants, Glucose and Hormonal Profiles over Time study. SETTING: A tertiary neonatal intensive care unit and four neonatal units in county hospitals in Sweden. PATIENTS: 48 infants born <1500 g (VLBW) during 2016-2019. OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma concentrations of glucose-related hormones and proteins (C-peptide, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucagon, leptin, resistin and proinsulin), insulin:C-peptide and proinsulin:insulin ratios, Homoeostatic Model Assessment 2 (HOMA2) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check (QUICKI) indices, measured on day of life (DOL) 7 and at postmenstrual age 36 weeks. RESULTS: Lower gestational age was significantly associated with higher glucose, C-peptide, insulin, proinsulin, leptin, ghrelin, resistin and GLP-1 concentrations, increased HOMA2 index, and decreased QUICKI index and proinsulin:insulin ratio. Hyperglycaemic infants had significantly higher glucose, C-peptide, insulin, leptin and proinsulin concentrations, and lower QUICKI index, than normoglycaemic infants. Higher glucose and proinsulin concentrations and insulin:C-peptide ratio, and lower QUICKI index on DOL 7 were significantly associated with longer duration of hyperglycaemia during the admission period. CONCLUSIONS: VLBW infants seem to have a hormone profile consistent with insulin resistance. Lower gestational age and hyperglycaemia are associated with higher concentrations of insulin resistance markers.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Proinsulina , Leptina , Grelina , Resistina , Estudos Prospectivos , Peptídeo C , Glicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Insulina Regular Humana
12.
Appetite ; 196: 107259, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341037

RESUMO

The role of ghrelin metabolism in anorexia of ageing is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine acyl-ghrelin, total ghrelin, and ghrelin O-acyltransferase concentrations when fasted and in responses to feeding in older adults exhibiting anorexia of ageing. Twenty-five older adults (OA; 15f, 74 ± 7 years, 24.5 kg·m-2) and twelve younger adults (YA; 6f, 21 ± 2 years, 24.4 kg·m-2) provided a fasted measure of subjective appetite and fasted blood sample (0 min) before consuming a standardised porridge breakfast meal (450 kcal). Appetite was measured every 30 min for 240 min and blood was sampled at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min while participants rested. At 240 min, an ad libitum pasta-based lunch meal was consumed. Older adults were identified as those with healthy appetite (HA-OA) or low appetite (LA-OA), based on habitual energy intake, self-report appetite, BMI, and ad libitum lunch intake. YA ate more at lunch (1108 ± 235 kcal) than HA-OA (653 ± 133 kcal, p = 0.007) and LA-OA (369 ± 168 kcal; p < 0.001). LA-OA, but not HA-OA, had higher fasted concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin than YA (acyl-ghrelin: 621 ± 307 pg·mL-1 vs. 353 ± 166 pg·mL-1, p = 0.047; total ghrelin: 1333 ± 702 pg·mL-1 vs. 636 ± 251 pg·mL-1, p = 0.006). Acyl-ghrelin (60 min and 90 min) and total ghrelin (90 min) were suppressed to a greater extent for LA-OA than for YA (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in subjective appetite, acyl-to-total ghrelin ratio, or plasma GOAT content (p > 0.1). Higher fasting ghrelin and an augmented ghrelin response to feeding in LA-OA, but not HA-OA, suggests that alterations to ghrelin metabolism are not functions of ageing per se and may be independent causal mechanisms of anorexia of ageing.


Assuntos
Anorexia , Grelina , Humanos , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Apetite/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Ingestão de Energia , Aciltransferases , Estudos Cross-Over
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 326: 117971, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403003

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Baizhu (BZ) is the dried rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (Compositae), which invigorates the spleen, improves vital energy, stabilizes the fetus, and is widely used for treating spleen deficiency syndrome. However, the impact of BZ on gastrointestinal function during pregnancy remains unexplored. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study elucidated the ameliorative effects of BZ on gastrointestinal health and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant mice with spleen deficiency diarrhea (SDD). METHODS: To simulate an irregular human diet and overconsumption of cold and bitter foods leading to SDD, a model of pregnant mice with SDD was established using an alternate-day fasting and high-fat diet combined with oral administration of Sennae Folium. During the experiment, general indicators and diarrhea-related parameters were measured. Gastric and intestinal motility (small intestinal propulsion and gastric emptying rates) were evaluated. Serum motilin (MTL), ghrelin, growth hormone (GH), gastrin (Gas), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), chorionic gonadotropin ß (ß-CG), progesterone (P), and estradiol (E2) were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and alcian blue periodic acid Schiff staining (AB-PAS). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the expression levels of the intestinal barrier and water metabolism-related proteins in colonic tissues. The pregnancy rate, ovarian organ coefficient, uterus with fetus organ coefficient, small size, average fetal weight, and body length of fetal mice were calculated. RESULTS: The results showed that BZ significantly improved general indicators and diarrhea in pregnant mice with SDD, increased gastric emptying rate and small intestinal propulsion rate, elevated the levels of gastrointestinal hormones (AMS, ghrelin, GH, and Gas) in the serum, and reduced lipid levels (TC and LDL-c). It also improved colonic tissue morphology, increased the number of goblet cells, and promoted the mRNA and protein expression of occludin, claudin-1, ZO-1, AQP3, AQP4, and AQP8 in colonic tissues, downregulating the mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-2, thereby alleviating intestinal barrier damage and regulating the balance of water and fluid metabolism. BZ also held the levels of pregnancy hormones (ß-CG, P, and E2) in the serum of pregnant mice with SDD. Moreover, it increased the pregnancy rate, ovarian organ coefficient, uterus with fetus organ coefficient, litter size, average fetal weight, and body length of fetal mice. These findings indicate that BZ can improve spleen deficiency-related symptoms in pregnant mice before and during pregnancy, regulate pregnancy-related hormones, and improve pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Rizoma , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Camundongos , Animais , Grelina/uso terapêutico , Resultado da Gravidez , LDL-Colesterol , Peso Fetal , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrinas , Água , RNA Mensageiro
14.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 16(1): e12552, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the global burdens of disease, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. An increasing amount of research indicates that ghrelin regulates mood in patients with MDD. Still, current results are inconsistent, and the mechanisms underlying how ghrelin modulates depressive symptoms are inconclusive, especially in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship and potential mechanism between ghrelin and first-episode drug-naïve MDD. METHODS: Ninety first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients and 65 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17) as a measure of depressive symptoms. Plasma levels of ghrelin and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) hormones were measured in all participants. RESULTS: Compared to HCs, the ghrelin levels were higher in the MDD (p < .001) and still showed significance after covarying for sex, age, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Ghrelin was positively related to corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) levels (r = .867, p < .001), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (r = .830, p < .001), and cortisol levels (r = .902, p < .001) in partial correlation analysis. In addition, there was a positive correlation between HAMD total score and ghrelin levels (r = .240, p = .026). Other than that, the HAMD total score also had a positive correlation with the CRH (r = .333, p = .002) and cortisol (r = .307, p = .004) levels. Further mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between ghrelin and HAMD total score was mediated by CRH (ab-path; ß = .4457, 95% CI = 0.0780-1.0253, c-path; ß = .2447, p = .0260, c'-path; ß = -.2009, p = .3427). CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that plasma ghrelin provides a pivotal link to depressive symptoms in first-episode drug-naive MDD patients. CRH mediated the relationship between ghrelin and HAMD total score. It might provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of MDD, contributing to intervention and treatment from this approach.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Depressão , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Hidrocortisona , Grelina , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
15.
Appetite ; 196: 107286, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417533

RESUMO

Research on exercise-induced appetite suppression often does not include resistance training (RT) exercise and only compared matched volumes. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of low-load and high-load RT exercise completed to volitional fatigue on appetite-regulation. METHODS: 11 resistance-trained males (24 ± 2 y) completed 3 sessions in a crossover experimental design: 1) control (CTRL); 2) RT exercise at 30% 1-repetition maximum (RM); and 3) RT exercise at 90% 1-RM. RT sessions consisted of 3 sets of 5 exercises completed to volitional fatigue. Acylated ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), active peptide tyrosine (PYY), lactate, and subjective appetite perceptions were measured pre-exercise, 0-, 60-, and 120-min post-exercise. Energy intake was recorded the day before, of, and after each session. RESULTS: Lactate was elevated following both 30% (0-, 60-, 120-min post-exercise) and 90% (0-, 60-min post-exercise; P < 0.001, d > 3.92) versus CTRL, with 30% greater than 90% (0-min post-exercise; P = 0.011, d = 1.14). Acylated ghrelin was suppressed by 30% (P < 0.007, d > 1.22) and 90% (P < 0.028, d > 0.096) post-exercise versus CTRL, and 30% suppressed concentrations versus 90% (60-min post-exercise; P = 0.032, d = 0.95). There was no effect on PYY (P > 0.171, ηp2 <0.149) though GLP-1 was greater at 60-min post-exercise in 90% (P = 0.052, d = 0.86) versus CTRL. Overall appetite was suppressed 0-min post-exercise following 30% and 90% versus CTRL (P < 0.013, d > 1.10) with no other differences (P > 0.279, d < 0.56). There were no differences in energy intake (P > 0.101, ηp2 <0.319). CONCLUSIONS: RT at low- and high-loads to volitional fatigue induced appetite suppression coinciding with changes in acylated ghrelin though limited effects on anorexigenic hormones or free-living energy intake were present.


Assuntos
Apetite , Treinamento de Força , Masculino , Humanos , Apetite/fisiologia , Grelina , Peptídeo YY , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico
16.
Chronobiol Int ; 41(3): 427-438, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317499

RESUMO

Late chronotype (LC) is related to obesity and altered food intake throughout the day. But whether appetite perception and gut hormones differ among chronotypes is unclear. Thus, we examined if early chronotype (EC) have different appetite responses in relation to food intake than LC. Adults with obesity were categorized using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) as either EC (n = 21, 18F, MEQ = 63.9 ± 1.0, 53.7 ± 1.2 yr, 36.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2) and LC (n = 28, 24F, MEQ = 47.2 ± 1.5, 55.7 ± 1.4 yr, 37.1 ± 1.0 kg/m2). Visual analog scales were used during a 120 min 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 30 min intervals to assess appetite perception, as well as glucose, insulin, GLP-1 (glucagon-like polypeptide-1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide), PYY (protein tyrosine tyrosine), and acylated ghrelin. Dietary intake (food logs), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), aerobic fitness (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)), and body composition dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were also assessed. Age, body composition, RMR, and fasting appetite were similar between groups. However, EC had higher satisfaction and fullness as well as reduced desires for sweet, salty, savory, and fatty foods during the OGTT (P <0.05). Only GIP tAUC0-120 min was elevated in EC versus LC (p = 0.01). Daily dietary intake was similar between groups, but EC ate fewer carbohydrates (p = 0.05) and more protein (p = 0.01) at lunch. Further, EC had lower caloric (p = 0.03), protein (p = 0.03) and fat (p = 0.04) intake during afternoon snacking compared to LC. Dietary fat was lower, and carbohydrates was higher, in EC than LC (p = 0.05) at dinner. Low glucose and high insulin as well as GLP-1 tAUC60-120 min related to desires for sweet foods (p < 0.05). Taken together, EC had more favorable appetite and lower caloric intake later in the day compared with LC.


Assuntos
Apetite , Cronotipo , Adulto , Humanos , Apetite/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Obesidade/metabolismo , Insulina , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Grelina , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glucose , Carboidratos , Tirosina , Glicemia/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278286

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone on feeding and metabolism regulation, and acts through its receptor-growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. Recent studies have suggested that ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of depression, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Lateral septum (LS) is a critical brain region in modulating depression. Therefore, we investigated the role of ghrelin/GHSR signaling in the LS on the depressive-like behaviors of mice under conditions of chronic stress by using behavioral tests, neuropharmacology, and molecular biology techniques. We found that infusion of ghrelin into the LS produced antidepressant-like responses in mice. Activation of LS GABAergic neurons was involved in the antidepressant effect of ghrelin. Importantly, GHSR was highly expressed and distributed in the LS neurons. Blockade of GHSR in the LS reversed the ghrelin-induced antidepressant-like effects. Molecular knockdown of GHSR in the LS induced depressive-like symptoms in mice. Furthermore, administration of ghrelin into the LS alleviated depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). Consistent with the neuropharmacological results, overexpression of GHSR in the LS reversed CSDS-induced depressive-like behaviors. Our findings clarify a key role for ghrelin/GHSR signaling in the regulation of chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors, which could provide new strategies for the treatment of depression.


Assuntos
Grelina , Receptores de Grelina , Camundongos , Animais , Grelina/farmacologia , Grelina/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
18.
Int J Eat Disord ; 57(3): 581-592, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity are weight-related disorders with imbalances in energy homeostasis that may be due to hormonal dysregulation. Given the importance of the hypothalamus in hormonal regulation, we aimed to identify morphometric alterations to hypothalamic subregions linked to these conditions and their connection to appetite-regulating hormones. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained from 78 patients with AN, 27 individuals with obesity and 100 normal-weight healthy controls. Leptin, ghrelin, and insulin blood levels were measured in a subsample of each group. An automated segmentation method was used to segment the hypothalamus and its subregions. Volumes of the hypothalamus and its subregions were compared between groups, and correlational analysis was employed to assess the relationship between morphometric measurements and appetite-regulating hormone levels. RESULTS: While accounting for total brain volume, patients with AN displayed a smaller volume in the inferior-tubular subregion (ITS). Conversely, obesity was associated with a larger volume in the anterior-superior, ITS, posterior subregions (PS), and entire hypothalamus. There were no significant volumetric differences between AN subtypes. Leptin correlated positively with PS volume, whereas ghrelin correlated negatively with the whole hypothalamus volume in the entire cohort. However, appetite-regulating hormone levels did not mediate the effects of body mass index on volumetric measures. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the importance of regional structural hypothalamic alterations in AN and obesity, extending beyond global changes to brain volume. Furthermore, these alterations may be linked to changes in hormonal appetite regulation. However, given the small sample size in our correlation analysis, further analyses in a larger sample size are warranted. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: Using an automated segmentation method to investigate morphometric alterations of hypothalamic subregions in AN and obesity, this study provides valuable insights into the complex interplay between hypothalamic alterations, hormonal appetite regulation, and body weight, highlighting the need for further research to uncover underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Leptina , Humanos , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Apetite/fisiologia , Grelina , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Gene Ther ; 31(3-4): 165-174, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177343

RESUMO

Ghrelin is commonly known as the 'hunger hormone' due to its role in stimulating food intake in humans. However, the roles of ghrelin extend beyond regulating hunger. Our aim was to investigate the ability of ghrelin to protect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species commonly associated with cardiac injury. An in vitro model of oxidative stress was developed using H2O2 injured H9c2 cells. Despite lentiviral ghrelin overexpression, H9c2 cell viability and mitochondrial function were not protected following H2O2 injury. We found that H9c2 cells lack expression of the preproghrelin cleavage enzyme prohormone convertase 1 (encoded by PCSK1), required to convert ghrelin to its active form. In contrast, we found that primary rat cardiomyocytes do express PCSK1 and were protected from H2O2 injury by lentiviral ghrelin overexpression. In conclusion, we have shown that ghrelin expression can protect primary rat cardiomyocytes against H2O2, though this effect was not observed in other cell types tested.


Assuntos
Grelina , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Grelina/genética , Grelina/metabolismo , Grelina/farmacologia , Apoptose , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo
20.
J Endocrinol ; 261(1)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285626

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy occurring in reproductive-age women. Hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation, and metabolic aberrations are the common features in PCOS. Hormonal changes are causing pathological symptoms in women with PCOS. The various hormone alterations in PCOS have been demonstrated. Hormones, such as insulin, growth hormones (GH), ghrelin, LEAP-2, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), insulin, the luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, androgens, and estrogens, are all abnormal in PCOS women. These hormones are related to metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and insulin resistance, overweight and obesity, infertility, and disturbed menstrual cycle in PCOS patients. The pathological changes of these hormones, such as increased insulin, reduced GH, increased ghrelin, and leptin resistance, result in an increased prevalence of diabetes and obesity in PCOS women. A reduced GH, increased LEAP-2 levels, high LH basal, increased LH/FSH ratio, high androgens, and low estrogen are demonstrated in PCOS and linked to infertility. This narrative review aims to clarify the changes of hormone profiles, such as insulin, GH, LH, FSH, androgens, estrogen, progesterone, ghrelin, LEAP-2, asprosin, and subfatin, in PCOS, which may reveal novel targets for better diagnosis and treatment of PCOS.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infertilidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Feminino , Humanos , Grelina , Hormônio Luteinizante , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Androgênios , Estrogênios , Insulina , Obesidade/complicações
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