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1.
Ann Glob Health ; 90(1): 20, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495416

RESUMO

Objective: To map ophthalmologist locations and surgical practices as they vary sub-nationally within Honduras to maximize the impact of efforts to develop cataract surgical capacity. Methods: An anonymous survey was sent to all Honduran ophthalmologists with questions on surgical volume, department-level location, type of facility in which they work, surgical methods, and age. Surgical volume, population, and poverty data sourced through the Oxford Poverty Human Development Initiative were mapped at the department level, and cataract surgical rates (CSR; surgeries per million population per year) were calculated and mapped. Results: Sixty-one of the 102 Honduran ophthalmologists contacted responded. Of those, 85% perform cataract surgery, and 49% work at least part time in a non-profit or governmental facility. Honduras has fewer surgical ophthalmologists per million than the global average, and though national CSR appears to be increasing, it varies significantly between departments. The correlation between CSR and poverty is complex, and outliers provide valuable insights. Conclusion: Mapping ophthalmological surgical practices as they relate to population and poverty at a sub-national level provides important insights into geographic trends in the need for and access to eye care. Such insights can be used to guide efficient and effective development of cataract surgical capacity.


Assuntos
Catarata , Oftalmologia , Médicos , Humanos , Honduras/epidemiologia , Catarata/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos
2.
Biomedica ; 43(4): 492-505, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109136

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The frequency of detected strongyloidiasis is affected by the selected laboratory method in the studied population. Considering that Honduras has few community-based studies, the analysis of the laboratory record data can provide information helping to understand this parasitosis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and to identify the factors associated with strongyloidiasis, analyzing the laboratory records of the Servicio de Parasitología at Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa (Honduras) between 2010 and 2022. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytical study. The laboratory diagnosis consisted of stool samples' examination by direct smear and modified Baermann technique. We estimated frequencies and percentages. The statistical association was calculated with prevalence ratios and a 95% confidence interval. Software R, version 4.2.0, and epiR package, version 2.0.46, were used to perform the analysis. RESULTS: The frequency of strongyloidiasis was 0.29% (112/38,085). It was higher with the modified Baermann technique (0.87%; 40/4,575) among male patients (0.44%; 70/15,758). Regarding the age, strongyloidiasis was higher in the 20-40 years old group (0.41%; 28/6,886) with direct smear and 41-61 years old (1.14%; 14/1,232) group with the modified Baermann technique. Among the factors associated with strongyloidiasis were age between 20 and 61 years old (PR=2.26, CI 95%=1.53-3.31), male patients (PR=2.34, CI 95%=1.60­3.44), mucus (PR=1.86, CI 95%=1.22-2.83) and Charcot-Leyden crystals in stool (PR=8.47, CI 95%=5.14-13.96); watery stool (PR=2.39, CI 95%=1.55-3.68), and other helminthiases (PR=6.73, CI 95%=3.98-11.38). Associated factors to cases detected with the modified Baermann technique were outpatient consultation (PR=4.21, CI 95%=1.91-9.28) and formed stools (PR=3.99, CI 95%=1.94-8.19). CONCLUSIONS: The modified Baermann technique increased the detection of strongyloidiasis almost four times. Most cases were distributed among male adults. The cases diagnosed exclusively with the modified Baermann technique have differences from those with observed larvae in the direct smear. It is necessary to develop community-based population studies.


Introducción: La detección de estrongiloidiasis depende del método de diagnóstico utilizado y la población estudiada. Dado que en Honduras hay pocos estudios poblacionales, el análisis de los datos de laboratorio puede generar información que ayude a entender esta parasitosis. Objetivo: Estimar la frecuencia e identificar los factores asociados a la estrongiloidiasis mediante el análisis de los registros de laboratorio del Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela en Tegucigalpa (Honduras) durante el periodo 2010-2022. Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo, transversal y analítico. El diagnóstico de laboratorio consistió en el análisis de muestras de heces con los métodos directo y Baermann modificado. Se estimaron frecuencias y porcentajes, y la asociación estadística se calculó con razón de prevalencia e intervalos de confianza del 95 %. Se utilizaron los programas R, versión 4.2.0, y el paquete epiR, versión 2.0.46, para ejecutar los análisis estadísticos. Resultados: La frecuencia general de estrongiloidiasis fue 0,29 % (112/38.085). Dicha frecuencia de detección fue mayor con el método de Baermann modificado (0,87 %; 40/4.575), entre pacientes masculinos (0,44 %; 70/15.758). También fue mayor en el rango de edad 20-40 años (0,41%; 28/6.886) por examen directo y entre los 41-61 años (1,14%; 14/1.232) con el método de Baermann modificado. Entre los factores asociados con la estrongiloidiasis se encontraron: edad entre los 20 y los 61 años (RP=2,26; IC 95%=1,53-3,31), sexo masculino (RP=2,34; IC 95% =1,60-3.44), moco (RP=1,86; IC 95%=1,22-2,83) y cristales de Charcot-Leyden en heces (RP=8,47, IC 95%=5,14-13,96), heces líquidas (RP=2,39, IC 95%=1,55-3,68) y otras helmintiasis (RP=6,73, IC 95%=3,98-11,38). Como factores asociados a los casos detectados con el método de Baermann modificado están consulta externa (RP=4,21, IC 95%=1,91-9,28) y heces formadas (RP=3,99, IC 95%=1,94-8,19). Conclusiones: El método de Baermann modificado aumentó la frecuencia de detección de estrongiloidiasis casi cuatro veces. La mayoría de los casos se distribuyeron entre pacientes masculinos adultos. Los casos diagnosticados exclusivamente con el método de Baermann modificado tuvieron diferencias con los casos diagnosticados por examen directo. Es necesario realizar estudios poblacionales.


Assuntos
Estrongiloidíase , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Honduras/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Laboratórios
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 371, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37264307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika are co-endemic in Honduras and are often misdiagnosed due to similar clinical and epidemiological behavior. Most arboviral infections reported in primary care are based on clinical diagnoses without laboratory confirmation. Therefore, the accuracy of physicians' diagnoses and the factors that affect them needs to be evaluated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling at primary healthcare centers was conducted from June to September 2016 and 2017. Clinical data and dried blood spots on Whatman 903 filter paper from 415 arboviral cases and 248 non-arboviral febrile cases were collected. Viral RNA was extracted from a 6-mm DBS paper disc and confirmed by RT-qPCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Only 30.84% of diagnostic accuracy was observed in physicians in primary care when comparing arboviral clinical diagnosis with RT-qPCR detection. Moreover, in Dengue and Zika clinical cases, only 8.23% and 27.08% were RT-qPCR confirmed, respectively. No Chikungunya cases were confirmed. In 2017, 20.96% of febrile cases were RT-qPCR confirmed arboviral infections. The symptoms of 45.5% of arboviral cases can fit more than one case definition for arboviruses. The "symptom compliance" and "patient with suspected close contact" were the criteria most utilized by physicians for arboviral diagnosis. The pattern of the epidemiological curves of the arboviral clinical cases didn't match the one of the RT-qPCR confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS: Low diagnostic accuracy for overall and individual arboviral infections was observed in physicians. Unspecific symptomatology, overlapping case definitions, and reported close contact to an arboviral patient might contribute to misdiagnosis. Without laboratory confirmation, surveillance data may not reflect the real behavior of these diseases and could impact health interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus , Arbovírus , Febre de Chikungunya , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Honduras/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Zika virus/genética , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102567, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36958705

RESUMO

Recently, there has been a significant increase in irregular migration from Central America's northern triangle (Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador). Hondurans who migrate to North America face numerous risks to their lives and health. Infectious diseases are one of the most serious threats to migrants both during the migration process and once they arrive in the host country. The major infectious diseases affecting both migrants and the health services in non-endemic countries that care for these migrants are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Migração Humana , Humanos , América do Norte , Honduras/epidemiologia , El Salvador/epidemiologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995877

RESUMO

Dogs are considered to be the main domestic reservoir associated with the transmission of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi to humans in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in America. However, little is known about the role of canines as a source of infection in endemic areas of nonulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the role of dogs as a possible reservoir of the parasite in Southern Honduras. Dogs (n = 107) living with individuals affected by NUCL were clinically examined and biological material was collected for parasitological and immunological diagnosis. Most animals showed a healthy appearance and a few presented slight weight loss (64%), alopecia (7%), onychogryphosis (5%) and skin lesions (1%). The overall seroprevalence of Leishmania infection based on the DDP ® quick test and/or in-house ELISA serological test was 41%. The presence of the parasite's DNA was confirmed in 94% of the dogs; however, the average parasite load in the buffy coat was low at 6.09 parasites/µL, ranging between 0.221 and 50.2. The skin of seropositive dogs examined by histopathology using paraffin sections stained by hematoxylin and immunohistochemistry did not show cutaneous lesions or parasite amastigotes. Based on the absence of parasites in the skin and the low parasite load detected in the buffy coat, it seems that the dog does not represent a good source of infection for the vector in the endemic area of NUCL transmission in Southern Honduras. Other domestic and/or wild animals should be investigated.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Honduras/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
7.
Ethn Dis ; 33(2-3): 124-129, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845737

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the population older than 45 years in rural Western Honduras and contribute to the limited literature on MS in Central America. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the District of Copan. The study includes 382 men and women aged 45 to 75 years. With proper consent, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, blood sugar, and lipid profile were evaluated. MS was diagnosed by using the National Cholesterol Education Program Criteria - Adult Panel Treatment III (NCEP-ATP III). Data were stored in REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) and analyzed with STATA14. Results: Data were collected on 382 patients; of these, 38% were male and 62% female. The prevalence of obesity was 24.1% for both sexes. The prevalence of MS was 64.9%. Prevalence in males and females was 54% and 71%, respectively. Notable parameters were elevated triglycerides (71%), low High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (63.4%), and abdominal obesity (56.8%). In men, the distribution of MS was more homogeneous, with a mean result of 80% amongst all ages. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of obesity and MS is severely underestimated in rural Honduras. The most remarkable parameter for MS was high triglycerides (71%). Sixty-nine percent of the population has above-normal Body Mass Index (BMI). Public health efforts to control comorbidities and tackle risk factors in this population should take utmost priority.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade , População Rural , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Honduras/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Obesidade/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 22-27, ene.-jun. 2022. tab., graf.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1391209

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La epilepsia es una patología frecuente en pediatría; representa el mayor número de referencias al Servicio de Neurología. En Honduras son pocas las publicaciones recientes del tema. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y sociodemográficas de pacientes con epilepsia en un centro nacional de referencia pediátrica. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Se utilizaron expedientes clínicos de pacientes atendidos en Consulta Externa de Neuropediatría Hospital María, Especialidades Pediátricas (HMEP), Tegucigalpa, Honduras, durante mayo 2015-marzo 2019. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: De los 334 pacientes, el sexo masculino fue el más afectado 55.7% (186), procedentes de zona urbana 69.5% (232); la mediana de edad fue 7 años. En 26.3% (88) de los casos, el padre estuvo ausente y el 81.1% (271) de los pacientes eran hijos de madre desempleada. Como etiología se encontró que el 54.4% (182) fue desconocida. El 26.3% (88) tuvo antecedente familiar de epilepsia y el 50.6% (174/344) de los pacientes tuvieron eventualidad perinatal, de estos 24.7% (43/174) presentó asfixia neonatal. El 32.7% (108/330) se encontraban en estado de malnutrición. Las crisis focales fueron más frecuentes y el factor precipitante de crisis más común fue abandono de tratamiento. El 36.6% (126) tenía algún tipo de discapacidad, siendo la cognitiva la más sobresaliente. Discusión: Es necesario reforzar estrategias de salud pública dirigidas a la prevención prenatal, natal y posnatal de la epilepsia, brindar apoyo a las familias monoparentales y asegurar acceso continuo a servicios de salud...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Honduras/epidemiologia
9.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 28-35, ene.-jun. 2022. tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393003

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha provocado una crisis de salud pública mundial, creando incertidumbre sobre su tratamiento. El Tocilizumab (TCZ), un anticuerpo monoclonal humanizado que actúa como antagonista del receptor de Interleucina 6 (IL-6), ha sido utilizado en enfermedades inmunológicas y en pacientes críticos por COVID-19. Objetivo: Describir el uso de TCZ en pacientes adultos hospitalizados por COVID-19 en Hospital María Especialidades Pediátricas (HMEP), agosto 2020-marzo 2021. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Fuente de datos: expedientes clínicos. Criterios de inclusión: Adulto mayor de 18 años, manejo hospitalario por COVID-19, con TCZ y expediente clínico completo. Criterios de exclusión: Haber recibido TCZ en otro hospital. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y se realizó análisis de sobrevida de Kaplan & Meier para comparar las probabilidades de sobrevida según edad, con un nivel se significancia p<0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 104 expedientes clínicos. La mediana de edad de los pacientes fue 57 años (RI=44-67), la edad fue mayor en los pacientes fallecidos; 60% (62/104) del sexo masculino. Los pacientes mostraron mejoría en parámetros clínicos y laboratoriales, como descensos en frecuencia respiratoria y frecuencia cardíaca, aumento de linfocitos y descenso de Proteína C Reactiva (PCR). El análisis de sobrevida de Kaplan & Meier mostró que la probabilidad de vivir en estos pacientes disminuye conforme aumenta la edad. Discusión: Los resultados de este estudio coinciden con los encontrados a nivel internacional, avalando el uso de TCZ en pacientes críticos por COVID-19...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Idade , COVID-19/mortalidade , Honduras/epidemiologia , Hospitais Públicos
10.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 36-43, ene.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393213

RESUMO

Antecedentes: No conocemos datos sobre evaluación de pruebas inmunológicas para mejorar el diagnóstico de Giardia duodenalis y Cryptosporidium spp., agentes etiológicos de diarrea de importancia mundial, en Honduras. Objetivos: Comparar dos pruebas inmunológicas para el diagnóstico de Giardia y Cryptosporidium spp. con microscopía de rutina y determinar su aplicabilidad local. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. En 2013, 134 muestras de heces recibidas en el Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela (HE) y 67 muestras del Centro de Salud Alonso Suazo (CSAS) se analizaron con una Prueba Rápida Inmunocromatográfica (PDR). En 2019-2020, 60 muestras de heces del HE se analizaron con una prueba inmunoenzimática ELISA. El protocolo de rutina incluyó examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol, coloración tricrómica y coloración ácido resistente modificada (ARM) (HE) y examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol (CSAS). Resultados: Cada prueba inmunológica mostró mayor positividad que la microscopía: en 134 muestras del HE para Giardia (6.7% vs 4.5%) y Cryptosporidium (3.7% vs 0.7%), similar en 67 muestras del CSAS (14.9% vs 7.5% para Giardia; 0.7% para Cryptosporidium con la prueba inmunológica). De 60 muestras analizadas por ELISA en HE, 31.7% fue positiva por Giardia vs 18.3% en examen directo y 23.3% en coloración tricrómica; 6.7% positiva por Cryptosporidium spp. vs 3.3% por coloración ARM. Discusión: Pruebas inmunológicas aumentaron significativamente el diagnóstico de ambas parasitosis; sin embargo, publicaciones sobre pruebas similares ofrecieron resultados no concluyentes. Por costo elevado podrían reservarse para pacientes pediátricos, pacientes inmunocomprometidos en hospitales, complementando microscopía. Los laboratorios de salud deben fortalecer capacidad diagnóstica...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Estudos Transversais , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Honduras/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 241: 113949, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259686

RESUMO

Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion was estimated to cause 2.31 million deaths worldwide in 2019; cardiovascular disease is a substantial contributor to the global burden. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between household air pollution (24-h gravimetric kitchen and personal particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC)) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured in dried blood spots among 107 women in rural Honduras using wood-burning traditional or Justa (an engineered combustion chamber) stoves. A suite of 6 additional markers of systemic injury and inflammation were considered in secondary analyses. We adjusted for potential confounders and assessed effect modification of several cardiovascular-disease risk factors. The median (25th, 75th percentiles) 24-h-average personal PM2.5 concentration was 115 µg/m3 (65,154 µg/m3) for traditional stove users and 52 µg/m3 (39, 81 µg/m3) for Justa stove users; kitchen PM2.5 and BC had similar patterns. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 and BC were associated with higher levels of CRP (e.g., a 25% increase in personal PM2.5 was associated with a 10.5% increase in CRP [95% CI: 1.2-20.6]). In secondary analyses, results were generally consistent with a null association. Evidence for effect modification between pollutant measures and four different cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., high blood pressure) was inconsistent. These results support the growing evidence linking household air pollution and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Proteína C-Reativa , Culinária/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Madeira/análise , Madeira/química
13.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 429-439, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of serious fungal infections in Honduras is unknown. The diagnosis of fungal diseases relies on almost exclusively on microscopy and culture limiting an accurate estimate of the burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study was to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Honduras using previously described methods. METHODS: National and international demographic data on population, HIV, tuberculosis, asthma, COPD and cancer were obtained. A thorough literature search was done for all epidemiological studies and case series of serious fungal diseases. Using these risk populations and whatever incidence and prevalence could be found that was most pertinent to Honduras, a burden estimate was derived. RESULTS: The estimated number of serious fungal infection was estimated to be between 178,772 and 179,624 with nearly 2300 cases of these representing opportunistic infections in people living with HIV. The incidence of histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis in people living with HIV is high and estimated to be 4.3 and 4.6 cases per 100,000 population respectively. Approximately 12,247-13,099 cases of aspergillosis and 164,227 of other serious fungal infections were estimated to occur each year. CONCLUSION: An accurate estimate of the burden of serious fungal infections in Honduras is unknown but based on our results, likely significant. Serious fungal infections represent an important public health problem in Honduras affecting approximately 1.8% of the population. There is a clear need for better access to diagnostic tools and antifungals to conduct research to better understand the impact of fungal diseases in Honduras.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS , Histoplasmose , Micoses , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Prevalência
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 24(6): 909-913, 2022 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure poses risks to pregnant women and children. Though smoking among pregnant women in many low- and middle-income countries is low, exposure to SHS might be higher. We examined the prevalence and predictors of SHS among pregnant women from Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, and Honduras. METHODS: Postpartum women 18+ years old who completed pregnancy in past 5 years were surveyed in health care and community settings. RESULTS: Data for 1,081 women indicated low tobacco use (1.0%-3.7%), frequent exposure to active smokers (29.0%-34.0%), often being close enough to breathe others' smoke (49.4%-66.5%), and most having smoke-free home policies (70.8%-76.2%). Women reporting unintended pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 2.00) and alcohol consumption (aOR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.34, 2.77) were more likely to be close enough to breathe others' smoke. Women with health problems during pregnancy (aOR: 1.48 95% CI 1.07, 2.06) were more likely to have home smoking policies. Tobacco use was associated with all SHS exposure outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: SHS exposure was high during pregnancy; women with higher risk variables, that is, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and unintended pregnancy were more likely to be exposed. Addressing SHS exposure in pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries can improve maternal health outcomes in vulnerable populations. IMPLICATIONS: The study results suggest a cluster of multiple risk factors associated with a high prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women in LIMCs from Latin America and Caribbean Region. Interventions, regulations, and policies need to address specific high-risk factors to change behaviors and improve maternal and child health outcomes especially in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Criança , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
17.
Mil Med ; 187(7-8): 802-807, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis and rickettsial diseases are global zoonotic diseases. In severe infection cases, mortality can range from 10% to 30%. Currently most epidemiological data available are based on outbreak investigations and hospital-based studies from endemic countries. The U.S. soldiers at military bases in these countries are highly vulnerable due to the fact that most of them are immunologically naïve to these pathogens. No risk assessment of leptospirosis and rickettsial diseases among U.S. military personnel in Honduras is currently available. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of leptospirosis and rickettsial diseases in U.S. military personnel deployed to Honduras using serological assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of pre- and post-deployment sera from the most recent 1,000 military personnel stationed in Honduras for at least 6 months between 2000 and 2016 was identified for this study. Serum specimens from these eligible subjects were retrieved. All post-deployment serum specimens were screened at a dilution of 1:100 for the presence of IgG antibodies to Leptospira and Rickettsia pathogens. The pre-deployment sera from those individuals with post-deployment IgG antibodies above cutoff (i.e., seropositive) were tested to determine seroconversion. Seroconversion was defined as conversion of an optical density value from below the cutoff (i.e., negative) in a pre-deployed specimen to above the cutoff (i.e., positive) in a post-deployed specimen at a titer of 100. RESULTS: The seropositive post-deployment specimens for antibodies against Leptospira (causing leptospirosis), Rickettsia typhi (causing murine typhus [MT]), spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR, causing SFG Rickettsia), Orientia tsutsugamushi (causing scrub typhus [ST]), and Coxiella burnetii (causing Q fever [QF]) were 11.6%, 11.3%, 6%, 5.6%, and 8.0%, respectively. The seroconverted rate in those assigned to Honduras from 2000 to 2016 was 7.3%, 1.9%, 3.9%, 4.3%, and 2.7% for leptospirosis, MT, SFGR, ST, and QF, respectively. Among the seroconverted specimens, 27 showed seroconversion of at least two antibodies. These seroconverted individuals accounted for 8.8% (3 out of 34) of the personnel who looked for medical attention during their deployment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a leptospirosis seroconversion rate of 7.3%, which is higher than the 0.9% and 3.9% seroconversion in Korea and Japan, respectively. The higher rate of seroconversion indicates potential risk of Leptospira exposure. Additional testing of water samples in the pools and pits around the training sites to locate the infected areas is important to eliminate or reduce future exposure to Leptospira during trainings. The rates of seroconversion for ST, MT, spotted fever Rickettsia, and QF were 4.3%, 1.9%, 3.9%, and 2.7%, respectively, indicating the potential exposure to a variety of rickettsial-related pathogens. Testing of vectors for rickettsial pathogens in the areas could inform effective vector control countermeasures to prevent exposure. Proper precaution and protective measures are needed to better protect military personnel deployed to Honduras.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Militares , Infecções por Rickettsia , Tifo por Ácaros , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 123: 105381, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and use of modern contraception is limited in Honduras. The government has made substantial gains in promoting modern contraception. Young adults experience high rates of violence. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between ACEs and contraceptive behaviors among young women and men. METHODS: We used data from 810 women and 753 men aged 18-24 years from the 2017 Honduras Violence against Children Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey of childhood adversity. We assessed associations between ACEs and three contraceptive use outcomes: use versus nonuse of modern contraceptives; use of methods requiring medium/high or low programmatic support among current contraceptive users; and frequent versus infrequent condom use. FINDINGS: Exposure to physical or emotional abuse and witnessing violence in the home was not significantly associated with the three contraceptive use outcomes for men or women. Sexual abuse and parental separation reduced odds of contraceptive use among women (Odds Ratio (OR) < 0.60) but not among men. In contrast, orphan status increased odds of modern contraception use among men (OR 1.93) and frequent condom use among women (OR 2.22). CONCLUSION: The inconsistent direction and magnitude of associations between ACEs and modern contraceptive use among young men and women suggests divergent relationships between ACEs and sexual and reproductive health behaviors. Results may highlight the strength of norms around contraceptive use and/or widespread access to community-based family planning programs and comprehensive sexuality education, irrespective of exposure to ACEs in Honduras.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Anticoncepcionais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
19.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 1694-1702, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) are critical for national cancer control planning, yet few low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have quality PBCRs. The Central America Four region represents the principal LMIC region in the Western hemisphere. We describe the establishment of a PBCR in rural Western Honduras with first estimates for the 2013-2017 period. METHODS: The Western Honduras PBCR was established through a collaboration of academic institutions and the Honduras Ministry of Health for collection of incident cancer data from public and private health services. Data were recorded using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) web-based platform with data monitoring and quality checks. Crude and age-standardized rates (ASRs) were calculated at the regional level, following WHO methodology. RESULTS: The web-based platform for data collection, available ancillary data services (eg, endoscopy), and technical support from international centers (United States and Colombia) were instrumental for quality control. Crude cancer incidence rates were 112.2, 69.8, and 154.6 per 100,000 habitants overall, males, and females, respectively (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer). The adjusted ASRs were 84.2, 49.6, and 118.9 per 100,000 overall habitants, males, and females, respectively. The most common sites among men were stomach (ASR 26.0, 52.4%), colorectal (ASR 5.11, 10.15%), and prostate (ASR 2.7, 5.4%). The most common sites in women were cervix (ASR 34.2, 36.7%), breast (ASR 11.2, 12.3%), and stomach (ASR 10.8, 11.7%). CONCLUSION: The Copán-PBCR represents a successful model to develop cancer monitoring in rural LMICs. Innovations included the use of the REDCap platform and leverage of Health Ministry resources. This provides the first PBCR data for Honduras and the Central America Four and confirms that infection-driven cancers, such as gastric and cervical, should be priority targets for cancer control initiatives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , América Central/epidemiologia , Feminino , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
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