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1.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 355, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetically modified (GM) crop plants with transgenic expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins are used to manage feeding damage by pest insects. The durability of this technology is threatened by the selection for resistance in pest populations. The molecular mechanism(s) involved in insect physiological response or evolution of resistance to Bt is not fully understood. RESULTS: To investigate the response of a susceptible target insect to Bt, the soybean pod borer, Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was exposed to soybean, Glycine max, expressing Cry1Ac pesticidal protein or the non-transgenic parental cultivar. Assessment of larval changes in gene expression was facilitated by a third-generation sequenced and scaffolded chromosome-level assembly of the L. glycinivorella genome (657.4 Mb; 27 autosomes + Z chromosome), and subsequent structural annotation of 18,197 RefSeq gene models encoding 23,735 putative mRNA transcripts. Exposure of L. glycinivorella larvae to transgenic Cry1Ac G. max resulted in prediction of significant differential gene expression for 204 gene models (64 up- and 140 down-regulated) and differential splicing among isoforms for 10 genes compared to unexposed cohorts. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) included putative peritrophic membrane constituents, orthologs of Bt receptor-encoding genes previously linked or associated with Bt resistance, and those involved in stress responses. Putative functional Gene Ontology (GO) annotations assigned to DEGs were significantly enriched for 36 categories at GO level 2, respectively. Most significantly enriched cellular component (CC), biological process (BP), and molecular function (MF) categories corresponded to vacuolar and microbody, transport and metabolic processes, and binding and reductase activities. The DEGs in enriched GO categories were biased for those that were down-regulated (≥ 0.783), with only MF categories GTPase and iron binding activities were bias for up-regulation genes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into pathways and processes involved larval response to Bt intoxication, which may inform future unbiased investigations into mechanisms of resistance that show no evidence of alteration in midgut receptors.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Mariposas , Praguicidas , Animais , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Glycine max/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Mariposas/metabolismo , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética
2.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(4): e22110, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605666

RESUMO

20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a vital role in a series of biological processes, via the nuclear receptors, EcR/USP by activating the ecdysone regulatory cascade. To clarify the role of EcR during the development of Grapholita molesta, the complementary DNA of ecdysone receptor isoform B1 (GmEcR-B1) was obtained from the transcriptome of G. molesta and verified by PCR. Alignment analysis revealed that the deduced protein sequence of GmEcR-B1 was highly homologous to EcR proteins identified in other lepidopteran species, especially the EcR-B1 isoform in Spodoptera litura. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that GmEcRs was expressed at all test developmental stages, and the expression level of GmEcRs was relatively higher during the period of the 3rd day of fifth instar larvae to 2nd of pupa than those in other stages. Moreover, the messenger RNA of GmEcRs was much more strongly expressed in the Malpighian tubule and epidermis than those in other tissues, which suggests that this gene may function in a tissue-specific manner during larval development. Silencing of GmEcRs could significantly downregulate the transcriptional level of ecdysone-inducible genes and result in increased mortality during metamorphosis and prolonged prepupal duration. Taken together, the present results indicate that GmEcRs may directly or indirectly affect the development of G. molesta.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Receptores de Esteroides , Animais , Mariposas/metabolismo , Ecdisona , Frutas/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 201: 105857, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685236

RESUMO

The oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a specialist pest that may cause serious damages to important crops such as chili pepper and tobacco. Various man-made insecticides have been applied to control the infestation of this pest. To understand how this pest copes with insecticides, it is required to identify key players involved in insecticide transformation. In this study, a P450 gene of CYP6B subfamily was identified in the oriental tobacco budworm, and its expression pattern was revealed. Moreover, the activities of HassCYP6B6 against 12 insecticides were explored using recombinant enzymes produced in the facile Escherichia coli. Data from metabolic experiments showed that HassCYP6B6 was able to metabolize conventional insecticides including organophosporates (diazinon, malathion, phoxim), carbamate propoxur, and pyrethroid esfenvalerate, while no significant metabolism was observed towards new-type pesticides such as neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, imidacloprid), diamides (chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole), macrocyclic lactone (emamectin benzoate, ivermectin), and metaflumizone. Structures of metabolites were proposed based on mass spectrometry analyses. The results demonstrate that HassCYP6B6 plays important roles in the transformation of multiple insecticides via substrate-dependent catalytic mechanisms including dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and oxidative desulfurization. The findings have important applied implications for the usage of insecticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Animais , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 201: 105856, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685238

RESUMO

Plutella xylostella is an important pest showing resistance to various chemical pesticides, development of botanical pesticides is an effective strategy to resolve above problem and decrease utilization of chemical pesticides. Previous study showed that 2,3-dimethyl-6-(1-hydroxy)-pyrazine has significant repellent activity to P. xylostella adult which mainly effect to the olfactory system, however the molecular targets and mechanism are still unclear. Based on the RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR data, eight ORs (Odorant receptor) in P. xylostella were selected as candidate targets response to repellent activity of 2,3-dimethyl-6-(1-hydroxy)-pyrazine. Here, most of the ORs in P. xylostella were clustered into three branches, which showed similar functions such as recognition, feeding, and oviposition. PxylOR29, PxylOR31, and PxylOR46 were identified as the potential molecular targets based on the results of repellent activity and EAG response tests to the adults which have been injected with dsRNA, respectively. Additionally, the three ORs were higher expressed in antenna of P. xylostella, followed by those in the head segment. Furthermore, it was found that the bindings between these three ORs and 2,3-dimethyl-6-(1-hydroxy)-pyrazine mainly depend on the hydrophobic effect of active cavities, and the binding to PxylOR31 was more stabler and easier with an energy of -16.34 kcal/mol, together with the π-π T-shaped interaction at PHE195 site. These findings pave the way for the complete understanding of pyrazine repellent mechanisms.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos , Mariposas , Pirazinas , Receptores Odorantes , Animais , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8180-8188, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556749

RESUMO

Juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP) is a key regulator of JH signaling, and crosstalk between JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) can activate and fine-tune the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, leading to resistance to insecticidal proteins from Bacillis thuringiensis (Bt). However, the involvement of JHBP in the Bt Cry1Ac resistance of Plutella xylostella remains unclear. Here, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding JHBP, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the expression of the PxJHBP gene in the midgut of the Cry1Ac-susceptible strain was significantly higher than that of the Cry1Ac-resistant strain. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the PxJHBP gene significantly increased Cry1Ac susceptibility, resulting in a significantly shorter lifespan and reduced fertility. These results demonstrate that PxJHBP plays a critical role in the resistance to Cry1Ac protoxin and in the regulation of physiological metabolic processes associated with reproduction in adult females, providing valuable insights to improve management strategies of P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Longevidade , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105824, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582588

RESUMO

The slowpoke channel responds to the intracellular calcium concentration and the depolarization of the cell membrane. It plays an important role in maintaining the resting potential and regulating the homeostasis of neurons, but it can also regulate circadian rhythm, sperm capacitation, ethanol tolerance, and other physiological processes in insects. This renders it a potentially useful target for the development of pest control strategies. There are relatively few studies on the slowpoke channels in lepidopteran pests, and their pharmacological properties are still unclear. So, in this study, the slowpoke gene of Plutella xylostella (Pxslo) was heterologous expressed in HEK293T cells, and the I-V curve of the slowpoke channel was measured by whole cell patch clamp recordings. Results showed that the slowpoke channel could be activated at -20 mV with 150 µM Ca2+. The subsequent comparison of the electrophysiological characteristics of the alternative splicing site E and G deletions showed that the deletion of the E site enhances the response of the slowpoke channel to depolarization, while the deletion of the G site weakens the response of the slowpoke channel to depolarization. Meanwhile, the nonspecific inhibitors TEA and 4-AP of the Kv channels, and four pesticides were tested and all showed an inhibition effect on the PxSlo channel at 10 or 100 µM, suggesting that these pesticides also target the slowpoke channel. This study enriches our understanding of the slowpoke channel in Lepidopteran insects and can aid in the development of relevant pest management strategies.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Praguicidas , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Sementes , Praguicidas/metabolismo
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105836, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582598

RESUMO

The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), a notorious pest infesting rice, has evolved a high level of resistance to many commonly used insecticides. In this study, we investigate whether tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is required for larval development and cuticle tanning in many insects, could be a potential target for the control of C. suppressalis. We identified and characterized the full-length cDNA (CsTH) of C. suppressalis. The complete open reading frame of CsTH (MW690914) was 1683 bp in length, encoding a protein of 560 amino acids. Within the first to the sixth larval instars, CsTH was high in the first day just after molting, and lower in the ensuing days. From the wandering stage to the adult stage, levels of CSTH began to rise and reached a peak at the pupal stage. These patterns suggested a role for the gene in larval development and larval-pupal cuticle tanning. When we injected dsCsTH or 3-iodotyrosine (3-IT) as a TH inhibitor or fed a larva diet supplemented with 3-IT, there were significant impairments in larval development and larval-pupal cuticle tanning. Adult emergence was severely impaired, and most adults died. These results suggest that CsTH might play a critical role in larval development as well as larval-pupal tanning and immunity in C. suppressalis, and this gene could form a potential novel target for pest control.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Oryza , Animais , Larva/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Pupa , Mariposas/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105843, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582603

RESUMO

Isoxazoline is a novel structure with strong potential for controlling agricultural insect pests, but its high toxicity to honeybees limits its development in agriculture. Herein, a series of N-phenylamide isoxazoline derivatives with low honeybee toxicity were designed and synthesized using the intermediate derivatization method. Bioassay results showed that these compounds exhibited good insecticidal activity. Compounds 3b and 3f showed significant insecticidal effects against Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella) with median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 0.06 and 0.07 mg/L, respectively, comparable to that of fluralaner (LC50 = 0.02 mg/L) and exceeding that of commercial insecticide fluxametamide (LC50 = 0.52 mg/L). It is noteworthy that the acute honeybee toxicities of compounds 3b and 3f (LD50 = 1.43 and 1.63 µg/adult, respectively) were significantly reduced to 1/10 of that of fluralaner (LD50 = 0.14 µg/adult), and were adequate or lower than that of fluxametamide (LD50 = 1.14 µg/adult). Theoretical simulation using molecular docking indicates that compound 3b has similar binding modes with fluralaner and a similar optimal docking pose with fluxametamide when binding to the GABA receptor, which may contribute to its potent insecticidal activity and relatively low toxicity to honey bees. This study provides compounds 3b and 3f as potential new insecticide candidates and provides insights into the development of new isoxazoline insecticides exhibiting both high efficacy and environmental safety.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Abelhas , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Insetos , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Amidas/toxicidade , Mariposas/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(18): 10271-10281, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655868

RESUMO

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are important green insecticides that disrupt normal growth and development in insects to reduce the harm caused by pests to crops. The ecdysone receptor (EcR) and three chitinases OfChtI, OfChtII, and OfChi-h are closely associated with the molting stage of insects. Thus, they are considered promising targets for the development of novel insecticides such as IGRs. Our previous work identified a dual-target compound 6j, which could act simultaneously on both EcR and OfChtI. In the present study, 6j was first found to have inhibitory activities against OfChtII and OfChi-h, too. Subsequently, taking 6j as a lead compound, 19 novel acetamido derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized by introducing an acetamido moiety into the amide bridge based on the flexibility of the binding cavities of 6j with EcR and three chitinases. Then, their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), Ostrinia furnacalis (O. furnacalis), and Spodoptera frugiperda (S. frugiperda) were carried out. The bioassay results revealed that most of these acetamido derivatives possessed moderate to good larvicidal activities against three lepidopteran pests. Especially, compound I-17 displayed excellent insecticidal activities against P. xylostella (LC50, 93.32 mg/L), O. furnacalis (LC50, 114.79 mg/L), and S. frugiperda (86.1% mortality at 500 mg/L), significantly better than that of 6j. In addition, further protein validation and molecular docking demonstrated that I-17 could act simultaneously on EcR (17.7% binding activity at 8 mg/L), OfChtI (69.2% inhibitory rate at 50 µM), OfChtII (71.5% inhibitory rate at 50 µM), and OfChi-h (73.9% inhibitory rate at 50 µM), indicating that I-17 is a potential lead candidate for novel multitarget IGRs. This work provides a promising starting point for the development of novel types of IGRs as pest management agents.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Desenho de Fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos , Inseticidas , Hormônios Juvenis , Mariposas , Pirazóis , Spodoptera , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/síntese química , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/química , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/síntese química , Quitinases/metabolismo , Quitinases/química , Quitinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Acetamidas/química , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Biomolecules ; 14(4)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38672415

RESUMO

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a superfamily of membrane proteins. These active transporters are involved in the export of different substances such as xenobiotics. ABC transporters from subfamily C (ABCC) have also been described as functional receptors for different insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in several lepidopteran species. Numerous studies have characterized the relationship between the ABCC2 transporter and Bt Cry1 proteins. Although other ABCC transporters sharing structural and functional similarities have been described, little is known of their role in the mode of action of Bt proteins. For Heliothis virescens, only the ABCC2 transporter and its interaction with Cry1A proteins have been studied to date. Here, we have searched for paralogs to the ABCC2 gene in H. virescens, and identified two new ABC transporter genes: HvABCC3 and HvABCC4. Furthermore, we have characterized their gene expression in the midgut and their protein topology, and compared them with that of ABCC2. Finally, we discuss their possible interaction with Bt proteins by performing protein docking analysis.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Proteína 2 Associada à Farmacorresistência Múltipla , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/química , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/química , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Mariposas/metabolismo , Mariposas/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química
11.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 168: 104107, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492676

RESUMO

The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a global insect pest of cruciferous vegetables, has evolved resistance to many classes of insecticides including diamides. Three point mutations (I4790M, I4790K, and G4946E) in the ryanodine receptor of P. xylostella (PxRyR) have been identified to associate with varying levels of resistance. In this study, we generated a knockin strain (I4790K-KI) of P. xylostella, using CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce the I4790K mutation into PxRyR of the susceptible IPP-S strain. Compared to IPP-S, the edited I4790K-KI strain exhibited high levels of resistance to both anthranilic diamides (chlorantraniliprole 1857-fold, cyantraniliprole 1433-fold) and the phthalic acid diamide flubendiamide (>2272-fold). Resistance to chlorantraniliprole in the I4790K-KI strain was inherited in an autosomal and recessive mode, and genetically linked with the I4790K knockin mutation. Computational modeling suggests the I4790K mutation reduces the binding of diamides to PxRyR by disrupting key hydrogen bonding interactions within the binding cavity. The approximate frequencies of the 4790M, 4790K, and 4946E alleles were assessed in ten geographical field populations of P. xylostella collected in China in 2021. The levels of chlorantraniliprole resistance (2.3- to 1444-fold) in these populations were significantly correlated with the frequencies (0.017-0.917) of the 4790K allele, but not with either 4790M (0-0.183) or 4946E (0.017-0.450) alleles. This demonstrates that the PxRyR I4790K mutation is currently the major contributing factor to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella field populations within China. Our findings provide in vivo functional evidence for the causality of the I4790K mutation in PxRyR with high levels of diamide resistance in P. xylostella, and suggest that tracking the frequency of the I4790K allele is crucial for optimizing the monitoring and management of diamide resistance in this crop pest.


Assuntos
Diamida , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mariposas , Animais , Diamida/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Mutação , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(5): 141, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519797

RESUMO

Metarhizium robertsii, a vital entomopathogenic fungus for pest management, relies on various virulence-related proteins for infection. Identifying these proteins, especially those with unknown functions, can illuminate the fungus's virulence mechanisms. Through RNA-seq, we discovered that the hypothetical protein MAA_07646 was significantly upregulated during appressorium formation in M. robertsii. In this study, we characterized MAA_07646, finding its presence in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Surprisingly, it did not affect vegetative growth, conidiation, or chemical tolerance. However, it played a role in heat and UV radiation sensitivity. Notably, ΔMAA_07646 exhibited reduced virulence in Galleria mellonella larvae due to impaired appressorium formation and decreased expression of virulence-related genes. In conclusion, MAA_07646 contributes to thermotolerance, UV resistance, and virulence in M. robertsii. Understanding its function sheds light on the insecticidal potential of M. robertsii's hypothetical proteins.


Assuntos
Metarhizium , Mariposas , Animais , Virulência , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Mariposas/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542071

RESUMO

During diapause, a state of temporarily arrested development, insects require low winter temperatures to suppress their metabolism, conserve energy stores and acquire cold hardiness. A warmer winter could, thus, reduce diapause incidence and duration in many species, prematurely deplete their energy reserves and compromise post-diapause fitness. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of thermal stress and the diapause program on the expression of selected genes involved in antioxidant defense and heat shock response in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. By using qRT-PCR, it has been shown that response to chronic heat stress is characterized by raised mRNA levels of grx and trx, two important genes of the antioxidant defense system, as well as of hsp70 and, somewhat, of hsp90, two major heat shock response proteins. On the other hand, the expression of hsc70, hsp20.4 and hsp20.1 was discontinuous in the latter part of diapause, or was strongly controlled by the diapause program and refractory to heat stress, as was the case for mtn and fer, genes encoding two metal storage proteins crucial for metal ion homeostasis. This is the first time that the effects of high winter temperatures have been assessed on cold-hardy diapausing larvae and pupae of this important corn pest.


Assuntos
Diapausa , Mariposas , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Diapausa/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética
14.
J Insect Physiol ; 154: 104631, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518982

RESUMO

About half of the serosal cells (Scs) of Cotesia kariyai (Ck) eggs are released as teratocytes into the host body cavity after hatching, and another half remain attached to the larval epidermis until the 1st instar larvae of Ck ecdysis to 2nd instars. To investigate the role of the serosal cells surrounding Ck 1st instar larvae (1st Scs) in immune avoidance, Ck 1st instar larvae with and without Scs removed using dispase were transplanted into Mythimna separata larvae (MsLrv), respectively. As a result, Ck 1st instar larvae surrounded by Scs were less susceptible to the MsL encapsulation than Ck 1st instar larvae without the Scs, suggesting that the Scs are involved in suppressing the encapsulation of the MsL. Furthermore, when the granular cells and plasmatocytes of the MsL involved in the encapsulation were incubated in a medium supplemented with proteins extracted from 1st Scs, the plasmatocytes failed to adhere to glass slides, and did not spread their filopodium and lamellipodium. These findings suggest that 1st Scs express proteins that inhibit filopodium and lamellipodium spreading to prevent the MsL plasmatocytes from adhering to Ck larvae.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Vespas , Animais , Larva , Óvulo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Terapia de Imunossupressão
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5690-5698, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447177

RESUMO

There is currently a lack of effective olfaction-based techniques to control diamondback moth (DBM) larvae. Identifying behaviorally active odorants for DBM larvae and exploring their recognition mechanisms can provide insights into olfaction-based larval control strategies. Through the two-choice assay, (E,E)-2,6-farnesol (farnesol) was identified as a compound exhibiting significant attractant activity toward DBM larvae, achieving an attraction index of 0.48 ± 0.13. PxylGOBP1 and PxylGOBP2, highly expressed in the antennae of DBM larvae, both showed high affinity toward farnesol. RNAi technology was used to knock down PxylGOBP1 and PxylGOBP2, revealing that the attraction of DBM larvae to farnesol nearly vanished following the knockdown of PxylGOBP2, indicating its critical role in recognizing farnesol. Further investigation into the PxylGOBP2-farnesol interaction revealed the importance of residues like Thr9, Trp37, and Phe118 in PxylGOBP2's binding to farnesol. This research is significant for unveiling the olfactory mechanisms of DBM larvae and developing larval behavior regulation techniques.


Assuntos
Farneseno Álcool , Mariposas , Animais , Larva/genética , Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Farneseno Álcool/metabolismo , Odorantes , Mariposas/metabolismo , Olfato
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130636, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467214

RESUMO

In insects, vision is crucial in finding host plants, but its role in nocturnal insects is largely unknown. Vision involves responses to specific spectra of photon wavelengths and opsins plays an important role in this process. Long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LW opsin) and blue-sensitive opsin (BL opsin) are main visual opsin proteins and play important in behavior regulation.We used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to mutate the long-wavelength-sensitive and blue wavelength-sensitive genes and explored the role of vision in the nocturnal invasive pest Tuta absoluta. Light wave experiments revealed that LW2(-/-) and BL(-/-) mutants showed abnormal wavelength tropism. Both LW2 and BL mutations affected the preference of T. absoluta for the green environment. Mutations in LW2 and BL are necessary to inhibit visual attraction. The elimination of LW2 and BL affected the preference of leaf moths for green plants, and mutations in both induced a preference in moths for white plants. Behavioral changes resulting from LW2(-/-) and BL(-/-) mutants were not affected by sense of smell, further supporting the regulatory role of vision in insect behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal that vision, not smell, plays an important role in the host-seeking behavior of nocturnal insects at night, of which LW2 and BL opsins are key regulatory factors. These study findings will drive the development of the "vision-ecology" theory.


Assuntos
Visão de Cores , Mariposas , Animais , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas/metabolismo , Espécies Introduzidas , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Insetos/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474187

RESUMO

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are specific odorant-binding proteins that can specifically recognize insect pheromones. Through transcriptional analysis of the antennae of adult Endoclita signifer, EsigPBP3 was discovered and identified, and EsigPBP3 was found to be highly expressed in the antennae of male moths. Based on the binding characteristics and ability of EsigPBP3, we can find the key ligands and binding site to consider as a target to control the key wood bore E. signifier. In this study, the fluorescence competitive binding assays (FCBA) showed that EsigPBP3 had a high binding affinity for seven key eucalyptus volatiles. Molecular docking analysis revealed that EsigPBP3 had the strongest binding affinity for the sexual pheromone component, (3E,7E)-4,7,11-trimethyl-1,3,7,10-dodecatetraene. Furthermore, same as the result of FCBA, the EsigPBP3 exhibited high binding affinities to key eucalyptus volatiles, eucalyptol, α-terpinene, (E)-beta-ocimene, (-)-ß-pinene, and (-)-α-pinene, and PHE35, MET7, VAL10, PHE38, ILE52, and PHE118 are key sites. In summary, EsigPBP3 exhibits high binding affinity to male pheromones and key volatile compounds and the crucial binding sites PHE35, MET7, VAL10, PHE38, ILE52, and PHE118 can act as targets in the recognition of E. signifier pheromones.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Mariposas , Receptores Odorantes , Masculino , Animais , Feromônios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mariposas/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 199: 105765, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458674

RESUMO

The detoxification of insecticides in insects is dependent on the expression and activity of multiple detoxification enzymes. As an important modulator of detoxification enzymes, the CncC-Keap1 pathway was involved in the detoxification of various pesticides. However, whether the CncC-Keap1 pathway is involved in the detoxification of emamectin benzoate (EMB) is unclear. In this study, we cloned the LdCncC and LdKeap1 from spongy moths (Lymantria dispar). Our results showed that EMB exposure induced oxidative stress, and activated the CncC-Keap1 pathway at mRNA and protein levels. Removing ROS by N-acetylcysteine remarkably decreased H2O2 levels and restored the expression of LdCncC and LdKeap1. The silencing LdCncC, not LdKeap1, by dsRNA significantly decreased the cytochrome P450 activities, and increased the sensitivity of larvae to EMB. Besides, the expression of CYP6B7v1, CYP321A7 and CYP4S4v1 were significantly decreased after silencing LdCncC. Notably, the knockdown of CYP6B7v1, CYP321A7 or CYP4S4v1 significantly increased the mortality induced by EMB exposure. Therefore, we proposed that activation of CncC-Keap1 pathway induced by ROS increased the detoxification of EMB in spongy moths by regulating the expression of CYP6B7v1, CYP321A7 and CYP4S4v1. Our study strengthened the understanding of the detoxification of EMB from the perspective of CncC-Keap1-P450s pathway.


Assuntos
Complexo de Mariposas do Gênero Lymantria , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Mariposas , Animais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 199: 105775, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458682

RESUMO

Insect cuticular protein (ICP) plays an important role in insect growth and development. However, research on the role of ICP in insecticide resistance is very limited. In this study, insect cuticular protein genes LCP17 and SgAbd5 were cloned and characterized in Helicoverpa armigera based on previous transcriptome data. The functions of LCP17 and SgAbd5 genes in fenvalerate resistance were assessed by RNA interference (RNAi), and their response to fenvalerate was further detected. The results showed that LCP17 and SgAbd5 were overexpressed in the fenvalerate-resistant strain comparing with a susceptible strain. The open reading frames of LCP17 and SgAbd5 genes were 423 bp and 369 bp, encoding 141 and 123 amino acids, respectively. LCP17 and SgAbd5 genes were highly expressed in the larval stage, but less expressed in the adult and pupal stages. The expression level of LCP17 and SgAbd5 genes increased significantly after fenvalerate treatment at 24 h. When the cotton bollworms larvae were exposed to fenvalerate at LD50 level, RNAi-mediated silencing of LCP17 and SgAbd5 genes increased the mortality from 50.68% to 68.67% and 63.89%, respectively; the mortality increased to even higher level, which was 73.61%, when these two genes were co-silenced. Moreover, silencing of these two genes caused the cuticle lamellar structure to become loose, which led to increased penetration of fenvalerate into the larvae. The results suggested that LCP17 and SgAbd5 may be involved in the resistance of cotton bollworm to fenvalerate, and LCP17 and SgAbd5 could serve as potential targets for H. armigera control.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Nitrilas , Piretrinas , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Helicoverpa armigera , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8072-8080, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547359

RESUMO

To increase the structural diversity of insecticides and meet the needs of effective integrated insect management, the structure of chlorantraniliprole was modified based on a previously established three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model. The pyridinyl moiety in the structure of chlorantraniliprole was replaced with a 4-fluorophenyl group. Further modifications of this 4-fluorophenyl group by introducing a halogen atom at position 2 and an electron-withdrawing group (e.g., iodine, cyano, and trifluoromethyl) at position 5 led to 34 compounds with good insecticidal efficacy against Mythimna separata, Plutella xylostella, and Spodoptera frugiperda. Among them, compound IV f against M. separata showed potency comparable to that of chlorantraniliprole. IV p against P. xylostella displayed a 4.5 times higher potency than chlorantraniliprole. In addition, IV d and chlorantraniliprole exhibited comparable potencies against S. frugiperda. Transcriptome analysis showed that the molecular target of compound IV f is the ryanodine receptor. Molecular docking was further performed to verify the mode of action and insecticidal activity against resistant P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Diamida/farmacologia , Diamida/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mariposas/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , ortoaminobenzoatos/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo
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