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1.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 161, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578471

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to see how accurate tumor size was at predicting T and N stages in rectal malignancies. Tumor sizes of 40 mm and greater than 40 mm were used to assess post-operative challenges in related to T1-T2 and T3-T4 stages, as well as between node N0 and node N1 and N2 patients. A total of 131 patients were treated for colorectal cancer, with 54 patients < 40 mm and 77 patients > 40 mm receiving Da Vinci colorectal surgery. Conferring to the Clavien-Dindo classification grade III, there's an increase in the percentage of tumors > 40 mm, which also impacts the percentage of intestinal obstruction, anastomotic leakage, GERD, and sepsis with a P < 0.05. A tumor size of more than 40 mm is strongly associated with advanced pT stages. Tumor size may serve in addition to clinical staging and improve the management of rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fístula Anastomótica
2.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 28(4): 519-527, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anal adenocarcinoma is rare with no standardized treatment regimen or staging system. Therefore, different combinations of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are used in management. Within the staging system, tumor stage can be based on the depth of invasion, as for rectal adenocarcinoma, or size, as in anal squamous cell carcinoma. This study aimed to analyze patterns of care and clinically available staging systems for anal adenocarcinoma using a national database. METHODS: Adults diagnosed with anal adenocarcinoma were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2019). In addition, 6 different treatment regimens were identified. Stages were categorized according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer classifications of rectal adenocarcinoma and anal squamous cell carcinoma. RESULTS: Of 1040 patients, 48% were female, the median age was 67 years, and 18% had distant metastases. Chemoradiotherapy + abdominoperineal resection was the most common treatment regimen (22%). Moreover, 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were the highest for local excision only (67% and 85%) and the lowest in the alternative group (34% and 48%). After adjustment, the treatment groups that did not include surgery were associated with worse 5-year OS. In multivariable analysis, the T stage based on depth of invasion showed incrementally lower OS for T2 and T3 anal adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSION: Omission of surgical resection in combination with chemoradiotherapy was associated with worse OS and DSS, suggesting the relevance of surgery in anal adenocarcinoma management. Prognostically, rectal staging based on depth of invasion better discriminated between T stages, indicating that providers should consider using this system in practice.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias do Ânus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Retais , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias do Ânus/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(4): 176, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575793

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Residual lymph node metastases (RLNM) remained a great concern in the implementation of organ-preserving strategies and led to poor prognosis in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). In this study, we aimed to identify the clinicopathological factors correlated with RLNM in LARC patients with ypT0-2 after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 417 patients histologically diagnosed middle-low LARC after NCRT and total mesorectal excision (TME), whose pathological staging was ypT0-2. All patients received pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before NCRT. The radiation doses were 50-50.6 Gy for the planning gross tumor volume and 41.8-45 Gy for the planning target volume, respectively. A nomogram for predicting RLNM was constructed using a binary logistic regression. Nomogram performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration curve, decision curve analysis (DCA) and clinical impact curve (CIC). RESULTS: After surgery, 191 patients (45.8%) were ypT0, 43 patients (10.3%) were ypT1 and 183 patients (43.9%) were ypT2, and a total of 49 patients (11.8%) were found the presence of RLNM. Multivariable analyses identified MRI-defined mesorectal fascia (MRF)-positive, high-grade histopathology at biopsy, advanced ypT-category, and the presence of perineural invasion (PNI) as the predictive factors. The nomogram, incorporating all these predictors, showed good discrimination and calibration efficacy, with the areas under the ROC curve of 0.690 (95% CI: 0.610-0.771). Both DCA and CIC demonstrated that this nomogram has good clinical usefulness. CONCLUSION: The nomogram model can predict RLNM in patients with ypT0-2 tumors. It can help select suitable patients for performing organ-preserving strategies after NCRT.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Metástase Linfática , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2192-2198, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Male erectile dysfunction is an important complication of rectal surgery. In this research, the effect of prostate dimensions on the development of postoperative erectile dysfunction in patients diagnosed with mid-rectum adenocarcinoma who underwent low anterior resection (LAR) is examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one male patients diagnosed as mid-rectal adenocancer were included. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was used to determine the patients' pre and postoperative erectile dysfunction levels, and the level of relationship between the change in these IIEF scores and prostate measurements determined by computed tomography were evaluated. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between IIEF index score and anterior posterior (AP) and transverse (TR) measurements (p≤0.001; p≤0.001), but no statistically significant difference was found between craniocaudal (CC) measurement values (p=0.169). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of nerve injury will be higher in those with a small prostate transverse diameter. Intraoperative nerve monitoring should be recommended primarily in younger patient groups.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Protectomia , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Masculino , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Próstata/patologia , Reto , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
5.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 28(4): 548-558, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several recent meta-analyses have investigated the clinical influence of the addition of lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) on oncologic outcomes in patients with mid-low rectal cancer (RC) undergoing mesorectal excision (ME), most studies included in such meta-analyses were retrospectively designed. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the clinical influence of prophylactic LLND on oncologic outcomes in patients with mid-low RC undergoing ME. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search of the literature up to July 2022 was performed to identify studies that compared oncologic outcomes between patients with mid-low RC undergoing ME who underwent LLND and patients with mid-low RC undergoing ME who did not undergo LLND. A meta-analysis was performed using fixed-effects models and the generic inverse variance method to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, and heterogeneity was analyzed using I2 statistics. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies, consisting of 3 randomized and 3 propensity score matching studies, were included in this meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis of 2 randomized studies demonstrated no significant effect of prophylactic LLND on improving oncologic outcomes concerning overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.89-1.69; I2 = 0%; P = .22) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.31; I2 = 28%; P = .83). CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis revealed no significant influence of prophylactic LLND on oncologic outcomes-OS and RFS-in patients with mid-low RC who underwent ME.


Assuntos
Excisão de Linfonodo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Linfonodos/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Indian J Cancer ; 61(Suppl 1): S29-S51, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424681

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This review article examines the evidence-based management of colorectal cancers, focusing on topics characterized by ongoing debates and evolving evidence. To contribute to the scientific discourse, we intentionally exclude subjects with established guidelines, concentrating instead on areas where the current understanding is dynamic. Our analysis encompasses a thorough exploration of critical themes, including the evidence surrounding complete mesocolic excision and D3 lymphadenectomy in colon cancers. Additionally, we delve into the evolving landscape of perioperative chemotherapy in both colon and rectal cancers, considering its nuanced role in the context of contemporary treatment strategies. Advancements in surgical techniques are a pivotal aspect of our discussion, with an emphasis on the utilization of minimally invasive approaches such as laparoscopy and robotic surgery in both colon and rectal cancers, including advanced rectal cases. Moving beyond conventional radical procedures, we scrutinize the feasibility and implications of endoscopic resections for small tumors, explore the paradigm of organ preservation in locally advanced rectal cancers, and assess the utility of total neoadjuvant therapy in the current treatment landscape. Our final segment reviews pivotal trials that have significantly influenced the management of colorectal liver and peritoneal metastasis.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia
7.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 199-203, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data with regard to the use of modified 5-fluoroural-leucovorin-irinotecan-oxaliplatin (mFOLFIRINOX) in terms of tolerance and enabling total mesorectal excision (TME) of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas (LARC) with high-risk characteristics (T4b status, signet ring histology etc) post standard neoadjuvant long course chemoradiation (NACTRT) or short course radiation (SCRT) and chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with LARC from January 2018 to December 2020 receiving mFOLFIRINOX post NACTRT/SCRT to facilitate TME were evaluated. The primary endpoint was assessment of grade 3 and grade 4 treatment related toxicity and TME rates. Event free survival (EFS), where event was defined as disease progression or recurrence post resection after mFOLFIRINOX, was calculated by Kaplan Meier method. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were evaluated with a median age of 33 years (Range:18-59), 45% T4b status, 96% radiological circumferential margin (CRM) involved (79% CRM positive post NACTRT/SCRT), 43% extramural venous invasion (n=33) and 36% signet ring histology. 62% had received prior NACTRT and 38% had received SCRT with chemotherapy before receiving mFOLFIRINOX. The most common grade 3 and grade 4 treatment related side effects included diarrhoea (7%), anaemia (4%) and infections (4%). Intended duration of mFOLFIRINOX or beyond was completed in 94% of patients. 60% of patients underwent curative local resection with R0 resection rates of 100% (n=28) and pathological complete response rates of 21%. The most common surgeries done were exenterations and abdominoperineal in 22% and 17% patients respectively. With a median follow up of 19 months, 24 patients had recurred or progressed for a median EFS of 20 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 15-24]. CONCLUSIONS: Locally advanced rectal cancers with high-risk characteristics are a niche group of cancers with less-than-optimal outcomes post standard neoadjuvant strategies. mFOLFIRINOX appears to be well tolerated and enables TME in a significant proportion of these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia , Irinotecano , Oxaliplatina
8.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 281-284, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) who respond poorly to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (ChT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The database of a tertiary medical center (2009-2020) was retrospectively reviewed for patients with LAGC in whom the initial treatment strategy consisted of perioperative ChT and surgery. Those who were subsequently referred for postoperative CRT because of a poor pathologic primary-tumor response (ypT3-4, ypN2-3, R1 resection) were selected for the study. CRT consisted of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy combined with capecitabine 825 mg/m2 twice daily on radiotherapy days or continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil 180 mg/m2/day. RESULTS: The cohort included 26 patients of median age 61 years with LAGC (clinical stage IIA-III) after surgery with D1-D2 lymphadenectomy. R0 resection was achieved in 15 (58%). The pathological stage was III in 69% (IIA-IVA). Treatment was well tolerated. During a median follow-up time of 39 months, recurrences were documented in 14 patients (54%): 11 distant and 3 locoregional. Median progression-free survival was 23 months, and median overall survival was 65 months. Estimated 5-year survival rates were 42 and 54%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This small retrospective study suggests that in patients with LAGC who show a poor pathologic response to neoadjuvant ChT, a good outcome relative to reference arms in randomized trials can still be achieved with the addition of postoperative CRT. Further studies of the benefit of a tailored adaptive treatment approach to LAGC based on the response to neoadjuvant ChT are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
9.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 417-422, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of post-neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NACTRT) wait-and-watch Strategy (WWS) in distal rectal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients from December 2012 to 2019 diagnosed with distal rectal tumors (T2-T4 N0-N+) having a complete or near-complete response (cCR or nCR, respectively) post-NACTRT and wishing for the non-surgical treatment option of WWS were included in this study. Patients were observed with 3 monthly magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs), sigmoidoscopies, and digital rectal examination for 2 years and 6 monthly thereafter. Organ preservation rate (OPR), local regrowth rate (LRR), non-regrowth recurrence-free survival (NR-RFS) and overall survival (OAS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and factors associated with LRR were identified on univariate and multivariate analysis using the log-rank test (P < 0.05 significant). RESULTS: Sixty-one consecutive patients post-NACTRT achieving cCR[44 (72%)] and nCR[17 (28%)], respectively, were identified. All patients received pelvic radiotherapy at a dose of 45-50Gy conventional fractionation and concurrent capecitabine. An additional boost dose with either an external beam or brachytherapy was given to 39 patients. At a median follow-up of 39 months, 11 (18%) patients had local regrowth, of which seven were salvaged with surgery and the rest are alive with the disease, as they refused surgery. The overall OPR, NR-RFS, and OS were 83%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. Seven (11%) patients developed distant metastasis, of which six underwent metastatectomy and are alive and well. LRR was higher in patients with nCR versus cCR (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The WWS is a safe non-operative alternative management for selected patients attaining cCR/nCR after NACTRT with excellent outcomes.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Conduta Expectante , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Exame Retal Digital , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e943750, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Pathologic response after neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to improve outcomes in rectal cancer. Inflammatory markers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), have been studied to predict pathologic response and survival. This study aimed to evaluate the association between NLR and pathological response as well as outcome in patients with rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 187 patients with rectal cancer treated with nCRT followed by surgery between 2016 and 2020. The NLR was calculated using archival complete blood count records. Postoperative pathology reports were recorded. The NLR cut-off was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between NLR and clinicopathologic data to predict survival and prognosis. RESULTS An NLR >3.63 at diagnosis was the optimal cut-off value for predicting progression. Near-complete response rates were higher in patients with NLR <3.63 (38%) than in those with NLR >3.63 (18%) (P=0.035). The NLR <3.63 group had a significantly higher 5-year progression-free survival rate compared to the NLR >3.63 group (63.6% vs 40.1%, respectively; P=0.007). The NLR <3.63 group also had a higher 5-year overall survival (OS) rate than the NLR >3.63 group (72.3% vs 63.1%, respectively), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.077). CONCLUSIONS Our study showed a higher near-complete response rate in rectal cancer patients with NLR <3.63 receiving nCRT. This finding supports that a low preoperative NLR is a good prognostic factor in indicating pathological response.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Prognóstico , Neutrófilos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Linfócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
11.
Korean J Radiol ; 25(4): 351-362, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure inter-reader agreement and identify associated factors in interpreting complete response (CR) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study involved 10 readers from seven hospitals with experience of 80-10210 cases, and 149 patients who underwent surgery after CRT for rectal cancer. Using MRI-based tumor regression grading (mrTRG) and methods employed in daily practice, the readers independently assessed mrTRG, CR on T2-weighted images (T2WI) denoted as mrCRT2W, and CR on all images including diffusion-weighted images (DWI) denoted as mrCRoverall. The readers described their interpretation patterns and how they utilized DWI. Inter-reader agreement was measured using multi-rater kappa, and associated factors were analyzed using multivariable regression. Correlation between sensitivity and specificity of each reader was analyzed using Spearman coefficient. RESULTS: The mrCRT2W and mrCRoverall rates varied widely among the readers, ranging 18.8%-40.3% and 18.1%-34.9%, respectively. Nine readers used DWI as a supplement sequence, which modified interpretations on T2WI in 2.7% of cases (36/1341 [149 patients × 9 readers]) and mostly (33/36) changed mrCRT2W to non-mrCRoverall. The kappa values for mrTRG, mrCRT2W, and mrCRoverall were 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.62), 0.55 (0.52, 0.57), and 0.54 (0.51, 0.57), respectively. No use of rectal gel, larger initial tumor size, and higher initial cT stage exhibited significant association with a higher inter-reader agreement for assessing mrCRoverall (P ≤ 0.042). Strong negative correlations were observed between the sensitivity and specificity of individual readers (coefficient, -0.718 to -0.963; P ≤ 0.019). CONCLUSION: Inter-reader agreement was moderate for assessing CR on post-CRT MRI. Readers' varying standards on MRI interpretation (i.e., threshold effect), along with the use of rectal gel, initial tumor size, and initial cT stage, were significant factors associated with inter-reader agreement.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
12.
Surg Endosc ; 38(4): 2070-2077, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lateral lymph node metastases are a major cause of local recurrence after surgery for advanced low rectal cancer. Lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) may reduce the risk of local recurrence in patients with suspected lateral lymph node metastasis. Recent reports have shown that robotic-assisted LLND can help to reduce the postoperative complication rate, such as urinary disturbance. Furthermore, with the advent of transanal total mesorectal excision, a novel LLND procedure that combines a transabdominal approach with a transanal approach has been reported. This study aimed to clarify the safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted LLND supported by a transanal approach for advanced low rectal cancer. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients diagnosed to have low rectal cancer between June 2019 and May 2023 were retrospectively enrolled and divided according to whether they underwent LLND via a robotic-assisted transabdominal approach alone (transabdominal group, n = 19) or in combination with a transanal approach (2team group, n = 20). The patient characteristics and short-term surgical outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The total operation time was significantly shorter in the 2team group than in the transabdominal group (366 min vs. 513 min, P < 0.001), as was the time taken to perform unilateral LLND (64 min vs. 114 min, P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was significantly less intraoperative bleeding in the 2team group (30 mL vs. 80 mL, P = 0.004). There was no significant between-group difference in postoperative complications. The incidence of postoperative urinary disturbance was satisfactory at 5% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The operation time for LLND performed by a robotic-assisted transabdominal approach was shortened when supported by a transanal approach. The frequency of postoperative urinary disturbance was low in both groups. Therefore, robotic-assisted abdominal LLND supported by a transanal approach can be considered a promising treatment option for advanced low rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia
13.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 135, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520491

RESUMO

Rectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumours worldwide, and it is also one of the major diseases that seriously threatens human life and health. At present, the main treatment for rectal cancer is still surgical treatment. The surgical methods have been rapidly developed from the previous open surgery to the current minimally invasive surgery. At present, there are two main minimally invasive surgeries: robotic surgery and laparoscopic surgery. Due to the particularity of rectal cancer surgery, more and more studies have shown that robotic rectal cancer surgery has more advantages than laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, whether the incidence of postoperative complications after robotic rectal cancer surgery is lower than that after laparoscopy is not uniformly conclusive in the current study. Therefore, in this paper, we searched Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase and other databases, collected the latest published meta-analysis on postoperative complications of robots and laparoscopy in rectal cancer, and assessed the quality of the included meta-analysis by AMSTAR-2 evaluation tool, so as to explore the current research status and research quality of postoperative complications of robots and laparoscopy in rectal cancer. The results showed that compared with laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery, robotic rectal cancer surgery could improve the postoperative urinary and reproductive function of male patients, but it could not be proved that robotic rectal cancer surgery could reduce the incidence of postoperative complications, anastomotic leakage, urinary retention, intestinal obstruction, anastomotic bleeding, incision infection, pulmonary infection, venous thrombosis and abdominal abscess; however, the overall quality of meta-analysis of the results of each complication was low or very low. Therefore, multicenter, large-sample, high-quality prospective randomised controlled studies and high-quality meta-analysis are still needed to prove the advantages of robotic rectal cancer surgery in postoperative complications in the future.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Humanos , Masculino , Laparoscópios/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
14.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 39(1): 41, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tattoo markings are often used as preoperative markers for colorectal cancer. However, scattered ink markings adversely affect tumor site recognition intraoperatively; therefore, interventions for rectal cancer may lead to an inaccurate distal resection margin (DRM) and incomplete total mesorectal excision (TME). This is the first case series of fluorescence-guided robotic rectal surgery in which near-infrared fluorescence clips (NIRFCs) were used to localize rectal cancer lesions. METHODS: We enrolled 20 consecutive patients who underwent robotic surgery for rectal cancer between December 2022 and December 2023 in the current study. The primary endpoints were the rate of intraoperative clip detection and its usefulness for marking the tumor site. Secondary endpoints were oncological assessments, including DRM and the number of lymph nodes. RESULTS: Clip locations were confirmed in 17 of 20 (85%) patients. NIRFCs were not detected in 3 out of 7 patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiation therapy. No adverse events, including bleeding or perforation, were observed at the time of clipping, and no clips were lost. The median DRM was 55 mm (range, 22-86 mm) for rectosigmoid (Rs), 33 mm (range, 16-60 mm) for upper rectum (Ra), and 20 mm (range, 17-30 mm) for low rectum (Rb). The median number of lymph nodes was 13 (range, 10-21). CONCLUSION: The rate of intraoperative clip detection, oncological assessment, including DRM, and the number of lymph nodes indicate that the utility of fluorescence-guided methods with NIRFCs is feasible for rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Reto/cirurgia , Reto/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Corantes , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Laparoscopia/métodos
15.
Eur J Radiol ; 174: 111402, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461737

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and clinical value of synthetic diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) generated from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) through multi-task reconstruction network (MTR-Net) for tumor response prediction in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS: In this retrospective study, 120 eligible patients with LARC were enrolled and randomly divided into training and testing datasets with a 7:3 ratio. The MTR-Net was developed for reconstructing Dapp and Kapp images from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. Tumor regions were manually segmented on both true and synthetic DKI images. The synthetic image quality and manual segmentation agreement were quantitatively assessed. The support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to construct radiomics models based on the true and synthetic DKI images for pathological complete response (pCR) prediction. The prediction performance for the models was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: The mean squared error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural similarity index measure (SSIM) for tumor regions were 0.212, 24.278, and 0.853, respectively, for the synthetic Dapp images and 0.516, 24.883, and 0.804, respectively, for the synthetic Kapp images. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity (SEN), and Hausdorff distance (HD) for the manually segmented tumor regions were 0.786, 0.844, 0.755, and 0.582, respectively. For predicting pCR, the true and synthetic DKI-based radiomics models achieved area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.825 and 0.807 in the testing datasets, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Generating synthetic DKI images from DWI images using MTR-Net is feasible, and the efficiency of synthetic DKI images in predicting pCR is comparable to that of true DKI images.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia
16.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 315, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rectal tumor segmentation on post neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has great significance for tumor measurement, radiomics analysis, treatment planning, and operative strategy. In this study, we developed and evaluated segmentation potential exclusively on post-chemoradiation T2-weighted MRI using convolutional neural networks, with the aim of reducing the detection workload for radiologists and clinicians. METHODS: A total of 372 consecutive patients with LARC were retrospectively enrolled from October 2015 to December 2017. The standard-of-care neoadjuvant process included 22-fraction intensity-modulated radiation therapy and oral capecitabine. Further, 243 patients (3061 slices) were grouped into training and validation datasets with a random 80:20 split, and 41 patients (408 slices) were used as the test dataset. A symmetric eight-layer deep network was developed using the nnU-Net Framework, which outputs the segmentation result with the same size. The trained deep learning (DL) network was examined using fivefold cross-validation and tumor lesions with different TRGs. RESULTS: At the stage of testing, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), 95% Hausdorff distance (HD95), and mean surface distance (MSD) were applied to quantitatively evaluate the performance of generalization. Considering the test dataset (41 patients, 408 slices), the average DSC, HD95, and MSD were 0.700 (95% CI: 0.680-0.720), 17.73 mm (95% CI: 16.08-19.39), and 3.11 mm (95% CI: 2.67-3.56), respectively. Eighty-two percent of the MSD values were less than 5 mm, and fifty-five percent were less than 2 mm (median 1.62 mm, minimum 0.07 mm). CONCLUSIONS: The experimental results indicated that the constructed pipeline could achieve relatively high accuracy. Future work will focus on assessing the performances with multicentre external validation.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Semântica , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(7): 774-778, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515953

RESUMO

This research aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy and clinical significance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the context of small rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). A total of 108 patients with rectal subepithelial lesions (SELs) with a diameter of < 20 mm were included in the analysis. The diagnosis and depth assessment of EUS was compared to the histology findings. The prevalence of NENs in rectal SELs was 78.7% (85/108). The sensitivity of EUS in detecting rectal NENs was 98.9% (84/85), while the specificity was 52.2% (12/23). Overall, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS in identifying rectal NENs was 88.9% (96/108). The overall accuracy rate for EUS in assessing the depth of invasion in rectal NENs was 92.9% (78/84). Therefore, EUS demonstrates reasonable diagnostic accuracy in detecting small rectal NENs, with good sensitivity but inferior specificity. EUS may also assist physicians in assessing the depth of invasion in small rectal NENs before endoscopic excision.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Endossonografia , Relevância Clínica , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia
19.
Curr Oncol ; 31(3): 1291-1301, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534930

RESUMO

Total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) for rectal adenocarcinoma (RAC) involves multi-agent chemotherapy and radiation before definitive surgery. Previous studies of the rest period (time between radiation and surgery) and pathologic complete response (pCR) have produced mixed results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the rest period and pCR. This study utilized the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to retrospectively analyze 5997 stage-appropriate RAC cases treated with TNT from 2016 to 2020. The overall pCR rate was 18.6%, with most patients undergoing induction chemotherapy followed by long-course chemoradiation (81.5%). Multivariable logistic regression models revealed a significant non-linear relationship between the rest period and pCR (p = 0.033), with optimal odds at 14.7-15.9 weeks post radiation (odds ratio: 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.98) when compared to 4.0 weeks. Medicaid, distance to the treatment facility, and community education were associated with decreased odds of pCR. Findings highlight the importance of a 15-16-week post-radiation surgery window for achieving pCR in RAC treated with TNT and socioeconomic factors influencing pCR rates. Findings also emphasize the need for clinical trials to incorporate detailed analyses of the rest period and social determinant of health to better guide clinical practice.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol ; 68: 101895, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522888

RESUMO

Since the introduction of population-based screening, increasing numbers of T1 rectal cancers are detected and removed by local endoscopic resection. Patients can be cured with endoscopic resection alone, but there is a possibility of residual tumor cells remaining after the initial resection. These can be located intraluminally at the resection site or extraluminally in the form of (lymph node) metastases. To decrease the risk of residual cells progressing towards more advanced disease, additional treatment is usually needed. However, with the currently available risk stratification models, it remains challenging to determine who should and should not be further treated after non-curative endoscopic resection. In this review, the different management strategies for patients with non-curatively treated T1 rectal cancers are discussed, along with the available evidence for each strategy and relevant considerations for clinical decision making. Furthermore, we provide practical guidance on the management and surveillance following non-curative endoscopic resection of T1 rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Endoscopia , Metástase Linfática , Neoplasia Residual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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