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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22581, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019473

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Angiosarcoma is a highly invasive tumour with a low incidence rate but high rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis and a poor prognosis. Understanding the endoscopic characteristics of angiosarcoma will help with early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 77-year-old female who was admitted to the hospital due to recurring melena for 3 months. Outpatient gastroscopy showed that the patient had multiple gastric erosions. Colonoscopy revealed the presence of multiple protruding lesions in the colon and multiple rectal polyps. Pathological biopsy indicated that the patient had a tubular adenoma, which was removed by endoscopic resection. DIAGNOSES: Postsurgical pathologic assessment suggested that the histological subtype was epithelioid angiosarcoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed multiple metastases in the lymph nodes and bone. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent acid suppression to protect the stomach, fluid supplementation and red blood cell infusion, and subsequently, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were recommended. The patient's family refused further treatments for the patient and requested discharge. OUTCOMES: The patient refused further treatment and was not followed-up. LESSONS: Colorectal angiosarcoma is an extremely rare and highly malignant tumour, and understanding its endoscopic morphology will help aid in its diagnosis.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangiossarcoma/secundário , Melena/etiologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Biópsia , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Gastroscopia/métodos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Melena/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21304, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871861

RESUMO

To determine the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) between young and old patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in terms of tumor response and survival outcome.LARC patients undergoing NCRT and radical surgery from 2011 to 2015 were included and divided into: young (aged ≤50 years) and old group (aged >50 years). Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for local recurrence. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis was performed to identify risk factors for overall survival. Predicting nomograms and time-indepent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to compare the models containing with/withour age groups.A total of 572 LARC patients were analyzed. The young group was associated with higher pathological TNM stage, poorly differentiated tumors, and higher rate of positive distal resection margin (P = .010; P = .019; P = .023 respectively). Young patients were associated with poorer 5-year disease-free survival and local recurrence rates (P = .023, P = .003 respectively). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that age ≤50 years (Hazard ratio = 2.994, P = .038) and higher pathological TNM stage (Hazard ratio = 3.261, P = .005) were significantly associated with increased risk for local recurrence. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis and the time-indepent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that including the age group were superior than that without age group.Young patients were associated with poorer disease free survival (DFS) and a higher risk for local recurrence in LARC following NCRT. The predicting model basing based on the age group had a better predictive ability. More intense adjuvant treatment could be considered to improve DFS and local control for young patients with LARC following NCRT.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Nomogramas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1114): 20200543, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate interobserver agreement for T2 weighted (T2W) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) contours of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC); and to evaluate manual and semi-automated delineations of restricted diffusion tumour subvolumes. METHODS: 20 cases of LARC were reviewed by 2 radiation oncologists and 2 radiologists. Contours of gross tumour volume (GTV) on T2W, DW-MRI and co-registered T2W/DW-MRI were independently delineated and compared using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), mean distance to agreement (MDA) and other metrics of interobserver agreement. Restricted diffusion subvolumes within GTVs were manually delineated and compared to semi-automatically generated contours corresponding to intratumoral apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) centile values. RESULTS: Observers were able to delineate subvolumes of restricted diffusion with moderate agreement (DSC 0.666, MDA 1.92 mm). Semi-automated segmentation based on the 40th centile intratumoral ADC value demonstrated moderate average agreement with consensus delineations (DSC 0.581, MDA 2.44 mm), with errors noted in image registration and luminal variation between acquisitions. A small validation set of four cases with optimised planning MRI demonstrated improvement (DSC 0.669, MDA 1.91 mm). CONCLUSION: Contours based on co-registered T2W and DW-MRI could be used for delineation of biologically relevant tumour subvolumes. Semi-automated delineation based on patient-specific intratumoral ADC thresholds may standardise subvolume delineation if registration between acquisitions is sufficiently accurate. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This is the first study to evaluate the feasibility of semi-automated diffusion-based subvolume delineation in LARC. This approach could be applied to dose escalation or 'dose painting' protocols to improve delineation reproducibility.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5853-5860, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The optimal treatment sequencing for asymptomatic de novo metastatic rectal cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of upfront radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy on risk for local complications, in patients with asymptomatic advanced metastatic rectal cancer treated with palliative intention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with de novo metastatic rectal cancer diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2017 in two healthcare regions in Sweden (Örebro län, Sörmland) were identified and data were extracted from electronic medical records. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on treatment sequence: upfront radiotherapy, upfront chemotherapy, and only palliative surgery. RESULTS: In total, 102 patients were included in the study cohort, 30 patients in upfront radiotherapy group, 54 in upfront chemotherapy, and 18 in only palliative surgery group. Patients with only upfront CT [odds ratio (OR)= 5.10; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-20.91, p=0.024] had a higher risk to suffer from a local complication compared to those who received upfront radiotherapy. Cause-specific Cox regression analysis among patients who received oncological therapy revealed that female patients [cause-specific hazard ratio (csHR)=3.61; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-7.81] and upfront chemotherapy [csHR=1.85; 95% CI=1.11-3.77] were associated with increased cumulative incidence of local complication over time, whereas primary surgery with ostomy or stent with lower risk [csHR=0.45; 95% CI=0.21-0.99]. CONCLUSION: Patients who received upfront radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, had fewer local complications due to primary tumor compared to patients who only received chemotherapy. This could indicate that radiotherapy to the primary tumor could be discussed with the patients as a first treatment option for asymptomatic metastatic rectal cancer to prevent local complications later during the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/terapia , Doenças Raras/radioterapia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Raras/patologia , Doenças Raras/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21328, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791729

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to report the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 45 rectal cancer patients who have a history of cervical cancer with or without remote radiotherapy. Twenty-nine patients (64.4%) with a history of cervical cancer treated with pelvic radiotherapy were classified as group A, 16 (35.6%) patients with a history of cervical cancer not treated with radiotherapy were classified as group B. The median duration between radiotherapy for cervical cancer and rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosis was 18 years. At the time of rectal cancer diagnosis, 5 (17.2%) patients presented stage I disease, 15 (51.7%) had stage II, 1 (3.4%) had stage III, and 8 (27.6%) had stage IV. The patients in group A had older age, higher rates of gross ulcerative lesions, low hemoglobin levels, and a lower rate of lymph node metastases. The patients with secondary rectal cancer developed after radiotherapy for cervical cancer usually presented with abnormal abdominal symptoms, such as proctitis, cystitis, or rectal fistula. Higher colostomy rate was found in this group of patients due to severe pelvic fibrosis or proctitis.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistite/epidemiologia , Cistite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Proctite/epidemiologia , Proctite/etiologia , Prognóstico , Fístula Retal/epidemiologia , Fístula Retal/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4308, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855399

RESUMO

Distant metastasis (DM) is the main cause of treatment failure in locally advanced rectal cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is usually used for distant control. However, not all patients can benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, and particularly, some patients may even get worse outcomes after the treatment. We develop and validate an MRI-based radiomic signature (RS) for prediction of DM within a multicenter dataset. The RS is proved to be an independent prognostic factor as it not only demonstrates good accuracy for discriminating patients into high and low risk of DM in all the four cohorts, but also outperforms clinical models. Within the stratified analysis, good chemotherapy efficacy is observed for patients with pN2 disease and low RS, whereas poor chemotherapy efficacy is detected in patients with pT1-2 or pN0 disease and high RS. The RS may help individualized treatment planning to select patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for distant control.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Nomogramas , Protectomia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Radioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
7.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(5): 451-455, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842423

RESUMO

Presacral recurrence, a special recurrence type in rectal cancer after surgical treatment, refers to recurrent cancer invading the presacral soft tissue or the bony structure of sacrum. It is also a major constituent of recurrent rectal cancer (15.63% to 41.67%). Reports show that presacral recurrence rate is about 2.8% to 4.8%, and it is associated with clinic staging, pathological type, surgical approach, (neo) adjuvant radiochemotherapy, tumor distance from the anus, positive circumferential margin, lymph node metastasis, and unilateral lateral lymph node dissection. CT and MRI are important for the detection of presacral recurrence. Presacral recurrence is always combined with local recurrence in other parts and distant organ metastasis. Therefore, we divide that into the following 3 types: 1) presacral recurrence with distant metastasis; 2) presacral recurrence with pelvic wall or lateral lymph node metastasis, or with recurrence of pelvic organs or anastomosis; and 3) simple presacral relapse. According to MDT evaluation. We adopt corresponding treatment scheme and surgical approach depending on the types mentioned above. When tumor recurred in the sacrum and located lower than S2/3 articular surface, then resection of recurrent tumor combined with sacrococcygeal should be the treatment of choice. For presacral recurrence with anterior invasion, combined total pelvic exenteration were available. For presacral recurrence with lateral pelvic wall invasion, internal iliac arteriovenous resection and lateral lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymph node dissection should be carried out. R0 resection may improve the 5-year overall survival rate of these patients.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Sacro/cirurgia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Sacro/patologia
8.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(5): 461-465, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842425

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors in patients with presacral recurrent rectal cancer (PRRC). Methods: PRRC was defined as recurrence of rectal cancer after radical surgery involving posteriorly the presacral soft tissue, the sacrum/coccyx, and/or sacral nerve root. The diagnosis is confirmed with clinical symptoms (pain of pelvis/back/lower limb, bloody stools, increased frequency of defecation, and abnormal secretions), physical examination of perineal or pelvic masses, radiological findings, colonoscopy with histopathological biopsy, and the evaluation by multi-disciplinary team (MDT). Inclusion criteria: (1) primary rectal cancer undergoing radical surgery without distant metastasis; (2) PRRC was diagnosed; (3) complete inpatient, outpatient and follow-up data. According to the above criteria, clinical data of 72 patients with PRRC in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2008 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinicopathological features and follow-up data were summarized. Cox proportional hazard models was used to analyze the prognostic factors of PRRC. Results: Among 72 patients, 45 were male and 27 were female with a male-to-female ratio of 1.7:1.0. The median age at recurrence was 58 (34 to 83) years and the median interval from surgery to recurrence was 2.0 (0.2 to 17.0) years. The main symptom was pain in 48.6% (35/72) of patients. In addition, gastrointestinal symptoms were found in 25.0% (18/72) of patients. The presacral recurrent sites were presacral fascia in 36 (50.0%) patients, lower sacrum (S3~S5 or coccyx) in 25 (34.7%) patients, and higher sacrum (S1~S2) in 11 (15.3%) patients. Forty-seven (65.3%) patients underwent radical surgery (abdominal resection, abdominoperineal resection, sacrectomy, abdominosacral resection), 12 (16.7%) underwent non-radical surgery (colostomy, cytoreductive surgery), and 13 (18.1%) did not undergo any surgery but only receive palliative chemoradiotherapy and nutritional support treatment. Thirty-three (45.8%) patients received radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, irinotecan, etc.). All the patients received follow-up, and the median follow-up time was 19 (2 to 72) months. The median overall survival time was 14 (1 to 65) months. The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates were 67.1% and 32.0%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age at recurrence (P=0.031) and radical resection (P<0.001) were associated with prognosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that radical resection was independent factor of good prognosis (RR=0.140, 95%CI: 0.061-0.322, P<0.001). Conclusions: Patients tend to develop presacral recurrent rectal cancer within 2 years after primary surgery. The main symptom is pain. Patients undergoing radical resection have a relatively good prognosis.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(5): 472-479, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842427

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the factors affecting the degree of radical resection and the prognosis of patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed. Clinical data of 111 patients with LRRC undergoing operation at the General Surgery Department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 to August 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The "Peking University First Hospital F typing" was performed according to the preoperative images of the pelvic involvement. The pelvis was assigned into four directions: the front wall, lateral sides of the pelvic wall and the sacrum. According to the degree of pelvic wall involvement, F typing included F0 type (no involvement of the pelvic wall, the cancer only involved the adjacent organs or invaded conteriorly the urinary tract, genital organs or small intestine), F1 type (cancer involved the pelvic wall in one direction, such as the sacrum, or one side of the pelvic wall), F2 type (cancer involved the pelvic wall in two directions) and F3 type (cancer involved the pelvic wall in three directions). Case inclusion criteria: (1) LRRC was confirmed by imaging and pathological examination of samples (puncture or endoscopic biopsy); (2) complete clinical and follow-up data; (3) informed consent of patient. Those with dysfunction of heart, lung, etc., intolerance of operation, F3 type indicated by image, and distant metastasis were excluded. The degree of radical resection was evaluated according to the postoperative pathological results. Patients were followed up every 12 months and related examinations were arranged. The univariate analysis of radical resection was performed by χ(2) test, and the multivariate analysis was performed by logistic methods. The survival rate was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and the survival curve was drawn. The survival rate was compared by log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis of patients with LRRC. Results: A total of 111 patients were included in this study. Of 111 patients, 59 were male and 52 were female; recurrent age of 36 cases was ≥ 65 years old; CEA level of 48 cases was ≥15 µg/L. According to the "Peking University First Hospital F typing", 70 cases were F0 type, 38 F1 type and 3 F2 type. Surgical procedures were abdominoperineal resection (n=28), posterior pelvic exenteration (n=32), and total pelvic exenteration (n=51, including 1 case of TPE combined with sacrectomy). According to the postoperative pathological results, R0, R1 and R2 resections were 83, 20 and 8 cases, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the degree of radical resection was associated with the secondary surgical procedure, F typing and lymph node metastasis (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that F typing (F1-F2) was an independent risk factor for non- R0 resection (OR=37.256, 95%CI:8.572 to 161.912, P<0.001). The morbidity of operative complications was 22.5% (25/111); the perioperative mortality was 1.8% (2/111); the local recurrence rate after the second operation was 37.8% (42/111). The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 41.2% and 21.9% respectively. The 3-year survival rates of patients with and without postoperative chemotherapy were 52.7% and 32.4% respectively (P=0.005). The 3-year survival rates of patients with lower (<15 µg/L) and higher CEA level (≥15 µg/L) were 52.9% and 24.3% respectively (P<0.001). The 3-year survival rates of patients with R0, R1 and R2 resection were 49.8%, 21.3% and 8.5% respectively (P=0.002). The 3-year survival rates of patients with F0, F1 and F2 type were 52.7%, 22.0% and 0 respectively (P<0.001). Cox analysis confirmed that the degree of radical resection (HR=2.088, 95%CI:1.095 to 3.979, P=0.025), the CEA level before the secondary operation (HR=1.857, 95%CI:1.157 to 2.980, P=0.010) and postoperative chemotherapy (HR=1.826, 95%CI:1.137 to 2.934, P=0.013) were independent factors affecting the prognosis. Conclusions: The indication of LRRC surgical treatments must be strictly limited. Evaluation of the fixation site to the pelvic wall is helpful for improving the rate of R0 resection. Lower preoperative CEA level, radical resection and postoperative chemotherapy are protective factors of prolonged overall survival time of patients with LRRC.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Pelve/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sacro/cirurgia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21215, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702890

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Penile metastasis in rectal cancer is very rare and often originates from prostatic or bladder cancer. The prognosis of penile metastasis is poor and its treatments are more often palliative than curative due to association with disseminated metastases. Pathologic complete response (pCR) in rectal cancer with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been shown to be surrogate marker of favorable long-term outcomes and currently has no report of penile metastasis. Here, we first report isolated penile metastasis in rectal cancer with pCR after neoadjuvant CRT. PATIENT CONCERN: The patient was a 74-year-old male with metastasis to the glans penis from rectal cancer diagnosed 9 months after abdominoperineal resection. Physical examination revealed palpable multiple nodules on the glans penis. DIAGNOSIS: Penile biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma from the rectal cancer. INTERVENTION: Chemotherapy was started as soon as possible, because patient suffered urinary discomfort by rapid growing metastatic lesions. He is currently receiving palliative chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX-6 (mFOLFOX-6; oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid) plus bevacizumab. OUTCOME: The patient is still alive 4 months after diagnosis with markedly decreased metastatic lesions. LESSON: We propose that although penile metastasis in rectal cancer with pCR after preoperative neoadjuvant CRT is extremely rare, it might help to start early palliative chemotherapy and clinicians should be aware of this possibility.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Penianas/diagnóstico , Pênis , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Penianas/secundário , Neoplasias Penianas/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20941, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629697

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tailgut cyst (TGC) is a rare congenital disease that originates from residues of the tail intestine during the embryonic period. Most TGCs are benign lesions and the malignant transition is very rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 50-year-old woman attended our department complaining of defecation difficulty for more than 2 months. She reported irregular defecation with a small amount of liquid stool, 3 to 4 times per day. DIAGNOSIS: Biochemical analysis showed high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (79.89 ng/mL; normal, 0-3 ng/mL) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (57.60 U/mL; normal, 0-35 U/mL). Abdominal computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large cystic mass with enhanced signals. Post-surgical histopathology indicated that the mass was a TGC with adenocarcinoma transition. INTERVENTIONS: The cyst was completely resected. Symptomatic treatment was further performed, and the patient recovered well. LESSONS: We reported a rare case of a large TGC with adenocarcinoma transition. CT, MRI, and histopathology are important to diagnose TGC. Complete surgical resection is the first choice to treat TGC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Cistos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/patologia , Cistos/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 51(3): 800-804, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Today, the rapid outbreak of COVID-19 is the leading health issue. Patients with cancer are at high risk for the development of morbidities of COVID-19. Hence, oncology centers need to provide organ-based recommendations for optimal management of cancer in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: In this article, we have provided the recommendations on management of locally advanced rectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic based on our experience in Shohada-e Tajrish Hospital, Iran. RESULTS: We recommend that patients with locally advanced rectal cancer should be managed in an individualized manner in combination with local conditions related to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our recommendation may provide a guide for oncology centers of developing countries for better management of locally advanced rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Oncologia/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/normas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Oncologia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Protectomia/normas , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia
14.
Am Surg ; 86(7): 811-818, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the effect of conversion from minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to laparotomy in rectal cancer is limited. This study examines the impact of conversion from laparoscopic or robotic-assisted techniques to open resection on oncologic outcomes in a large population database. METHODS: The National Cancer Database from 2010 to 2016 was reviewed for all cases of invasive adenocarcinoma of the rectum or rectosigmoid junction managed surgically. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts by approach: laparoscopic/robotic (MIS), converted proctectomy (CP), and open proctectomy (OP). Kaplan-Meier estimation was used for unadjusted survival analysis, followed by adjusted multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazards regression. Secondary outcomes were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria identified 57 574 patients cases of adenocarcinoma of the rectum managed surgically. Of these patients, 23 579 (41.0%) underwent MIS, 3591 (6.2%) CP, and 30 404 (52.8%) OP. Five-year overall survival was greater in the MIS (70.4%) versus CP and OP (64.4% and 61.4%). No differences were detected for positive margins, 30-day, or 90-day mortality between CP and OP. MIS and CP approaches were significantly associated with increased odds of 12 or more regional lymph nodes examined and decreased overall mortality hazard compared with OP (all respective significant P < .05). DISCUSSION: While similar odds of positive margins and short-term mortality is seen in patients whose procedure converts to laparotomy compared with planned laparotomy, both short-term and long-term oncologic benefit is seen in those who undergo a minimally invasive approach. Thus, a minimally invasive approach should be attempted for patients with rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta , Laparoscopia , Laparotomia , Protectomia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
Updates Surg ; 72(3): 793-800, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632764

RESUMO

According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer, at least 12 lymph nodes are required to accurately stage locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT) reduces the number of lymph nodes retrieved during surgery. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NACRT on lymph node retrieval and prognosis in patients with LARC. We performed an observational study of 142 patients with LARC. Although our analysis was retrospective, data were collected prospectively. Half the patients were treated with NACRT and total mesorectal excision (TME) and the other half underwent TME only. The number of lymph nodes retrieved and the number of metastatic lymph nodes were significantly reduced in the NACRT group (P > 0.001). In the univariate and multivariate analyses, only NACRT and patient age were significantly associated with reduced lymph node retrieval. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and the lymph node ratio (LNR) both had a significant effect on prognosis when the patient population was examined as a whole (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). However, the LNR was the only significant, independent prognostic factor in both treatment groups (P = 0.007 for the NACRT group; P = 0.04 for the no-NACRT group). NACRT improves patient prognosis only when the number of metastatic lymph nodes is reduced. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and the LNR are important prognostic factors. Lymph node retrieval remains an indispensable tool for staging and prognostic assessment of patients with rectal carcinoma treated with NACRT.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Metástase Linfática/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3579-3587, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation/radiation therapy in locally advanced (LA) upper rectal adenocarcinoma management remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and upfront surgery (US). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 127 patients were retrospectively included from 5 centers (79 treated with US and 48 with CRT). CRT and US groups were compared in terms of postoperative complications and long-term oncological and functional results. RESULTS: Total mesorectal excision (TME) was more frequent in CRT (58% vs. 20% in US, p<0.001). CRT was associated with more overall and severe postoperative complications (60% vs. 30%, p<0.001 and 17% vs. 1%, p=0.002, respectively), and was the only risk factor [OR=18.8 (2.2-160.2), p=0.007]. Five-year overall survival and 5-year recurrence-free survival were similar between CRT and US (96% vs. 91% p=0.256 and 85.4% vs. 85%, p=0.495). The functional results were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: CRT did not improve long-term oncological outcomes in patients with LA upper rectal adenocarcinoma, but increased postoperative complications compared with US.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(6): 438-444, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575937

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are relatively rare heterogeneous tumors that originate from peptidergic neurons and neuroendocrine cells and have been referred to as "carcinoids" in the past. Although this type of tumor had been previously considered to be indolent tumor with a low degree of malignancy, with the development of medicine and clinical study, researchers found that NENs had the potential to metastasize. They can occur in any part of the body where neuroendocrine cells are distributed and gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are the most common type of NENs.Due to the improvement of techniques such as endoscopy and imaging, the incidence of rectal neuroendocrine tumors(R-NENs) and the number of related clinical researches have both increased significantly in recent years. Although researches in Chinese and foreign medical centers are mostly retrospective studies of small samples and the efficacies of different treatment methods are still under debating and lack of sufficient medical evidence to support, the diagnosis and treatment of this disease is gradually becoming standardized according to the proposal of corresponding guidelines. The recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms are reviewed in this paper.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Tumor Carcinoide , China/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Humanos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
18.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(6): 501-506, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575948

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical-pathological data of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent modified total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of radical surgery after modified total neoadjuvant therapy. Methods: The clinical-pathological data of 30 locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent modified TNT (mTNT) followed by radical resection were retrospectively analyzed. The surgical procedure, postoperative complications, tumor regression grade, tumor downstaging and prognosis were analyzed. Results: The 30 patients included 24 males and 6 females with a median age of 55.5 years. All patients underwent radical surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, 14 patients received low anterior resection, 14 patients received abdominal perineal resection, and the other 2 patients received Hartmann procedure. All patients achieved R0 resection with a median operative time 220 minutes and the median intraoperative blood loss was 200 ml. The morbidity of postoperative complications was 20% (6/30), including dysuria in 2 patients, delayed healing of perineal incision in 2 patients, intestinal obstruction in 1 patient and pelvic hemorrhage in 1 patient. The median time to first flatus after surgery was 3 days and the median postoperative hospital stay was 8 days. Postoperative pathological results showed that 15 patients (50.0%) had severe tumor regression, including 4 patients (13.3%) achieved pathological complete response (pCR), 12 patients (40.0%) had moderate tumor regression, and 3 patients (10.0%) had minor tumor regression. Twenty patients had detailed pre-treatment clinical stage, and among those 20 patients, 15 patients (75.0%) and 13 patients (65.0%) achieved downstaging of tumor T stage and N stage, respectively. Only 2 patients appeared distant metastasis, and no patient had local recurrence. Conclusions: For locally advanced rectal cancer patients, mTNT doesn't increase the morbidity of postoperative complication and is a safe and effective treatment strategy with satisfactory short-term result.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20985, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590811

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Among the various forms of colorectal carcinomas, primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of rectum is infrequent. Primary SRCC with adenoma is even rarer. Due to its low morbidity and lack of obvious manifestations at early stages, it is difficult to make an early diagnosis and perform surgical intervention in time. Herein, we reported a case of primary SRCC with tubular adenoma of rectum and also performed a review of the literature of such cases, in hopes of expanding the general understanding regarding such cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old male patient presented with rectal bleeding for 1 week. DIAGNOSES: A neoplasm could be palpated through a rectal examination, with a size of 4.0 cm by 3.0 cm, at a distance of 5 cm from the anal edge. Magnetic resonance imaging examination and colonoscopies were performed to confirm the finding, and 4 tissue specimens were obtained for histopathologic biopsy. The result of biopsy was high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia with an adenoma component. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical resection was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical staining examination of the resection confirmed the diagnosis of SRCC with tubular adenoma. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged from hospital 12 days postsurgery, without any complications. Further chemotherapy and supportive treatments were suggested to him and will be followed at a local hospital. LESSONS: Primary rectal SRCC has a rather low morbidity. Furthermore, a rectal SRCC with adenoma which was presenting in this case is even more rare. Besides lack of clinical characters, delay of diagnosis and treatment frequently occur. So far, a surgical procedure has still been one of the most effective treatments. Considering of metastasis and the poor prognosis, early diagnosis, in-time radical resection, and a comprehensive followed treatment are recommended for a higher 5-year overall survival.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 572-577, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521977

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the feasibility of using faster regional convolutional neural network (Faster R-CNN) to evaluate the status of circumferential resection margin (CRM) of rectal cancer in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-1800017410). Case inclusion criteria: (1) the positive area of CRM was located between the plane of the levator ani, anal canal and peritoneal reflection; (2) rectal malignancy was confirmed by electronic colonoscopy and histopathological examination; (3) positive CRM was confirmed by postoperative pathology or preoperative high-resolution MRI. Exclusion criteria: patients after neoadjuvant therapy, recurrent cancer after surgery, poor quality images, giant tumor with extensive necrosis and tissue degeneration, and rectal tissue construction changes in previous pelvic surgery. According to the above criteria, MRI plain scan images of 350 patients with rectal cancer and positive CRM in The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from July 2016 to June 2019 were collected. The patients were classified by gender and tumor position, and randomly assigned to the training group (300 cases) and the validation group (50 cases) at a ratio of 6:1 by computer random number method. The CRM positive region was identified on the T2WI image using the LabelImg software. The identified training group images were used to iteratively train and optimize parameters of the Faster R-CNN model until the network converged to obtain the best deep learning model. The test set data were used to evaluate the recognition performance of the artificial intelligence platform. The selected indicators included accuracy, sensitivity, positive predictive value, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, areas under the ROC curves (AUC), and the time taken to identify a single image. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the CRM status determined by the trained Faster R-CNN artificial intelligence approach were 0.884, 0.857, 0.898, 0.807, and 0.926, respectively; the AUC was 0.934 (95% CI: 91.3% to 95.4%). The Faster R-CNN model's automatic recognition time for a single image was 0.2 s. Conclusion: The artificial intelligence model based on Faster R-CNN for the identification and segmentation of CRM-positive MRI images of rectal cancer is established, which can complete the risk assessment of CRM-positive areas caused by in-situ tumor invasion and has the application value of preliminary screening.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Margens de Excisão , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Medição de Risco
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