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1.
Science ; 383(6682): eadj9198, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300992

RESUMO

Mapping single-neuron projections is essential for understanding brain-wide connectivity and diverse functions of the hippocampus (HIP). Here, we reconstructed 10,100 single-neuron projectomes of mouse HIP and classified 43 projectome subtypes with distinct projection patterns. The number of projection targets and axon-tip distribution depended on the soma location along HIP longitudinal and transverse axes. Many projectome subtypes were enriched in specific HIP subdomains defined by spatial transcriptomic profiles. Furthermore, we delineated comprehensive wiring diagrams for HIP neurons projecting exclusively within the HIP formation (HPF) and for those projecting to both intra- and extra-HPF targets. Bihemispheric projecting neurons generally projected to one pair of homologous targets with ipsilateral preference. These organization principles of single-neuron projectomes provide a structural basis for understanding the function of HIP neurons.


Assuntos
Axônios , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hipocampo , Neurônios , Animais , Camundongos , Axônios/fisiologia , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/classificação , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Rede Nervosa , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Neurochem Int ; 169: 105570, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37451344

RESUMO

Sex differences in the brain, encompassing variations in specific brain structures, size, cognitive function, and synaptic connections, have been identified across numerous species. While previous research has explored sex differences in postsynaptic structures, synaptic plasticity, and hippocampus-dependent functions, the hippocampal presynaptic terminals remain largely uninvestigated. The hippocampus is a critical structure responsible for multiple brain functions. This study examined presynaptic differences in cultured hippocampal neurons derived from male and female mice using a combination of biochemical assays, functional analyses measuring exocytosis and endocytosis of synaptic vesicle proteins, ultrastructural analyses via electron microscopy, and presynaptic Ca2+-specific optical probes. Our findings revealed that female neurons exhibited a higher number of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic terminals compared to male neurons. However, no significant differences were observed in presynaptic protein expression, presynaptic terminal ultrastructure, synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis, or presynaptic Ca2+ alterations between male and female neurons.


Assuntos
Terminações Pré-Sinápticas , Caracteres Sexuais , Camundongos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo , Exocitose , Células Cultivadas
3.
Cereb Cortex ; 33(10): 6120-6131, 2023 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587288

RESUMO

In the last decade, the exclusive role of the hippocampus in human declarative learning has been challenged. Recently, we have shown that gains in performance observed in motor sequence learning (MSL) during the quiet rest periods interleaved with practice are associated with increased hippocampal activity, suggesting a role of this structure in motor memory reactivation. Yet, skill also develops offline as memory stabilizes after training and overnight. To examine whether the hippocampus contributes to motor sequence memory consolidation, here we used a network neuroscience strategy to track its functional connectivity offline 30 min and 24 h post learning using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a graph-analytical approach we found that MSL transiently increased network modularity, reflected in an increment in local information processing at 30 min that returned to baseline at 24 h. Within the same time window, MSL decreased the connectivity of a hippocampal-sensorimotor network, and increased the connectivity of a striatal-premotor network in an antagonistic manner. Finally, a supervised classification identified a low-dimensional pattern of hippocampal connectivity that discriminated between control and MSL data with high accuracy. The fact that changes in hippocampal connectivity were detected shortly after training supports a relevant role of the hippocampus in early stages of motor memory consolidation.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Hipocampo , Consolidação da Memória , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/ultraestrutura
4.
Elife ; 102021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543184

RESUMO

Synaptotagmin 7 (SYT7) has emerged as a key regulator of presynaptic function, but its localization and precise role in the synaptic vesicle cycle remain the subject of debate. Here, we used iGluSnFR to optically interrogate glutamate release, at the single-bouton level, in SYT7KO-dissociated mouse hippocampal neurons. We analyzed asynchronous release, paired-pulse facilitation, and synaptic vesicle replenishment and found that SYT7 contributes to each of these processes to different degrees. 'Zap-and-freeze' electron microscopy revealed that a loss of SYT7 diminishes docking of synaptic vesicles after a stimulus and inhibits the recovery of depleted synaptic vesicles after a stimulus train. SYT7 supports these functions from the axonal plasma membrane, where its localization and stability require both γ-secretase-mediated cleavage and palmitoylation. In summary, SYT7 is a peripheral membrane protein that controls multiple modes of synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis and plasticity, in part, through enhancing activity-dependent docking of SVs.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Axônios/enzimologia , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/enzimologia , Sinaptotagminas/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Células Cultivadas , Exocitose , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Lipoilação , Camundongos Knockout , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Plasticidade Neuronal , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Transporte Proteico , Proteólise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transmissão Sináptica , Vesículas Sinápticas/ultraestrutura , Sinaptotagminas/genética , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 147(3): 234-244, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507632

RESUMO

The incidence of diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction is increasing. However, few clinical interventions are available to prevent the disorder. Several researches have shown that liraglutide, as a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, has protective effects on various neurodegenerative diseases, but its roles in diabetic cognitive dysfunction are rarely reported. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of liraglutide on diabetic cognitive dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms. In vivo, the effects of liraglutide treatment were investigated in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In vitro, we investigated the effects of liraglutide on the high-glucose-induced rat primary neurons. The results showed that liraglutide reduced the escape latency and increased the time in effective area in the Morris water maze test, improved the damage of hippocampal and synaptic ultrastructure, and decreased the accumulation of amyloid ß protein in hippocampus of T2DM mice. Furthermore, liraglutide increased the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light 1 chain Ⅱ/Ⅰ, the expression of Beclin1 protein and Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 in vivo and vitro. Additionally, Bafilomycin A1 which can inhibit the fusion of autophagosome and lysosome partially abolished the effects of liraglutide. These findings indicate liraglutide ameliorates diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction by rescuing autophagic flux.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Sinapses/patologia , Sinapses/ultraestrutura
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17747, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493757

RESUMO

Deregulation of synaptic function and neurotransmission has been linked with the development of major depression disorder (MDD). Tianeptine (Tian) has been used as antidepressant with anxiolytic properties and recently as a nootropic to improve cognitive performance, but its mechanism of action is unknown. We conducted a proteomic study on the hippocampal synaptosomal fractions of adult male Wistar rats exposed to chronic social isolation (CSIS, 6 weeks), an animal model of depression and after chronic Tian treatment in controls (nootropic effect) and CSIS-exposed rats (lasting 3 weeks of 6-week CSIS) (therapeutic effect). Increased expression of Syn1 and Camk2-related neurotransmission, vesicle transport and energy processes in Tian-treated controls were found. CSIS led to upregulation of proteins associated with actin cytoskeleton, signaling transduction and glucose metabolism. In CSIS rats, Tian up-regulated proteins involved in mitochondrial energy production, mitochondrial transport and dynamics, antioxidative defense and glutamate clearance, while attenuating the CSIS-increased glycolytic pathway and cytoskeleton organization proteins expression and decreased the expression of proteins involved in V-ATPase and vesicle endocytosis. Our overall findings revealed that synaptic vesicle dynamics, specifically exocytosis, and mitochondria-related energy processes might be key biological pathways modulated by the effective nootropic and antidepressant treatment with Tian and be a potential target for therapeutic efficacy of the stress-related mood disorders.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Isolamento Social , Vesículas Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazepinas/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazepinas/uso terapêutico
7.
Eur J Histochem ; 65(s1)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459572

RESUMO

The SUMOylation machinery is a regulator of neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. It is composed of SUMO isoforms and specialized enzymes named E1, E2 and E3 SUMO ligases. Recent studies have highlighted how SUMO isoforms and E2 enzymes localize with synaptic markers to support previous functional studies but less information is available on E3 ligases. PIAS proteins - belonging to the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) SUMO E3-ligase family - are the best-characterized SUMO E3-ligases and have been linked to the formation of spatial memory in rodents. Whether however they exert their function co-localizing with synaptic markers is still unclear. In this study, we applied for the first time structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to PIAS ligases to investigate the co-localization of PIAS1 and PIAS3 with synaptic markers in hippocampal and cortical murine neurons. The results indicate partial co-localization of PIAS1 and PIAS3 with synaptic markers in hippocampal neurons and much rarer occurrence in cortical neurons. This is in line with previous super-resolution reports describing the co-localization with synaptic markers of other components of the SUMOylation machinery.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/enzimologia , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Microscopia/métodos , Neurônios/enzimologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de STAT Ativados/metabolismo , Sumoilação , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/ultraestrutura , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Neurônios/ultraestrutura
8.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 142: 107930, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450563

RESUMO

High-energy, short-duration electric pulses (EPs) are known to be effective in neuromodulation, but the biological mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Recently, we discovered that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs) could initiate the phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion in non-excitable cells identical to agonist-induced activation of the Gq11 coupled receptors. PIP2 is the precursor for multiple intracellular second messengers critically involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and plasma membrane (PM) ion channels responsible for the control of neuronal excitability. In this paper we demonstrate a novel finding that five day in vitro (DIV5) primary hippocampal neurons (PHNs) undergo significantly higher PIP2 depletion after 7.5 kV/cm 600 ns EP exposure than DIV1 PHNs and day 1-5 (D1-D5) non-excitable Chinese hamster ovarian cells with muscarinic receptor 1 (CHO-hM1). Despite the age of development, the stronger 15 kV/cm 600 ns or longer 7.5 kV/cm 12 µs EP initiated profound PIP2 depletion in all cells studied, outlining damage of the cellular PM and electroporation. Therefore, the intrinsic properties of PHNs in concert with nanoporation explain the stronger neuronal response to nsEP at lower intensity exposures. PIP2 reduction in neurons could be a primary biological mechanism responsible for the stimulation or inhibition of neuronal tissues.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Hipocampo , Neurônios , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254597, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: T1-weighted MRI images are commonly used for volumetric assessment of brain structures. Magnetization prepared 2 rapid gradient echo (MP2RAGE) sequence offers superior gray (GM) and white matter (WM) contrast. This study aimed to quantitatively assess the agreement of whole brain tissue and deep GM (DGM) volumes obtained from MP2RAGE compared to the widely used MP-RAGE sequence. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy participants were included in this study. All subjects underwent a 3T MRI scan acquiring high-resolution 3D MP-RAGE and MP2RAGE images. Twelve participants were re-scanned after one year. The whole brain, as well as DGM segmentation, was performed using CAT12, volBrain, and FSL-FAST automatic segmentation tools based on the acquired images. Finally, contrast-to-noise ratio between WM and GM (CNRWG), the agreement between the obtained tissue volumes, as well as scan-rescan variability of both sequences were explored. RESULTS: Significantly higher CNRWG was detected in MP2RAGE vs. MP-RAGE (Mean ± SD = 0.97 ± 0.04 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 respectively; p<0.0001). Significantly higher total brain GM, and lower cerebrospinal fluid volumes were obtained from MP2RAGE vs. MP-RAGE based on all segmentation methods (p<0.05 in all cases). Whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons revealed higher GM tissue probability in the thalamus, putamen, caudate, lingual gyrus, and precentral gyrus based on MP2RAGE compared with MP-RAGE. Moreover, significantly higher WM probability was observed in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and frontal-and-temporal regions in MP2RAGE vs. MP-RAGE. Finally, MP2RAGE showed a higher mean percentage of change in total brain GM compared to MP-RAGE. On the other hand, MP-RAGE demonstrated a higher overtime percentage of change in WM and DGM volumes compared to MP2RAGE. CONCLUSIONS: Due to its higher CNR, MP2RAGE resulted in reproducible brain tissue segmentation, and thus is a recommended method for volumetric imaging biomarkers for the monitoring of neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/ultraestrutura , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Mapeamento Encefálico , Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Nervoso Central/ultraestrutura , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/ultraestrutura , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo de Espécimes , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/ultraestrutura , Substância Branca/ultraestrutura
10.
J Neurosci ; 41(33): 7003-7014, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266899

RESUMO

The structural plasticity of dendritic spines is considered to be an important basis of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Here, we induced input-specific structural LTP (sLTP) in single dendritic spines in organotypic hippocampal slices from mice of either sex and performed ultrastructural analyses of the spines using efficient correlative light and electron microscopy. We observed reorganization of the PSD nanostructure, such as perforation and segmentation, at 2-3, 20, and 120 min after sLTP induction. In addition, PSD and nonsynaptic axon-spine interface (nsASI) membrane expanded unevenly during sLTP. Specifically, the PSD area showed a transient increase at 2-3 min after sLTP induction. The PSD growth was to a degree less than spine volume growth at 2-3 min and 20 min after sLTP induction but became similar at 120 min. On the other hand, the nsASI area showed a profound and lasting expansion, to a degree similar to spine volume growth throughout the process. These rapid ultrastructural changes in PSD and surrounding membrane may contribute to rapid electrophysiological plasticity during sLTP.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To understand the ultrastructural changes during synaptic plasticity, it is desired to efficiently image single dendritic spines that underwent structural plasticity in electron microscopy. We induced structural long-term potentiation (sLTP) in single dendritic spines by two-photon glutamate uncaging. We then identified the same spines at different phases of sLTP and performed ultrastructural analysis by using an efficient correlative light and electron microscopy method. We found that postsynaptic density undergoes dramatic modification in its structural complexity immediately after sLTP induction. Meanwhile, the nonsynaptic axon-spine interface area shows a rapid and sustained increase throughout sLTP. Our results indicate that the uneven modification of synaptic and nonsynaptic postsynaptic membrane might contribute to rapid electrophysiological plasticity during sLTP.


Assuntos
Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Densidade Pós-Sináptica/ultraestrutura , Animais , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Biolística , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Feminino , Glutamatos/efeitos da radiação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Indóis/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fotoquímica
11.
Neurochem Int ; 149: 105145, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324942

RESUMO

The heteromeric complexes of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) have recently been confirmed in cell experiments, while its in situ detection at the subcellular level of brain tissue has not yet been achieved. Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) enables the detection of low-abundance proteins and their interactions at the cellular level with high specificity and sensitivity, while Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is an excellent tool for observing subcellular structures. To develop a highly efficient and reproducible technique for in situ detection of protein interactions at subcellular levels, in this study, we modified the standard PLA sample preparation method to make the samples suitable for analysis by transmission electron microscopy. Using this technique, we successfully detected the heteromers of A2AR and NMDAR1, the essential subunit of NMDA receptor on the hippocampal synaptic structure in mice. Our results show that the distribution of this heteromer is different in different hippocampal subregions. This technique holds the potential for being a reliable method to detect protein interactions at the subcellular level and unravel their unknown functions.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/ultraestrutura , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Animais , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
12.
J Pineal Res ; 71(1): e12747, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085316

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered one of the hallmarks of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mitochondria are plastic organelles that undergo continuous biogenesis, fusion, and fission. They can be transferred between cells through tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), dynamic structures that allow the exchange of proteins, soluble molecules, and organelles. Maintaining mitochondrial dynamics is crucial to cell function and survival. The present study aimed to assess the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial dynamics, TNT formation, and mitochondria transfer in HT22 cells exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). The results showed that melatonin treatment during the reoxygenation phase reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, improved cell viability, and increased the expression of PGC1α and SIRT3. Melatonin also preserved the expression of the membrane translocase proteins TOM20 and TIM23, and of the matrix protein HSP60, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, it promoted mitochondrial fusion and enhanced the expression of MFN2 and OPA1. Remarkably, melatonin also fostered mitochondrial transfer between injured HT22 cells through TNT connections. These results provide new insights into the effect of melatonin on mitochondrial network reshaping and cell survival. Fostering TNTs formation represents a novel mechanism mediating the protective effect of melatonin in ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Estruturas da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanotubos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
13.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(11): 7464-7472, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061993

RESUMO

Most patients that resuscitate successfully from cardiac arrest (CA) suffer from poor neurological prognosis. DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is known to have neuroprotective effects via multiple mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate whether NBP can decrease neurological impairment after CA. We studied the protective role of NBP in the hippocampus of a rat model of cardiac arrest induced by asphyxia. Thirty-nine rats were divided randomly into sham, control, and NBP groups. Rats in control and NBP groups underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 6 min after asphyxia. NBP or vehicle (saline) was administered intravenously 10 min after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons was observed under transmission electron microscope. NBP treatment improved neurological function up to 72 h after CA. The ultrastructural lesion in mitochondria recovered in the NBP-treated CA model. In conclusion, our study demonstrated multiple therapeutic benefits of NBP after CA.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Asfixia/complicações , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retorno da Circulação Espontânea , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
14.
Turk Neurosurg ; 31(4): 623-633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978223

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate neurogenesis in both adult and 3-week-old genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) to determine if newly formed neurons within the dentate gyrus (DG) form synaptic contacts with GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) and glutamatergic nerve terminals and compared to the control (non-GAERS) Wistar rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Brain tissue was processed for electron microscopic assessment. Thin sections from the hippocampal DG were double-labelled for anti-GABA or anti-VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) and anti-doublecortin (DCX) antibodies using immunogold methodology and examined with the transmission electron microscope for morphological changes and to quantify the density of gold labeling. RESULTS: DCX immunoreactivity was demonstrated within axon terminals, dendrites and somata in all groups. DCX and GABA or VGLUT1 were found to be co-localized in the axon terminals in all groups. We observed that DCX-immunoreactive (-ir) profiles formed synaptic contacts with GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals. The percentage of DCX labeling in dendrites, compared to axons, and the percentage of DCX-ir terminal profiles forming asymmetrical synapses, compared to those forming symmetrical synapses, were increased in all groups compared to the control group. DCX immunoreactivity in the 21-day-old GAERS group was found to be increased compared to the Wistar group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that newly born neurons are incorporated into the local hippocampal network in both the GAERS and the control Wistar rats. The results suggest that the neurogenesis taking place in the hippocampus may also be involved in the mechanism underlying absence seizures in GAERS.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/genética , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/fisiopatologia , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Duplacortina , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/metabolismo , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos , Ratos Wistar , Sinapses/fisiologia , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
15.
Brain Res Bull ; 173: 28-36, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984429

RESUMO

Plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus is believed to underlie learning and memory processes. Surprisingly, very few studies report long-lasting structural changes of synapses induced by behavioral training. It remains, therefore, unclear which synaptic changes in the hippocampus contribute to memory storage. Here, we systematically compare how long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission (LTP) (a primary form of synaptic plasticity and cellular model of memory) and behavioral training affect hippocampal glutamatergic synapses at the ultrastructural level enabled by electron microscopy. The review of the literature indicates that while LTP induces growth of dendritic spines and post-synaptic densities (PSD), that represent postsynaptic part of a glutamatergic synapse, after behavioral training there is transient (< 6 h) synaptogenesis and long-lasting (> 24 h) increase in PSD volume (without a significant change of dendritic spine volume), indicating that training-induced PSD growth may reflect long-term enhancement of synaptic functions. Additionally, formation of multi-innervated spines (MIS), is associated with long-term memory in aged mice and LTP-deficient mutant mice. Since volume of PSD, as well as atypical synapses, can be reliably observed only with electron microscopy, we argue that the ultrastructural level of analysis is required to reveal synaptic changes that are associated with long-term storage of information in the brain.


Assuntos
Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica
16.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 321(1): C17-C25, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979213

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation has profound influence on several aspects of health and disease. Mitochondria dysfunction has been implicated to play an essential role in the neuronal cellular damage induced by sleep deprivation, but little is known about how neuronal mitochondrial ultrastructure is affected under sleep deprivation. In this report, we utilized electron cryo-tomography to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3-D) mitochondrial structure and extracted morphometric parameters to quantitatively characterize its reorganizations. Isolated mitochondria from the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after 72 h of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) were reconstructed and analyzed. Statistical analysis of six morphometric parameters specific to the mitochondrial inner membrane topology revealed identical pattern of changes in both the hippocampus and cerebral cortex but with higher significance levels in the hippocampus. The structural differences were indistinguishable by conventional phenotypic methods based on two-dimensional electron microscopy images or 3-D electron tomography reconstructions. Furthermore, to correlate structure alterations with mitochondrial functions, high-resolution respirometry was employed to investigate the effects of PSD on mitochondrial respiration, which showed that PSD significantly suppressed the mitochondrial respiratory capacity of the hippocampus, whereas the isolated mitochondria from the cerebral cortex were less affected. These results demonstrate the capability of the morphometric parameters for quantifying complex structural reorganizations and suggest a correlation between PSD and inner membrane architecture/respiratory functions of the brain mitochondria with variable effects in different brain regions.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/ultraestrutura , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Privação do Sono/metabolismo
17.
Neurotoxicology ; 85: 18-32, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878312

RESUMO

Mitochondrial biogenesis relies on different protein import machinery, as mitochondrial proteins are imported from the cytosol. The mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly (MIA) pathway consists of GFER/ALR and CHCHD4/Mia40, responsible for importing proteins and their oxidative folding inside the mitochondria. The MIA pathway plays an essential role in complex IV (COX IV) biogenesis via importing copper chaperone COX17, associated with the respiratory chain. BPA, an environmental toxicant, found in consumable plastics, causes neurotoxicity via impairment in mitochondrial dynamics, neurogenesis, and cognitive functions. We studied the levels of key regulatory proteins of mitochondrial import pathways and mitochondrial biogenesis after BPA exposure in the rat hippocampus. BPA caused a significant reduction in the levels of mitochondrial biogenesis proteins (PGC1α, and TFAM) and mitochondrial import protein (GFER). Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced co-localization of NeuN with GFER, PGC-1α, and TFAM suggesting impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and protein import. BPA exposure resulted in damaged mitochondria with distorted cristae in neurons and caused a significant reduction in GFER localization inside IMS as depicted by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduced levels of GFER resulted in defective COX17 import. The translocation of cytochrome c into the cytosol and increased cleaved caspase-3 levels triggered apoptosis due to BPA toxicity. Overall, our study implicates GFER as a potential target for impaired mitochondrial protein machinery, biogenesis, and apoptosis against BPA neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biogênese de Organelas , Fenóis/toxicidade , Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/química , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/metabolismo , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8656, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883618

RESUMO

Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) is a key molecule in vesicular exocytosis, probably in the priming step. However, CAPS1's role in synaptic plasticity and brain function is elusive. Herein, we showed that synaptic plasticity and learning behavior were impaired in forebrain and/or hippocampus-specific Caps1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice by means of molecular, physiological, and behavioral analyses. Neonatal Caps1 cKO mice showed a decrease in the number of docked vesicles in the hippocampal CA3 region, with no detectable changes in the distribution of other major exocytosis-related molecules. Additionally, long-term potentiation (LTP) was partially and severely impaired in the CA1 and CA3 regions, respectively. CA1 LTP was reinforced by repeated high-frequency stimuli, whereas CA3 LTP was completely abolished. Accordingly, hippocampus-associated learning was severely impaired in adeno-associated virus (AAV) infection-mediated postnatal Caps1 cKO mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that CAPS1 is a key protein involved in the cellular mechanisms underlying hippocampal synaptic release and plasticity, which is crucial for hippocampus-associated learning.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Clássico , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8590, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883654

RESUMO

In view of the complicated pathophysiological process of vascular dementia (VD), drugs for the clinical treatment of VD mainly target related risk factors, while drugs with excellent efficacy in cognitive function are still relatively lacking. Imperatorin (IMP), an active constituent extracted from angelica dahuricae and notopterygium Notopterygii, which has anti-inflammatory, vasodilator, anticoagulant, block calcium channel, anticonvulsant, and anti oxygen free radical injury properties. Therefore,the present study examined its effects on VD rats and the underlying molecular mechanisms, in order to provide promising therapeutic methods. VD was established by modified ligation of perpetual two-vessel occlusion (2VO). After 2VO surgery, IMP (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection for 12 consecutive weeks to evaluate therapeutic effects. Cognitive function was verified by the Morris water maze. The neuronal morphological changes were examined via Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Real-Time PCR and Western blot were used for detecting pro- and antiapoptotic biomarkers, and the hippocampus synaptic damage was examined by Transmission electron microscope. We revealed that 2VO-induced cognitive impairment, hippocampus CA1 neuron damage, apoptosis and synaptic damage. IMP-treatment significantly improved 2VO-induced cognitive deficits and hippocampus neuron damage. Molecular analysis revealed that IMP inhibited apoptosis through the down regulation of Bax, Caspase-3 and upregulation of Bcl-2. Meanwhile, IMP-treatment markedly improved synaptic ultrastructure morphology, increased the SAZ length, PSD thickness and up-regulated PSD-95 expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that IMP was effective in the treatment of 2VO-induced VD via inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampus neurons and reducing the synaptic plasticity destroy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Demência Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Furocumarinas/uso terapêutico , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Western Blotting , Furocumarinas/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Mol Autism ; 12(1): 23, 2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are synaptopathies characterized by area-specific synaptic alterations and neuroinflammation. Structural and adhesive features of hippocampal synapses have been described in the valproic acid (VPA) model. However, neuronal and microglial contribution to hippocampal synaptic pattern and its time-course of appearance is still unknown. METHODS: Male pups born from pregnant rats injected at embryonic day 10.5 with VPA (450 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (control) were used. Maturation, exploratory activity and social interaction were assessed as autistic-like traits. Synaptic, cell adhesion and microglial markers were evaluated in the CA3 hippocampal region at postnatal day (PND) 3 and 35. Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons from control and VPA animals were used to study synaptic features and glutamate-induced structural remodeling. Basal and stimuli-mediated reactivity was assessed on microglia primary cultures isolated from control and VPA animals. RESULTS: At PND3, before VPA behavioral deficits were evident, synaptophysin immunoreactivity and the balance between the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) were preserved in the hippocampus of VPA animals along with the absence of microgliosis. At PND35, concomitantly with the establishment of behavioral deficits, the hippocampus of VPA rats showed fewer excitatory synapses and increased NCAM/PSA-NCAM balance without microgliosis. Hippocampal neurons from VPA animals in culture exhibited a preserved synaptic puncta number at the beginning of the synaptogenic period in vitro but showed fewer excitatory synapses as well as increased NCAM/PSA-NCAM balance and resistance to glutamate-induced structural synaptic remodeling after active synaptogenesis. Microglial cells isolated from VPA animals and cultured in the absence of neurons showed similar basal and stimuli-induced reactivity to the control group. Results indicate that in the absence of glia, hippocampal neurons from VPA animals mirrored the in vivo synaptic pattern and suggest that while neurons are primed during the prenatal period, hippocampal microglia are not intrinsically altered. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests microglial role is not determinant for developing neuronal alterations or counteracting neuronal outcome in the hippocampus and highlights the crucial role of hippocampal neurons and structural plasticity in the establishment of the synaptic alterations in the VPA rat model.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Valproico , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar
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