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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16287-16315, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230220

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is associated with malignant tumor progression and is modulated by various m6A RNA methylation regulator proteins. However, its role in endometrial cancer is unclear. In this work, we analyzed sequence, copy number variation, and clinical data obtained from the TCGA database. Expression was validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Changes in m6A RNA methylation regulators were closely related to the clinicopathological stage and prognosis of endometrial cancer. In particular, ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14 were identified as potential markers for endometrial cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The TIMER algorithm indicated that immune cell infiltration correlated with changes in ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14 expression. Meanwhile, ZC3H13 or YTHDC1 knockdown promoted the proliferation and invasion of endometrial cancer cells. Through gene enrichment analysis, we constructed a regulatory network in order to explore the potential molecular mechanism involving ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14. Virtual screening predicted interactions of potential therapeutic compounds with METTL14 and YTHDC1. These findings advance the understanding of RNA epigenetic modifications in endometrial cancer while identifying m6A regulators associated with immune infiltration, prognosis, and potential treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Ligantes , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3439-3448, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The role of immune cells and PD-L1 in cutaneous squamous carcinogenesis is unclear. This study examines T-cell populations, Langerhans cells (LCs) and PD-L1 in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (inSCC), adjacent precursors and normal skin (NS) to investigate their participation in tumorigenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases of cutaneous inSCC with adjacent precursors (n=125) were selected. In situ SCC (isSCC) and actinic keratosis (AK) were observed in 53 and 123 cases, respectively, whereas NS was present in 123 lesions. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3, CD8, Foxp3, CD1a and PD-L1. RESULTS: T-cells, LCs and PD-L1 gradually increase during the evolution from AK to isSCC and inSCC, with statistical significance between all lesions, except for CD3+ and CD8+ cells between isSCC and inSCC. Epithelial PD-L1 expression correlates with tumor diameter and thickness. CONCLUSION: The progressive increase of T-cells, LCs and PD-L1 in cutaneous squamous carcinogenesis provides rationale for immunotherapy and identification of predictive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Células de Langerhans/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3414, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099731

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients have a 5-year survival rate of only 8% largely due to late diagnosis and insufficient therapeutic options. Neutrophils are among the most abundant immune cell type within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME), and are associated with a poor clinical prognosis. However, despite recent advances in understanding neutrophil biology in cancer, therapies targeting tumor-associated neutrophils are lacking. Here, we demonstrate, using pre-clinical mouse models of PDAC, that lorlatinib attenuates PDAC progression by suppressing neutrophil development and mobilization, and by modulating tumor-promoting neutrophil functions within the TME. When combined, lorlatinib also improves the response to anti-PD-1 blockade resulting in more activated CD8 + T cells in PDAC tumors. In summary, this study identifies an effect of lorlatinib in modulating tumor-associated neutrophils, and demonstrates the potential of lorlatinib to treat PDAC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Hematol Oncol ; 39 Suppl 1: 83-87, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105816

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a paradigm of tumors that require the interaction between tumor and microenvironment cells to foster their development from initial steps to progression. Recent large-scale genome studies have uncovered multiple genetic alterations of FL that influence the microenvironment in two main directions, promoting tumor cell survival and proliferation and facilitating their evasion from immune antitumor signals. Understanding the crosstalk between tumor B-cells and the microenvironment will facilitate the identification of vulnerabilities that may offer novel targets for treatment of the patients. This review highlights recent findings showing the effect of common genetic mutations modulating the cell composition of the tumor microenvironment and the novel therapeutic perspectives to target these interactions.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Proliferação de Células , Linfoma Folicular , Mutação , Microambiente Tumoral , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Linfoma Folicular/imunologia , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3684, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140495

RESUMO

Interaction between tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is important in cancer development. Immune cells interact with the tumor cells to shape this process. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing analysis to delineate the immune landscape and tumor heterogeneity in a cohort of patients with HBV-associated human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that tumor-associated macrophages suppress tumor T cell infiltration and TIGIT-NECTIN2 interaction regulates the immunosuppressive environment. The cell state transition of immune cells towards a more immunosuppressive and exhaustive status exemplifies the overall cancer-promoting immunocellular landscape. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of global molecular profiles reveals co-existence of intra-tumoral and inter-tumoral heterogeneity, but is more apparent in the latter. This analysis of the immunosuppressive landscape and intercellular interactions provides mechanistic information for the design of efficacious immune-oncology treatments in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nectinas/genética , Nectinas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Prognóstico , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 619069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108958

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effector lymphocytes with strong antitumor effects against hematologic malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, NK cells fail to control CLL progression on the long term. For effective lysis of their targets, NK cells use a specific cell-cell interface, known as the immunological synapse (IS), whose assembly and effector function critically rely on dynamic cytoskeletal changes in NK cells. Here we explored the role of CLL cell actin cytoskeleton during NK cell attack. We found that CLL cells can undergo fast actin cytoskeleton remodeling which is characterized by a NK cell contact-induced accumulation of actin filaments at the IS. Such polarization of the actin cytoskeleton was strongly associated with resistance against NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and reduced amounts of the cell-death inducing molecule granzyme B in target CLL cells. Selective pharmacological targeting of the key actin regulator Cdc42 abrogated the capacity of CLL cells to reorganize their actin cytoskeleton during NK cell attack, increased levels of transferred granzyme B and restored CLL cell susceptibility to NK cell cytotoxicity. This resistance mechanism was confirmed in primary CLL cells from patients. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of actin dynamics in combination with blocking antibodies increased conjugation frequency and improved CLL cell elimination by NK cells. Together our results highlight the critical role of CLL cell actin cytoskeleton in driving resistance against NK cell cytotoxicity and provide new potential therapeutic point of intervention to target CLL immune escape.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Citoesqueleto de Actina/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunofluorescência , Antígenos HLA-G/imunologia , Humanos , Sinapses Imunológicas/imunologia , Sinapses Imunológicas/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063506

RESUMO

The review begins with molecular genetics, which hit the field unveiling the involvement of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and uncovering genetic predispositions. Then the notion of molecular phenotypes with different clinical behaviors was introduced and translated in the clinical arena, paving the way to next-generation sequencing that captured previously unrecognized heterogeneity. Among other molecular regulators of CRC progression, the extent of host immune response within the tumor micro-environment has a critical position. Translational sciences deeply investigated the field, accelerating the pace toward clinical transition, due to its strong association with outcomes. While the perturbation of gut homeostasis occurring in inflammatory bowel diseases can fuel carcinogenesis, micronutrients like vitamin D and calcium can act as brakes, and we discuss underlying molecular mechanisms. Among the components of gut microbiota, Fusobacterium nucleatum is over-represented in CRC, and may worsen patient outcome. However, any translational knowledge tracing the multifaceted evolution of CRC should be interpreted according to the prognostic and predictive frame of the TNM-staging system in a perspective of clinical actionability. Eventually, we examine challenges and promises of pharmacological interventions aimed to restrain disease progression at different disease stages.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fusobacterium nucleatum/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
8.
Med Oncol ; 38(8): 90, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191146

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to assure the safety and management of cancer patients. Despite preliminary studies revealed that patients with cancer are more susceptible to infection and have poorer prognosis than other infected patients without cancer, mortality from COVID-19 in cancer patients appears to be principally driven by age, gender, and comorbidities. So, we have some comments about the pathogenesis attributed to the COVID-19 disease and cancer relationship and determination of subgroups in this and oncoming studies. Variable effects of anticancer treatments on the patient's immune system are yet to be elucidated. On the other hand, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 virus on tumor microenvironment or immune responses in cancer is not yet fully proven. Very recently, Challenor and her colleague reported a case with classical Hodgkin lymphoma with stage IIIs disease, which went into remission without corticosteroid or immunochemotherapy. They assumed that the putative mechanisms of action include cross-reactivity of pathogen-specific T cells with tumor antigens and natural killer cell activation by inflammatory cytokines produced in response to infection. During the course of COVID-19 disease, immune checkpoint blockade effect might be induced naturally.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3862, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162858

RESUMO

Memory CD8+ T cells populate non-lymphoid tissues (NLTs) following pathogen infection, but little is known about the establishment of endogenous tumor-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) during cancer immunotherapy. Using a transplantable mouse model of prostate carcinoma, here we report that tumor challenge leads to expansion of naïve neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells and formation of a small population of non-recirculating TRM in several NLTs. Primary tumor destruction by irreversible electroporation (IRE), followed by anti-CTLA-4 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI), promotes robust expansion of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells in blood, tumor, and NLTs. Parabiosis studies confirm that TRM establishment following dual therapy is associated with tumor remission in a subset of cases and protection from subsequent tumor challenge. Addition of anti-PD-1 following dual IRE + anti-CTLA-4 treatment blocks tumor growth in non-responsive cases. This work indicates that focal tumor destruction using IRE combined with ICI is a potent in situ tumor vaccination strategy that generates protective tumor-specific TRM.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Eletroporação/métodos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068143

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies have shown great promise in cancer treatment. However, the intra-heterogeneity is a major barrier to reasonably classifying the potential benefited patients. Comprehensive heterogeneity analysis is needed to solve these clinical issues. In this study, the samples from pan-cancer and independent breast cancer datasets were divided into four tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) subtypes based on tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) state. As the combination of the TIL Z score and PD-L1 expression showed superior prediction of response to ICI in multiple data sets compared to other methods, we used the TIL Z score and PD-L1 to classify samples. Therefore, samples were divided by combined TIL Z score and PD-L1 to identify four TIME subtypes, including type I (3.24%), type II (43.24%), type III (6.76%), and type IV (46.76%). Type I was associated with favorable prognosis with more T and DC cells, while type III had the poorest condition and composed a higher level of activated mast cells. Furthermore, TIME subtypes exhibited a distinct genetic and transcriptional feature: type III was observed to have the highest mutation rate (77.92%), while co-mutations patterns were characteristic in type I, and the PD-L1 positive subgroup showed higher carbohydrates, lipids, and xenobiotics metabolism compared to others. Overall, we developed a robust method to classify TIME and analyze the divergence of prognosis, immune cell composition, genomics, and transcriptomics patterns among TIME subtypes, which potentially provides insight for classification of TIME and a referrable theoretical basis for the screening benefited groups in the ICI immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068967

RESUMO

Endometriosis and cancer have much in common, notably their burgeoning of cells in hypoxic milieus, their invasiveness, and their capacity to trigger remodeling, vascularization, and innervation of other tissues. An important role in these processes is played by permissive microenvironments inhabited by a variety of stromal and immune cells, including macrophages. Remarkable phenotypical plasticity of macrophages makes them a promising therapeutic target; some key issues are the range of macrophage phenotypes characteristic of a particular pathology and the possible manners of its modulation. In both endometriosis and cancer, macrophages guard the lesions from immune surveillance while promoting pathological cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. This review article focuses on a comparative analysis of macrophage behaviors in endometriosis and cancer. We also highlight recent reports on the experimental modulation of macrophage phenotypes in preclinical models of endometriosis and cancer.


Assuntos
Endometriose/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Endometriose/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071306

RESUMO

The complex interaction between glioblastoma and its microenvironment has been recognized for decades. Among various immune profiles, the major population is tumor-associated macrophage, with microglia as its localized homolog. The present definition of such myeloid cells is based on a series of cell markers. These good sentinel cells experience significant changes, facilitating glioblastoma development and protecting it from therapeutic treatments. Huge, complicated mechanisms are involved during the overall processes. A lot of effort has been dedicated to crack the mysterious codes in macrophage/microglia recruiting, activating, reprogramming, and functioning. We have made our path. With more and more key factors identified, a lot of new therapeutic methods could be explored to break the ominous loop, to enhance tumor sensitivity to treatments, and to improve the prognosis of glioblastoma patients. However, it might be a synergistic system rather than a series of clear, stepwise events. There are still significant challenges before the light of truth can shine onto the field. Here, we summarize recent advances in this field, reviewing the path we have been on and where we are now.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/patologia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071550

RESUMO

Liver cancer has the fourth highest mortality rate of all cancers worldwide, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) being the most prevalent subtype. Despite great advances in systemic therapy, such as molecular-targeted agents, HCC has one of the worst prognoses due to drug resistance and frequent recurrence and metastasis. Recently, new therapeutic strategies such as cancer immunosuppressive therapy have prolonged patients' lives, and the combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) and VEGF inhibitor is now positioned as the first-line therapy for advanced HCC. Since the efficacy of ICIs depends on the tumor immune microenvironment, it is necessary to elucidate the immune environment of HCC to select appropriate ICIs. In this review, we summarize the findings on the immune microenvironment and immunosuppressive approaches focused on monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 for HCC. We also describe ongoing treatment modalities, including adoptive cell transfer-based therapies and future areas of exploration based on recent literature. The results of pre-clinical studies using immunological classification and animal models will contribute to the development of biomarkers that predict the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy and aid in the selection of appropriate strategies for HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072260

RESUMO

The understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been expanding in recent years in the context of interactions among different cell types, through direct cell-cell communication as well as through soluble factors. It has become evident that the development of a successful antitumor response depends on several TME factors. In this context, the number, type, and subsets of immune cells, as well as the functionality, memory, and exhaustion state of leukocytes are key factors of the TME. Both the presence and functionality of immune cells, in particular T cells, are regulated by cellular and soluble factors of the TME. In this regard, one fundamental reason for failure of antitumor responses is hijacked immune cells, which contribute to the immunosuppressive TME in multiple ways. Specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolites, and anti-inflammatory cytokines have central roles in generating an immunosuppressive TME. In this review, we focused on recent developments in the immune cell constituents of the TME, and the micromilieu control of antitumor responses. Furthermore, we highlighted the current challenges of T cell-based immunotherapies and potential future strategies to consider for strengthening their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070449

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells that are responsible for immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment. Here we report the impact of mucin 1 (MUC1), a transmembrane glycoprotein, on proliferation and functional activity of MDSCs. To determine the role of MUC1 in MDSC phenotype, we analyzed MDSCs derived from wild type (WT) and MUC1-knockout (MUC1KO) mice bearing syngeneic pancreatic (KCKO) or breast (C57MG) tumors. We observed enhanced tumor growth of pancreatic and breast tumors in the MUC1KO mice compared to the WT mice. Enhanced tumor growth in the MUC1KO mice was associated with increased numbers of suppressive MDSCs and T regulatory (Tregs) cells in the tumor microenvironment. Compared to the WT host, MUC1KO host showed higher levels of iNOS, ARG1, and TGF-ß, thus promoting proliferation of MDSCs with an immature and immune suppressive phenotype. When co-cultured with effector T cells, MDSCs from MUC1KO mice led to higher repression of IL-2 and IFN-γ production by T cells as compared to MDSCs from WT mice. Lastly, MDSCs from MUC1KO mice showed higher levels of c-Myc and activated pSTAT3 as compared to MDSCs from WT mice, suggesting increased survival, proliferation, and prevention of maturation of MDSCs in the MUC1KO host. We report diminished T cell function in the KO versus WT mice. In summary, the data suggest that MUC1 may regulate signaling pathways that are critical to maintain the immunosuppressive properties of MDSCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mucina-1/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070750

RESUMO

The immune system is a fine modulator of the tumor biology supporting or inhibiting its progression, growth, invasion and conveys the pharmacological treatment effect. Tumors, on their side, have developed escaping mechanisms from the immune system action ranging from the direct secretion of biochemical signals to an indirect reaction, in which the cellular actors of the tumor microenvironment (TME) collaborate to mechanically condition the extracellular matrix (ECM) making it inhospitable to immune cells. TME is composed of several cell lines besides cancer cells, including tumor-associated macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, and innate immunity cells. These populations interface with each other to prepare a conservative response, capable of evading the defense mechanisms implemented by the host's immune system. The presence or absence, in particular, of cytotoxic CD8+ cells in the vicinity of the main tumor mass, is able to predict, respectively, the success or failure of drug therapy. Among various mechanisms of immunescaping, in this study, we characterized the modulation of the phenotypic profile of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in resting and activated states, in response to the mechanical pressure exerted by a three-dimensional in vitro system, able to recapitulate the rheological and stiffness properties of the tumor ECM.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/genética , 5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Módulo de Elasticidade , Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mecanotransdução Celular , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Reologia , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071938

RESUMO

Hormone receptor expression patterns often correlate with infiltration of specific lymphocytes in tumors. Specifically, the presence of specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with particular hormone receptor expression is reportedly associated with breast cancer, however, this has not been revealed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Therefore, we investigated the association between hormone receptor expression and TILs in EOC. Here we found that ERα, AR, and GR expression increased in EOC, while PR was significantly reduced and ERß expression showed a reduced trend compared to normal epithelium. Cluster analysis indicated poor disease-free survival (DFS) in AR+/GR+/PR+ subgroup (triple dominant group); while the Cox proportional-hazards model highlighted the triple dominant group as an independent prognostic factor for DFS. In addition, significant upregulation of FoxP3+ TILs, PD-1, and PD-L1 was observed in the triple dominant group compared to other groups. NanoString analyses further suggested that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and/or NF-κB signaling pathways were activated with significant upregulation of RELA, MAP3K5, TNFAIP3, BCL2L1, RIPK1, TRAF2, PARP1, and AKT1 in the triple dominant EOC group. The triple dominant subgroup correlates with poor prognosis in EOC. Moreover, the TNF and/or NF-κB signaling pathways may be responsible for hormone-mediated inhibition of the immune microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etiologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3543, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112803

RESUMO

Metastatic spread of a cancer to secondary sites is a coordinated, non-random process. Cancer cell-secreted vesicles, especially exosomes, have recently been implicated in the guidance of metastatic dissemination, with specific surface composition determining some aspects of organ-specific localization. Nevertheless, whether the tumor microenvironment influences exosome biodistribution has yet to be investigated. Here, we show that microenvironmental cytokines, particularly CCL2, decorate cancer exosomes via binding to surface glycosaminoglycan side chains of proteoglycans, causing exosome accumulation in specific cell subsets and organs. Exosome retention results in changes in the immune landscape within these organs, coupled with a higher metastatic burden. Strikingly, CCL2-decorated exosomes are directed to a subset of cells that express the CCL2 receptor CCR2, demonstrating that exosome-bound cytokines are a crucial determinant of exosome-cell interactions. In addition to the finding that cytokine-conjugated exosomes are detected in the blood of cancer patients, we discovered that healthy subjects derived exosomes are also associated with cytokines. Although displaying a different profile from exosomes isolated from cancer patients, it further indicates that specific combinations of cytokines bound to exosomes could likewise affect other physiological and disease settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Exossomos/imunologia , Exossomos/patologia , Feminino , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2722, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976164

RESUMO

The mechanism by which anti-cancer immunity shapes early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is unknown. In this study, we characterize the immune contexture of invasive lung ADC and its precursors by transcriptomic immune profiling, T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF). Our results demonstrate that anti-tumor immunity evolved as a continuum from lung preneoplasia, to preinvasive ADC, minimally-invasive ADC and frankly invasive lung ADC with a gradually less effective and more intensively regulated immune response including down-regulation of immune-activation pathways, up-regulation of immunosuppressive pathways, lower infiltration of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and anti-tumor helper T cells (Th), higher infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs), decreased T cell clonality, and lower frequencies of top T cell clones in later-stages. Driver mutations, chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) and aberrant DNA methylation may collectively impinge host immune responses and facilitate immune evasion, promoting the outgrowth of fit subclones in preneoplasia into dominant clones in invasive ADC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma in Situ/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Transcriptoma , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Células Clonais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
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