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1.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 86: 102866, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852986

RESUMO

A variety of organisms exhibit collective movement, including schooling fish and flocking birds, where coordinated behavior emerges from the interactions between group members. Despite the prevalence of collective movement in nature, little is known about the neural mechanisms producing each individual's behavior within the group. Here we discuss how a neurobiological approach can enrich our understanding of collective behavior by determining the mechanisms by which individuals interact. We provide examples of sensory systems for social communication during collective movement, highlight recent discoveries about neural systems for detecting the position and actions of social partners, and discuss opportunities for future research. Understanding the neurobiology of collective behavior can provide insight into how nervous systems function in a dynamic social world.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Humanos , Comunicação Animal
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 175: 116604, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692055

RESUMO

Relationships between protective enzymatic and non-enzymatic pro-antioxidant mechanisms and addictive substances use disorders (SUDs) are analyzed here, based on the results of previous research, as well as on the basis of our current own studies. This review introduces new aspects of comparative analysis of associations of pro-antixidant and neurobiological effects in patients taking psychoactive substances and complements very limited knowledge about relationships with SUDs from different regions, mainly Europe. In view of the few studies on relations between antioxidants and neurobiological processes acting in patients taking psychoactive substances, this review is important from the point of view of showing the state of knowledge, directions of diagnosis and treatment, and further research needed explanation. We found significant correlations between chemical elements, pro-antioxidative mechanisms, and lipoperoxidation in the development of disorders associated with use of addictive substances, therefore elements that show most relations (Pr, Na, Mn, Y, Sc, La, Cr, Al, Ca, Sb, Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ni) may be significant factors shaping SUDs. The action of pro-antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation depends on the pro-antioxidative activity of ions. We explain the strongest correlations between Mg and Sb, and lipoperoxidation in addicts, which proves their stimulating effect on lipoperoxidation and on the induction of oxidative stress. We discussed which mechanisms and neurobiological processes change susceptibility to SUDs. The innovation of this review is to show that addicted people have lower activity of dismutases and peroxidases than healthy ones, which indicates disorders of antioxidant system and depletion of enzymes after long-term tolerance of stressors. We explain higher level of catalases, reductases, ceruloplasmin, bilirubin, retinol, α-tocopherol and uric acid of addicts. In view of poorly understood factors affecting addiction, analysis of interactions allows for more effective understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms leading to formation of addiction and development the initiation of directed, more effective treatment (pharmacological, hormonal) and may be helpful in the diagnosis of psychoactive changes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Neurobiologia
3.
Cells ; 13(10)2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38786054

RESUMO

Prion diseases are rare and neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the misfolding and infectious spread of the prion protein in the brain, causing progressive and irreversible neuronal loss and associated clinical and behavioral manifestations in humans and animals, ultimately leading to death. The brain has a complex network of neurons and glial cells whose crosstalk is critical for function and homeostasis. Although it is established that prion infection of neurons is necessary for clinical disease to occur, debate remains in the field as to the role played by glial cells, namely astrocytes and microglia, and whether these cells are beneficial to the host or further accelerate disease. Here, we review the current literature assessing the complex morphologies of astrocytes and microglia, and the crosstalk between these two cell types, in the prion-infected brain.


Assuntos
Neuroglia , Doenças Priônicas , Humanos , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Doenças Priônicas/metabolismo , Animais , Neuroglia/patologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neurobiologia , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neuropatologia , Príons/metabolismo
4.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2345413, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709727

RESUMO

The 21st-century "plant neurobiology" movement is an amalgam of scholars interested in how "neural processes", broadly defined, lead to changes in plant behavior. Integral to the movement (now called plant behavioral biology) is a triad of historically marginalized subdisciplines, namely plant ethology, whole plant electrophysiology and plant comparative psychology, that set plant neurobiology apart from the mainstream. A central tenet held by these "triad disciplines" is that plants are exquisitely sensitive to environmental perturbations and that destructive experimental manipulations rapidly and profoundly affect plant function. Since destructive measurements have been the norm in plant physiology, much of our "textbook knowledge" concerning plant physiology is unrelated to normal plant function. As such, scientists in the triad disciplines favor a more natural and holistic approach toward understanding plant function. By examining the history, philosophy, sociology and psychology of the triad disciplines, this paper refutes in eight ways the criticism that plant neurobiology presents nothing new, and that the topics of plant neurobiology fall squarely under the purview of mainstream plant physiology. It is argued that although the triad disciplines and mainstream plant physiology share the common goal of understanding plant function, they are distinct in having their own intellectual histories and epistemologies.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 162: 105732, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797459

RESUMO

Anxiety is a complex phenomenon: Its eliciting stimuli and circumstances, component behaviors, and functional consequences are only slowly coming to be understood. Here, we examine defense systems from field studies; laboratory studies focusing on experimental analyses of behavior; and, the fear conditioning literature, with a focus on the role of uncertainty in promoting an anxiety pattern that involves high rates of stimulus generalization and resistance to extinction. Respectively, these different areas provide information on evolved elicitors of defense (field studies); outline a defense system focused on obtaining information about uncertain threat (ethoexperimental analyses); and, provide a simple, well-researched, easily measured paradigm for analysis of nonassociative stress-enhanced fear conditioning (the SEFL). Results suggest that all of these-each of which is responsive to uncertainty-play multiple and interactive roles in anxiety. Brain system findings for some relevant models are reviewed, with suggestions that further analyses of current models may be capable of providing a great deal of additional information about these complex interactions and their underlying biology.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Incerteza , Humanos , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Medo/fisiologia , Neurobiologia
7.
Nat Genet ; 56(5): 792-808, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637617

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) genetics are characterized by lower discoverability than most other psychiatric disorders. The contribution to biological understanding from previous genetic studies has thus been limited. We performed a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across 1,222,882 individuals of European ancestry (137,136 cases) and 58,051 admixed individuals with African and Native American ancestry (13,624 cases). We identified 95 genome-wide significant loci (80 new). Convergent multi-omic approaches identified 43 potential causal genes, broadly classified as neurotransmitter and ion channel synaptic modulators (for example, GRIA1, GRM8 and CACNA1E), developmental, axon guidance and transcription factors (for example, FOXP2, EFNA5 and DCC), synaptic structure and function genes (for example, PCLO, NCAM1 and PDE4B) and endocrine or immune regulators (for example, ESR1, TRAF3 and TANK). Additional top genes influence stress, immune, fear and threat-related processes, previously hypothesized to underlie PTSD neurobiology. These findings strengthen our understanding of neurobiological systems relevant to PTSD pathophysiology, while also opening new areas for investigation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , População Branca/genética , Neurobiologia , Loci Gênicos
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 99(1): 101-103, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669552

RESUMO

The following commentary discusses a review by Cressot et al. entitled: 'Psychosis in Neurodegenerative Dementias: A Systematic Comparative Review'. The authors describe the epidemiology and phenomenology of psychosis across neurodegenerative dementias. Dementia with Lewy bodies had the highest reported prevalence of psychosis at 74% followed by Alzheimer's disease, 54% and frontotemporal degeneration, 42%. Detailed characterization of psychosis shows differences in the types of hallucinations and delusions by dementia type. These findings suggest that different types of dementia related pathology are associated with high rates of psychosis with more specific symptom profiles than previously appreciated. Understanding the differences and variety of psychotic experiences across dementia types may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for treating hallucinations and delusions in populations suffering from neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Demência , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/complicações , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/psicologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/epidemiologia , Delusões/epidemiologia , Delusões/psicologia , Delusões/etiologia , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Alucinações/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Neurobiologia
10.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 25(6): 373, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575769
11.
Neuron ; 112(10): 1553-1567, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579714

RESUMO

In the 19th century, the discovery of general anesthesia revolutionized medical care. In the 21st century, anesthetics have become indispensable tools to study consciousness. Here, I review key aspects of the relationship between anesthesia and the neurobiology of consciousness, including interfaces of sleep and anesthetic mechanisms, anesthesia and primary sensory processing, the effects of anesthetics on large-scale functional brain networks, and mechanisms of arousal from anesthesia. I discuss the implications of the data derived from the anesthetized state for the science of consciousness and then conclude with outstanding questions, reflections, and future directions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Estado de Consciência , Neurobiologia , Humanos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anestesia , Sono/fisiologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Rom J Morphol Embryol ; 65(1): 13-17, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527979

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an efficient therapeutic resource for psycho-pharmacotherapeutic resistant forms of depression. ECT is a form of electrical brain stimulation involving the induction of a controlled seizure, clinically similar to an epileptic seizure, that is initiated in the prefrontal region of the brain and spreads to the cortex and subcortex, including the diencephalic structures. This is achieved by creating a transcranial electric field and synchronously depolarizing neuronal membranes. The mechanisms of action of ECT are not yet fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed to explain how it affects the brain: neurotransmitter changes, neuroplasticity, network connectivity, endocrine system regulation and changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism.


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia , Humanos , Encéfalo , Convulsões/terapia , Neurobiologia
13.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 92, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping behavioral features and genetic etiology. While brain cortical thickness (CTh) alterations have been reported in ASD and ADHD separately, the degree to which ASD and ADHD are associated with common and distinct patterns of CTh changes is unclear. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Science Direct from inception to 8 December 2023 and included studies of cortical thickness comparing youth (age less than 18) with ASD or ADHD with typically developing controls (TDC). We conducted a comparative meta-analysis of vertex-based studies to identify common and distinct CTh alterations in ASD and ADHD. RESULTS: Twelve ASD datasets involving 458 individuals with ASD and 10 ADHD datasets involving 383 individuals with ADHD were included in the analysis. Compared to TDC, ASD showed increased CTh in bilateral superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and decreased CTh in right temporoparietal junction (TPJ). ADHD showed decreased CTh in bilateral precentral gyri, right postcentral gyrus, and right TPJ relative to TDC. Conjunction analysis showed both disorders shared reduced TPJ CTh located in default mode network (DMN). Comparative analyses indicated ASD had greater CTh in right SPL and TPJ located in dorsal attention network and thinner CTh in right TPJ located in ventral attention network than ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest shared thinner TPJ located in DMN is an overlapping neurobiological feature of ASD and ADHD. This alteration together with SPL alterations might be related to altered biological motion processing in ASD, while abnormalities in sensorimotor systems may contribute to behavioral control problems in ADHD. The disorder-specific thinner TPJ located in disparate attention networks provides novel insight into distinct symptoms of attentional deficits associated with the two neurodevelopmental disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022370620. Registered on November 9, 2022.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurobiologia
14.
Curr Biol ; 34(6): R257-R259, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531322

RESUMO

While we understand how the five main sensory organs enable and facilitate stimulus detection, little is known about how the vomeronasal organ enables pheromone sensation. A new study finds specialized muscles poised to coordinate stimulus delivery, dynamics, and arousal.


Assuntos
Feromônios , Órgão Vomeronasal , Neurobiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Órgão Vomeronasal/fisiologia , Músculos
15.
Physiol Rev ; 104(3): 1205-1263, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483288

RESUMO

Stress resilience is the phenomenon that some people maintain their mental health despite exposure to adversity or show only temporary impairments followed by quick recovery. Resilience research attempts to unravel the factors and mechanisms that make resilience possible and to harness its insights for the development of preventative interventions in individuals at risk for acquiring stress-related dysfunctions. Biological resilience research has been lagging behind the psychological and social sciences but has seen a massive surge in recent years. At the same time, progress in this field has been hampered by methodological challenges related to finding suitable operationalizations and study designs, replicating findings, and modeling resilience in animals. We embed a review of behavioral, neuroimaging, neurobiological, and systems biological findings in adults in a critical methods discussion. We find preliminary evidence that hippocampus-based pattern separation and prefrontal-based cognitive control functions protect against the development of pathological fears in the aftermath of singular, event-type stressors [as found in fear-related disorders, including simpler forms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] by facilitating the perception of safety. Reward system-based pursuit and savoring of positive reinforcers appear to protect against the development of more generalized dysfunctions of the anxious-depressive spectrum resulting from more severe or longer-lasting stressors (as in depression, generalized or comorbid anxiety, or severe PTSD). Links between preserved functioning of these neural systems under stress and neuroplasticity, immunoregulation, gut microbiome composition, and integrity of the gut barrier and the blood-brain barrier are beginning to emerge. On this basis, avenues for biological interventions are pointed out.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , Biologia de Sistemas , Humanos , Animais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo
16.
Neuron ; 112(3): 336-339, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330899

RESUMO

Daniel Kronauer explores the behavioral genetics and neurobiology of ants, tracing their evolution from solitary ancestors to supremely social insects. In this interview with Neuron, he discusses his lab's efforts to develop a new ant model species and describes how his passion for natural history inspires his research.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Filogenia , Formigas/fisiologia , Insetos , Neurobiologia
17.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 46(1): 10, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305812

RESUMO

This paper critically analyses three main neurobiological hypotheses on trans* identities: the neurobiological theory about the origin of gender dysphoria, the neurodevelopmental cortical hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis of self-referential thinking and body perception. In this study I focus then the attention on three elements: the issue of (de)pathologisation, the idea of the trans brain, and the aetiology of trans* identities. While the neurobiological theory about the origin of gender dysphoria and the neurodevelopmental cortical hypothesis claim the existence of the trans brain, each offering its own neurobiological depiction, the hypothesis of self-referential thinking and body perception doesn't postulate a distinctive neurobiological trait for all trans* people. I problematize both portrayals of the trans brain departing from the findings and conceptualizations of the paradigm shifting brain mosaicism. Unlike the hypothesis of self-referential thinking and body perception that keeps the question of causation open, both the neurobiological theory about the origin of gender dysphoria and the neurodevelopmental cortical hypothesis situate the origin of trans* identities in the neurobiological domain. I challenge the biological deterministic framework in which this aetiology is inscribed from a dynamic processual entanglement perspective. Finally, concerning the issue of (de)pathologisation of trans* identities, an evolution can be seen in each of the hypothesis and among them, from the least to the most depathologising. However, I question their complete departure from a pathologising framework.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Humanos , Encéfalo , Disforia de Gênero/etiologia , Neurobiologia , Identidade de Gênero
18.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 52(4): 487-489, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411932

RESUMO

There is growing consensus that diagnostic labels are insufficient to describe the individual child's psychiatric profile, much less inform the precise combination of interventions that will minimize the impact of risk and/or bolster protective factors over the course of a particular child's development. Moreover, investigations of neurobiological and genetic mechanisms associated with psychopathology have revealed considerable cross-diagnostic overlap, undermining the validity of models that propose a 1:1 relationship between risk and psychiatric disorder. Accordingly, recent publications have advocated for neurodevelopmental models that utilize trait-based measurement, as well as increased emphasis on integration of biological and experiential mechanisms. Despite an expanding body of literature supporting this conceptual shift, the practical implications remain unclear. In this special issue, we compile a collection of novel empirical research papers and reviews that build on the trans-diagnostic principles of the RDoC framework.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicologia Clínica , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia , Neurobiologia
19.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 24(3): 273-289, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a treatable mental health condition that is associated with a range of psychobiological manifestations. However, historical controversy, modern day misunderstanding, and lack of professional education have prevented accurate treatment information from reaching most clinicians and patients. These obstacles also have slowed empirical efforts to improve treatment outcomes for people with DID. Emerging neurobiological findings in DID provide essential information that can be used to improve treatment outcomes. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, the authors discuss symptom characteristics of DID, including dissociative self-states. Current treatment approaches are described, focusing on empirically supported psychotherapeutic interventions for DID and pharmacological agents targeting dissociative symptoms in other conditions. Neurobiological correlates of DID are reviewed, including recent research aimed at identifying a neural signature of DID. EXPERT OPINION: Now is the time to move beyond historical controversy and focus on improving DID treatment availability and efficacy. Neurobiological findings could optimize treatment by reducing shame, aiding assessment, providing novel interventional brain targets and guiding novel pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. The inclusion of those with lived experience in the design, planning and interpretation of research investigations is another powerful way to improve health outcomes for those with DID.


Assuntos
Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade , Humanos , Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade/terapia , Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade/diagnóstico , Neurobiologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/terapia , Encéfalo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 159: 105578, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360332

RESUMO

Neuroscience has contributed to uncover the mechanisms underpinning substance use disorders (SUD). The next frontier is to leverage these mechanisms as active targets to create more effective interventions for SUD treatment and prevention. Recent large-scale cohort studies from early childhood are generating multiple levels of neuroscience-based information with the potential to inform the development and refinement of future preventive strategies. However, there are still no available well-recognized frameworks to guide the integration of these multi-level datasets into prevention interventions. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides a neuroscience-based multi-system framework that is well suited to facilitate translation of neurobiological mechanisms into behavioral domains amenable to preventative interventions. We propose a novel RDoC-based framework for prevention science and adapted the framework for the existing preventive interventions. From a systematic review of randomized controlled trials using a person-centered drug/alcohol preventive approach for adolescents, we identified 22 unique preventive interventions. By teasing apart these 22 interventions into the RDoC domains, we proposed distinct neurocognitive trajectories which have been recognized as precursors or risk factors for SUDs, to be targeted, engaged and modified for effective addiction prevention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Neurociências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Neurobiologia
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