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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270887, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084094

RESUMO

Although gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare disease and rectal GISTs is only 5% of total GISTs, they have the worst prognosis. Due to narrow pelvis, tumor rupture or positive resection margin are common in the management of rectal GISTs. The impact of neoadjuvant treatment on the clinical outcomes of rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) remains unclear. Thus, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant imatinib on rectal GIST. The cohort comprised 33 patients; of them, 10 and 23 belonged to the neoadjuvant (i.e., those who underwent neoadjuvant imatinib treatment) and the control group (i.e., those who underwent surgery without prior imatinib treatment), respectively. Neoadjuvant group was associated with more common levator ani muscle displacement (P = 0.002), and showed significantly larger radiologic tumor size (P = 0.036) than the control group. The mean tumor size was significantly decreased after imatinib treatment (6.8 cm to 4.7cm, P = 0.006). There was no significant difference in resection margin involvement (P >0.999), and sphincter preservation rates (P = 0.627) between the two groups. No difference was observed with respect to morbidities, hospital stay, local recurrence and disease-free survival. Neoadjuvant imatinib treated group had similar propensity with control group after treatment. We thought reduced tumor sized could enhance resectability and provide more chance to preserve sphincter for rectal GIST patients. Considering large tumor size and higher rate of sphincter invasion in the neoadjuvant group, imatinib treatment could be helpful as a conversion strategy to make huge and low-lying rectal GIST operable and achieve better surgical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Retais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Margens de Excisão , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 296, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safe distance between the intraoperative resection line and the visible margin of the distal rectal tumor after preoperative radiotherapy is unclear. We aimed to investigate the furthest tumor intramural spread distance in fresh tissue to determine a safe distal intraoperative resection margin length. METHODS: Twenty rectal cancer specimens were collected after preoperative radiotherapy. Tumor intramural spread distances were defined as the distance between the tumor's visible and microscopic margins. Visible tumor margins in fresh specimens were identified during the operation and were labeled with 5 - 0 sutures under the naked eye at the distal 5, 6, and 7 o'clock directions of visible margins immediately after removal of the tumor. After fixation with formalin, the sutures were injected with nanocarbon particles. Longitudinal tissues were collected along three labels and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The spread distance after formalin fixation was measured between the furthest intramural spread of tumor cells and the nanocarbon under a microscope. A positive intramural spread distance indicated that the furthest tumor cell was distal to the nanocarbon, and a negative value indicated that the tumor cell was proximal to the nanocarbon. The tumor intramural spread distance in fresh tissue during the operation was 1.75 times the tumor intramural spread distance after formalin fixation according to the literature. RESULTS: At the distal 5, 6, and 7 o'clock direction, seven (35%), five (25%), and six (30%) patients, respectively, had distal tumor cell intramural spread distance > 0 mm. The mean and 95% confidence interval of tumor cell intramural spread distance in fresh tissue during operation was - 0.3 (95%CI - 4.0 ~ 3.4) mm, - 0.9 (95%CI - 3.4 ~ 1.7) mm, and - 0.4 (95%CI - 3.5 ~ 2.8) mm, respectively. The maximal intraoperative intramural spread distances in fresh tissue were 8.8, 7, and 7 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The intraoperative distance between the distal resection line and the visible margin of the rectal tumor after radiotherapy should not be less than 1 cm to ensure oncological safety.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Formaldeído , Humanos , Margens de Excisão , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia
3.
Cancer Radiother ; 26(6-7): 865-870, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064531

RESUMO

The standard management of locally advanced rectal tumors as cT3-T4 and/or N0/N1 is based on preoperative treatment combining radiotherapy of 45 to 50Gy and chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy has already shown its interest compared to conformal radiotherapy in other locations, like in pelvic cancer. The role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the pre/postoperative treatment of rectal cancers is not a standard of care. Published studies showed its feasibility with the objective of less toxicity with equivalent efficacy.


Assuntos
Radioterapia Conformacional , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Neoplasias Retais , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
4.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 957, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion, grade 4 extramural venous invasion (EMVI), tumour deposits (TD) or extensive or bilateral extramesorectal (lateral) lymph nodes (LLN) on MRI has been suggested to identify patients with indisputable, extensive locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), at high risk of treatment failure. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether or not intensified chemotherapy prior to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy improves the complete response (CR) rate in these patients. METHODS: This multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase II trial will include 128 patients with non-metastatic high-risk LARC (hr-LARC), fit for triplet chemotherapy. To ensure a study population with indisputable, unfavourable prognostic characteristics, hr-LARC is defined as LARC with on baseline MRI at least one of the following characteristics; MRF invasion, EMVI grade 4, enlarged bilateral or extensive LLN at high risk of an incomplete resection, or TD. Exclusion criteria are the presence of a homozygous DPD deficiency, distant metastases, any chemotherapy within the past 6 months, previous radiotherapy within the pelvic area precluding standard chemoradiotherapy, and any contraindication for the planned treatment. All patients will be planned for six two-weekly cycles of FOLFOXIRI (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin and irinotecan) prior to chemoradiotherapy (25 × 2 Gy or 28 × 1.8 Gy with concomitant capecitabine). A resection will be performed following radiological confirmation of resectable disease after the completion of chemoradiotherapy. A watch and wait strategy is allowed in case of a clinical complete response. The primary endpoint is the CR rate, described as a pathological CR or a sustained clinical CR one year after chemoradiotherapy. The main secondary objectives are long-term oncological outcomes, radiological and pathological response, the number of resections with clear margins, treatment-related toxicity, perioperative complications, health-related costs, and quality of life. DISCUSSION: This trial protocol describes the MEND-IT study. The MEND-IT study aims to evaluate the CR rate after intensified chemotherapy prior to concomitant chemoradiotherapy in a homogeneous group of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and indisputably unfavourable characteristics, defined as hr-LARC, in order to improve their prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04838496 , registered on 02-04-2021 Netherlands Trial Register: NL9790. PROTOCOL VERSION: Version 3 dd 11-4-2022.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 281, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) texture analysis in the diagnosis of lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) metastasis of rectal cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 45 patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgery with LPLN dissection at Tokushima University Hospital from January 2017 to December 2021. The texture analysis of the LPLNs was performed on preoperative CT images, and 18 parameters were calculated. The correlation between each parameter and pathological LPLN metastasis was evaluated. The texture parameters were compared between pathologically metastasis-positive LPLNs and metastasis-negative LPLNs. RESULTS: A total of 40 LPLNs were extracted from 25 patients by preoperative CT scans. No LPLNs could be identified in the remaining 19 patients. Eight of the 25 patients had pathologically positive LPLN metastasis. Extracted LPLNs were analyzed by the texture analysis. Pathologically metastasis-positive LPLNs had significantly lower mean Hounsfield unit, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) energy, and GLCM Entropy_log2 values, and a significantly larger volume than pathologically metastasis-negative LPLNs. Multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictive factors for LPLN metastasis were volume (a conventional parameter) (odds ratio 7.81, 95% confidence interval 1.42-43.1, p value 0.018) and GLCM Entropy_log2 (a texture parameter) (odds ratio 12.7, 95% confidence interval 1.28-126.0, p value 0.030). The combination of both parameters improved the diagnostic specificity while maintaining the sensitivity compared with each parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Combining the CT texture analysis with conventional diagnostic imaging may increase the accuracy of the diagnosis of LPLN metastasis of rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 59(3): 334-339, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of distal rectal cancer may be accompanied by evacuation disorders of multifactorial etiology. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) is part of the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced extraperitoneal rectal cancer. The assessment of anorectal function after long-term NCRT in patients with cancer of the extraperitoneal rectum has been poorly evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NCRT on anorectal function and continence in patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer. METHODS: Rectal adenocarcinoma patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy were submitted to functional evaluation by anorectal manometry and the degree of fecal incontinence using the Jorge-Wexner score, before and eight weeks after NCRT. The manometric parameters evaluated were mean resting anal pressure (ARp), maximum voluntary contraction anal pressure (MaxSp) and average voluntary contraction anal pressure (ASp). All patients underwent the same NCRT protocol based on the application of fluoropyrimidine (5-FU) at a dosage of 350 mg/m2 associated with folic acid at a dosage of 20 mg/m2, intravenously, in the first and last week of treatment, concomitantly with conformational radiotherapy with a total dose of 50.4Gy, divided into 28 daily fractions of 1.8Gy. For statistical analysis of the quantitative variables with normal distribution, the mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile range were calculated. For comparison of two related samples (before and eight weeks after NCRT), Wilcoxon's non-parametric test was used. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients with rectal cancer were included in the study, with a mean age of 62.8 (39-81) years, 36 (75%) of whom were male. The use of NCRT was associated with a decrease in the values of ARp (55.0 mmHg vs 39.1 mmHg, P<0.05) and ASp (161.9 mmHg vs 141.9 mmHg, P<0.05) without changing MaxSp values (185,5 mmHg vs 173 mmHg, P=0.05). There was no worsening of the incontinence score eight weeks after the use of NCRT (3.0 vs 3.3; P>0.05). CONCLUSION: NCRT was associated with a reduction in the values of ARp and the ASp. There was no change in MaxSp, as well as in the degree of fecal continence by the Jorge-Wexner score.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Canal Anal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto
7.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 59(3): 414-420, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third cause of cancer worldwide and a quarter of them are in the rectum. DEK oncogene is involved in several nuclear processes and can accelerate tumorigenesis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the immunoexpression of DEK and Phospho-P38 proteins before neoadjuvant therapy in patients with rectum adenocarcinoma and correlate it with a clinical response and survival. METHODS: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the middle and low rectum who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by surgical tumor resection were included. The expression and quantification were studied by immunohistochemistry in the tumor biopsy tissues using a HScore system. Score ≥4 were considered positive and those with <4 negative. RESULTS: 22 patients were included with a mean age of 63.55 years (SD: ±13.49). The clinical-stage before treatment was T3 on 72.7%, T4 on 18.2%, 31.8% were N1, 50% N0 and all M0. After chemo and radiotherapy, 54.6% were T3; 22.7% were classified as T2; 9.1% as T1, and 13.6% were T0. Among the tumors, 22.7% were positive for DEK and 63.6% positive for Phospho-P38. There was a positive correlation between DEK protein before treatment and pTNM stage (P=0.011). Phospho-P38 protein showed no correlation with these parameters. Patients with a negative HScore had a mean survival of 141.33 months (95%CI: 112.41-170.25) and those with a positive HSscore had a mean survival of 25.10 months (95%CI: 17.36-32.84; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: A higher expression of DEK was observed in advanced stages. Patients who presented DEK expression <4 had a higher survival, being a factor of worst prognosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Retais , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
8.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 292, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An investigation of the effects of different types of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) on laparoscopic left colic artery (LCA) radical resection of rectal cancer was conducted. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 92 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer with preservation of the LCA at Nantong University's Second Affiliated Hospital. All patients underwent full-abdominal dual-energy CT enhancement examination before surgery and 3D post-processing reconstruction of the IMA. Two radiologists with >3 years of experience in abdominal radiology jointly conducted the examination. A total of three types of IMA were identified among the patients: IMA type I (the LCA arising independently from the IMA), type II (LCA and sigmoid colon artery [SA] branching from a common trunk from IMA), and type III (LCA, SA, and superior rectal artery [SRA] branching from the IMA at the same point). The baseline data, pathological results, and intra-operative and post-operative indicators of the groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The proportions of type I, type II, and type III IMA were 58.70% (54/92), 18.48% (17/92), and 22.82% (21/92), respectively. IMA typing was consistent with the preoperative CT evaluation results. The intra-operative blood loss of type III IMA patients [median (interquartile spacing), M (P25, P75): 52.00 (39.50, 68.50) ml] was higher than that of type I and II IMA patients [35.00 (24.00, 42.00) and 32.00 (25.50, 39.50) ml, respectively] (P<0.05). The incidence of anastomotic fistula in type III IMA patients (4 cases, 19.05%) was higher than that in non-type III IMA patients (1 case, 1.41%) (X2=6.679, P=0.010). The incidence of postoperative complications among the three types of IMA was not significantly different (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among rectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic LCA preservation, type III IMA patients had more intraoperative bleeding and a higher incidence of postoperative anastomotic fistula. However, this did not increase the risk of overall postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Artérias/patologia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia
9.
Cancer Imaging ; 22(1): 50, 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a radiomics model based on pretreatment whole-liver portal venous phase (PVP) contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) images for predicting metachronous liver metastases (MLM) within 24 months after rectal cancer (RC) surgery. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 112 RC patients without preoperative liver metastases who underwent rectal surgery between January 2015 and December 2017 at our institution. Volume of interest (VOI) segmentation of the whole-liver was performed on the PVP CE-CT images. All 1316 radiomics features were extracted automatically. The maximum-relevance and minimum-redundancy and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator methods were used for features selection and radiomics signature constructing. Three models based on radiomics features (radiomics model), clinical features (clinical model), and radiomics combined with clinical features (combined model) were built by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the diagnostic performance of models, and calibration curve and the decision curve analysis were performed to evaluate the clinical application value. RESULTS: In total, 52 patients in the MLM group and 60 patients in the non-MLM group were enrolled in this study. The radscore was built using 16 selected features and the corresponding coefficients. Both the radiomics model and the combined model showed higher diagnostic performance than clinical model (AUCs of training set: radiomics model 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), clinical model 0.65 (95% CI, 0.55-0.75), combined model 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.94); AUCs of validation set: radiomics model 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-0.98), clinical model 0.58 (95% CI, 0.40-0.76), combined model 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-0.99)). The calibration curves showed great consistency between the predicted value and actual event probability. The DCA showed that both the radiomics and combined models could add a net benefit on a large scale. CONCLUSIONS: The radiomics model based on preoperative whole-liver PVP CE-CT could predict MLM within 24 months after RC surgery. Clinical features could not significantly improve the prediction efficiency of the radiomics model.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
10.
Oncotarget ; 13: 907-917, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: DNA damage and resulting neoantigen formation is considered a mechanism for synergy between radiotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibition to induce antitumor immune response. We investigated neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT)-induced changes in CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocyte, PD-L1 and mucin expression in rectal cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor samples of rectal adenocarcinoma patients undergoing resection between 2008-2014 with (n = 62) or without (n = 17) nCRT treatment were collected. Sections were stained with CD8 and PD-L1 antibodies for immunohistochemistry. The prevalence of CD8+ cells was recorded in the tumor, interface tumor and background rectal side. Image analysis was used to determine the density of CD8+ lymphocytes. The percentage of PD-L1 expression was manually counted in tumor cells (TC), tumor stroma (TS) and the invasive front (IF). Mucin expression was determined as the percentage of the mucin area in the whole tumor area. RESULTS: PD-L1 expression on TCs was identified in 7.6% (6/79) of nCRT specimens (p = 0.33) and in none of the non-nCRT patients. Median densities of CD8+ infiltrating T lymphocytes did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mucin expression was significantly higher in the nCRT cohort (p = 0.02). Higher neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (NLR) after nCRT was associated with worse outcome (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00-1.08). CONCLUSIONS: nCRT exposure was associated with a non-significant difference in PD-L1 expression in rectal adenocarcinoma patients, possibly due to sample size limitations. Further mechanistic investigations and comprehensive immune analysis are needed to understand nCRT-induced immunologic shift in rectal cancer and to expand the applicability of checkpoint inhibitors in this setting.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Retais , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Mucinas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
11.
Cancer Radiother ; 26(6-7): 766-770, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995720

RESUMO

Standard care for rectal cancers relies on both tumor (location relative to the sphincter, T and N stage, sphincter involvement) and patients characteristics. Radical surgery (total mesorectal excision) following short-course radiotherapy (RT) or standard chemo-radiotherapy, associated with induction or consolidation chemotherapy (total neoadjuvant treatment), remains the cornerstone of locally advanced rectal cancer (T3cd, T4 and/or N+) treatment. Nevertheless, for early stages, this radical resection could be avoided in favor of conservative approaches combining RT (external, contact, brachytherapy) with or without chemotherapy (concurrent, induction or consolidative), or even be limited, for good responders, to a local excision with view of organ-preservation strategies. This conservative approach could also be offered selectively to patients with complete clinical response after the induction sequence, irrespective of initial tumor characteristics. The Watch and Wait strategy relies on clinical, endoscopic and radiological evaluations, as well as sustained surveillance. Ongoing studies aim to improve response rates, either with chemotherapy intensification, or RT boost dose escalation with brachytherapy or contact-therapy.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Preservação de Órgãos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Conduta Expectante
12.
Cancer Radiother ; 26(6-7): 879-883, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031497

RESUMO

With the establishment of total mesorectal excision for the treatment of rectal cancer, local recurrence rates have significantly decreased. The addition of preoperative external beam irradiation further reduces this risk to less than 6%. As the local treatment becomes successful and more widely used, the associated treatment-related toxicity is becoming clinically important. If 4 to 6% of the patients are to benefit from neo-adjuvant therapy before total mesorectal excision, the acute and the long-term toxicity burden must be reasonable. With the introduction of better-quality imaging for tumour visualization and treatment planning, a new-targeted radiation treatment was introduced with high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy. The treatment concept was tested in phase I and II studies first in the preoperative setting, then as a boost after external beam radiation therapy as a dose escalation study to achieve higher tumour local control in a radical treatment setting with no surgery. High dose rate endorectal brachytherapy is safe and effective in achieving high tumour regression rate and was well tolerated. It is presently explored in a phase III dose escalation study in the non-operative management of patients with operable rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias Retais , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013603

RESUMO

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults that is characterized by a series of symptoms such as rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, prolonged excessive straining, perineal and abdominal pain, a feeling of incomplete defecation, constipation and, rarely, rectal prolapse. The etiology of this syndrome remains obscure, and the diagnosis is easily confused with that of other diseases, contributing to difficulties in treatment. We present a case of a 37-year-old male with a nonulcerated rectal lesion grossly resembling a superficial depressed rectal cancer misdiagnosed in another hospital and describe its appearance on endoscopy and in the analysis of its pathological manifestations. The aim of this case report is to report an easily misdiagnosed case of SRUS, which needs to be distinguished from superficial rectal cancer, which should be educational for endoscopists.


Assuntos
Doenças Retais , Neoplasias Retais , Adulto , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Retais/complicações , Doenças Retais/diagnóstico , Doenças Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/complicações , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto , Úlcera/diagnóstico , Úlcera/patologia , Úlcera/terapia
14.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 100(8): 488-495, ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207749

RESUMO

Introducción Establecer la exactitud de la resonancia magnética (RM) para determinar la localización de los tumores rectales en relación con la reflexión peritoneal (RP) y su potencial afectación. Métodos Estudio prospectivo de 161 pacientes intervenidos por cáncer de recto. Las piezas quirúrgicas han sido analizadas mediante un método de doble tinción, superficie serosa con colorante naranja y grasa mesorrectal con tinta china, para comparar los resultados con la RM preoperatoria. Resultados Veintidós tumores se localizaron por encima, 65 a nivel y 74 por debajo de la RP. La RM clasificó la localización del tumor respecto a la RP de manera correcta en el 90,6% y fue capaz de detectar el 80,5% de los casos con infiltración de la RP. La RM presentó una exactitud del 92,5% para clasificar el tumor como intra o extraperitoneal. El 28,7% de los tumores por encima y a nivel de la RP presentaba anatomopatológicamente infiltración de la serosa peritoneal. Conclusiones La RM es una prueba precisa para determinar la localización de los tumores de recto en relación con la RP y su posible afectación. En el tallado macroscópico, el método de doble colorante es eficaz para determinar la afectación serosa (pT4a) y diferenciarla de la fascia mesorrectal (AU)


Introduction To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accuracy for determining the location of rectal tumors with respect to the peritoneal reflection (PR) and its potential involvement Methods Prospective study of 161 patients ongoing surgery for rectal cancer. A double-ink method has been aplied to examine surgical specimen, orange ink for the serosal surface and indian ink for the mesorrectal margin, and assess preoperative MRI accuracy. Results Twenty-two tumors were located above, 65 at and 74 below PR. MRI accuracy was 90.6% for determining tumor's location with respect to the PR and 80.5% for defining peritoneal involvement. For classifying tumors according to their intra or extraperitoneal location an accuracy of 92.5% was set for MRI. Histophatologic peritoneal involvement was found in 28.7% of tumors located above or at the PR. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging accurately predicts the location of rectal tumors with respect to the PR and its potential involvement. The double-ink method is useful to assess serosal involvement (pT4a) and to distinguish mesorrectal fascia from the peritonealized surface (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Biópsia
15.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 868, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) has been the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Serum biomarkers to stratify patients with respect to prognosis and response to nCRT are needed due to the diverse response to the therapy. METHODS: Thirteen paired pre- and post-nCRT sera from rectal cancer patients were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method. Twenty-five proteins were selected for validation by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) in ninety-one patients. RESULTS: Totally, 310 proteins were identified and quantified in sera samples. Reactome pathway analysis showed that the immune activation-related pathways were enriched in response to nCRT. Twenty-five proteins were selected for further validation. PRM result showed that the level of PZP was higher in pathological complete response (pCR) patients than non-pCR patients. The Random Forest algorithm identified a prediction model composed of 10 protein markers, which allowed discrimination between pCR patients and non-pCR patients (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.886 on testing set). Higher HEP2 and GELS or lower S10A8 in baseline sera were associated with better prognosis. Higher APOA1 in post nCRT sera was associated with better disease-free survival (DFS). CONCLUSIONS: We identified and confirmed a 10-protein panel for nCRT response prediction and four potential biomarkers HEP2, GELS, S10A8 and APOA1 for prognosis of rectal cancer based on iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics screening and PRM-based targeted proteomic validation.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Biomarcadores , Quimiorradioterapia , Géis , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 274, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For sigmoid colon or rectal cancer, a definite consensus regarding the optimal level ligating the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) has not been reached. We performed this study to determine whether the ligation level significantly affected short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer after curative laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: Medical records of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer who had undergone curative laparoscopic surgery between January 2008 and December 2014 at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were reviewed. Then, the high tie group (HTG) was compared with the low tie group (LTG) in terms of short-term and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Five-hundred ninety patients were included. No significant differences between two groups regarding baseline characteristics existed. HTG had a significantly higher risk of anastomotic fistula than LTG (21/283 vs 11/307, P = 0.040). Additionally, high ligation was proven by multivariate logistic regression analysis to be an independent factor for anastomotic fistula (P = 0.038, OR = 2.232, 95% CI: 1.047-4.758). Furthermore, LT resulted in better preserved urinary function. However, LTG was not significantly different from HTG regarding operative time (P = 0.075), blood transfusion (P = 1.000), estimated blood loss (P = 0.239), 30-day mortality (P = 1.000), ICU stay (P = 0.674), postoperative hospital stay (days) (P = 0.636), bowel obstruction (P = 0.659), ileus (P = 0.637), surgical site infection (SSI) (P = 0.121), number of retrieved lymph nodes (P = 0.501), and number of metastatic lymph nodes (P = 0.131). Subsequently, it was revealed that level of IMA ligation did not significantly influence overall survival (OS) (P = 0.474) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (P = 0.722). Additionally, it was revealed that ligation level did not significantly affect OS (P = 0.460) and RFS (P = 0.979) of patients with stage 1 cancer, which was also observed among patients with stage 2 or stage 3 cancer. Ultimately, ligation level was not an independent predictive factor for either OS or RFS. CONCLUSIONS: HT resulted in a significantly higher incidence of anastomotic fistula and worse preservation of urinary function. Level of IMA ligation did not significantly affect long-term outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer after curative laparoscopic surgery.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide , Colo Sigmoide/patologia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Ligadura/métodos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/cirurgia
17.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(9): 1975-1982, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943579

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) surgery is often challenging owing to the anatomical constraints of the narrow pelvis and tumor hugeness. Despite the increasing number of patients undergoing trans-anal total mesorectal excision (taTME) globally, the feasibility of trans-anal surgery with the taTME technique for rectal GISTs remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of trans-anal surgery with the taTME technique for rectal GISTs. METHODS: Using a prospectively collected database, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical findings, surgical outcomes, pathological outcomes, urinary and anal functions, and prognoses of patients who underwent trans-anal surgery with the taTME technique for primary rectal GISTs at the National Cancer Center Hospital East from September 2014 to March 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients with primary rectal GISTs were included in this study. The median distance from the anal verge to the lower edge of the tumor was 40 mm (range, 15-60 mm), and the median tumor size was 59 mm (range, 11-175 mm). Moreover, seven and 14 patients underwent one-team and two-team surgeries, respectively, with curative intent. Nineteen patients (90.5%) underwent anus-preserving surgery, and the urinary tracts were preserved in all cases. Two-team surgery showed a significantly lower blood loss volume and shorter operation time than one-team surgery (58 vs. 222 mL, P = 0.017; 184 vs 356 min, P = 0.041, respectively). The pathological negative-margin resection rate was 100%. During the follow-up period, no patient developed local GIST recurrence and one (4.8%) developed distant metastasis. CONCLUSION: Trans-anal surgery with the taTME technique is feasible for rectal GISTs, and two-team surgery may be more advantageous than one-team surgery in terms of operation time and blood loss.


Assuntos
Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(9): 1189-1200, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TGF-ß is an immunosuppressive cytokine that is upregulated in colorectal cancer. TGF-ß blockade improved response to chemoradiotherapy in preclinical models of colorectal adenocarcinoma. We aimed to test the hypothesis that adding the TGF-ß type I receptor kinase inhibitor galunisertib to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy would improve pathological complete response rates in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, single-arm, phase 2 study done in two medical centres in Portland (OR, USA). Eligible patients had previously untreated, locally advanced, rectal adenocarcinoma, stage IIA-IIIC or IV as per the American Joint Committee on Cancer; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-2; and were aged 18 years or older. Participants completed two 14-day courses of oral galunisertib 150 mg twice daily, before and during fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy (intravenous fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 over 24 h daily 7 days per week during radiotherapy or oral capecitabine 825 mg/m2 twice per day 5 days per week during radiotherapy; radiotherapy consisted of 50·4-54·0 Gy in 28-30 fractions). 5-9 weeks later, patients underwent response assessment. Patients with a complete response could opt for non-operative management and proceed to modified FOLFOX6 (intravenous leucovorin 400 mg/m2 on day 1, intravenous fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 on day 1 then 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h, and intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1 delivered every 2 weeks for eight cycles) or CAPEOX (intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day 1 and oral capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days every 3 weeks for four cycles). Patients with less than complete response underwent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was complete response rate, which was a composite of pathological complete response in patients who proceeded to surgery, or clinical complete response maintained at 1 year after last therapy in patients with non-operative management. Safety was a coprimary endpoint. Both endpoints were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02688712, and is active but not recruiting. FINDINGS: Between Oct 19, 2016, and Aug 31, 2020, 38 participants were enrolled. 25 (71%) of the 35 patients who completed chemoradiotherapy proceeded to total mesorectal excision surgery, five (20%) of whom had pathological complete responses. Ten (29%) patients had non-operative management, three (30%) of whom ultimately chose to have total mesorectal excision. Two (67%) of those three patients had pathological complete responses. Of the remaining seven patients in the non-operative management group, five (71%) had clinical complete responses at 1 year after their last modified FOLFOX6 infusion. In total, 12 (32% [one-sided 95% CI ≥19%]) of 38 patients had a complete response. Common grade 3 adverse events during treatment included diarrhoea in six (16%) of 38 patients, and haematological toxicity in seven (18%) patients. Two (5%) patients had grade 4 adverse events, one related to chemoradiotherapy-induced diarrhoea and dehydration, and the other an intraoperative ischaemic event. No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: The addition of galunisertib to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer improved the complete response rate to 32%, was well tolerated, and warrants further assessment in randomised trials. FUNDING: Eli Lilly via ExIST program, The Providence Foundation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Retais , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/etiologia , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Oxaliplatina , Pirazóis , Quinolinas , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e057803, 2022 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, most rectal tumours are treated open or minimally invasive, using laparoscopic, robot-assisted or transanal total mesorectal excision. However, insight into the total costs of these techniques is limited. Since all three techniques are currently being performed, including cost considerations in the choice of treatment technique may significantly impact future healthcare costs. Therefore, this systematic review aims to provide an overview of evidence regarding costs in patients with rectal cancer following open, laparoscopic, robot-assisted and transanal total mesorectal excision. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic search will be conducted for papers between January 2000 and March 2022. Databases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases will be searched. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment will be performed independently by four reviewers and discrepancies will be resolved through discussion. The Consensus Health Economic Criteria list will be used for assessing risk of bias. Total costs of the different techniques, consisting of but not limited to, theatre, in-hospital and postoperative costs, will be the primary outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required, as there is no collection of patient data at an individual level. Findings will be disseminated widely, through peer-reviewed publication and presentation at relevant national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021261125.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Protectomia , Neoplasias Retais , Robótica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Protectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(9): 2069-2083, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative determination of lymph node (LN) status is crucial in treatment planning for rectal cancer. This study prospectively evaluated the risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) at staging and restaging based on a node-by-node pairing between MRI imaging findings and histopathology and constructed nomograms to evaluate its diagnostic value. METHODS: From July 2021 to July 2022, patients with histopathologically verified rectal cancer who underwent MRI before surgery were prospectively enrolled. Histological examination of each LN status in the surgical specimens and anatomical matching with preoperative imaging. Taking histopathological results as the gold standard, federating clinical features from patients and LN imaging features on MRI-T2WI. Risk factors for LN metastasis were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis and used to create a nomogram. The performance of the nomograms was assessed with calibration plots and bootstrapped-concordance index and validated using validation cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 500 target LNs in 120 patients were successfully matched with node-by-node comparisons. A total of 353 LNs did not receive neoadjuvant therapy and 147 LNs received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neoCRT). Characterization of LNs not receiving neoadjuvant therapy and multivariate regression showed that the short diameter, preoperative CEA level, mrT-stage, border contour, and signal intensity were associated with a high risk of LN metastasis (P < 0.05). The nomogram predicted that the area under the curve was 0.855 (95% CI, 0.794-0.916) and 0.854 (95% CI, 0.727-0.980) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. In the neoadjuvant therapy group, short diameter, ymrT-stage, internal signal, and MRI-EMVI were associated with LN positivity (P < 0.05), and the area under the curves using the nomogram was 0.912 (95% CI, 0.856-0.968) and 0.915 (95% CI, 0.817-1.000) in two cohorts. The calibration curves demonstrate good agreement between the predicted and actual probabilities for both the training and validation cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our nomograms combined with preoperative clinical and imaging biomarkers have the potential to improve the prediction of nodal involvement, which can be used as an essential reference for preoperative N staging and restaging of rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Nomogramas , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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