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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1297: 65-82, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537937

RESUMO

Sleep and wakefulness are complex, tightly regulated behaviors that occur in virtually all animals. With recent exciting developments in neuroscience methodologies such as optogenetics, chemogenetics, and cell-specific calcium imaging technology, researchers can advance our understanding of how discrete neuronal groups precisely modulate states of sleep and wakefulness. In this chapter, we provide an overview of key neurotransmitter systems, neurons, and circuits that regulate states of sleep and wakefulness. We also describe long-standing models for the regulation of sleep/wake and non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement cycling. We contrast previous knowledge derived from classic approaches such as brain stimulation, lesions, cFos expression, and single-unit recordings, with emerging data using the newest technologies. Our understanding of neural circuits underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness is rapidly evolving, and this knowledge is critical for our field to elucidate the enigmatic function(s) of sleep.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Sono , Animais , Neurônios , Optogenética , Vigília
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1284: 9-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852736

RESUMO

Aggression takes several forms and can be offensive or defensive. Aggression between animals of the same species or society aims to inflict harm upon another for the purpose of protecting a resource such as food, reproductive partners, territory, or status. This chapter explores the neurobiology of aggression. We summarize the behavior of aggression, rodent models of aggression, and the correlates of aggressive behavior in the context of neuroendocrinology, neurotransmitter systems, and neurocircuitry. Translational implications of rodent studies are briefly discussed, applying basic research to brain imaging data and therapeutic approaches to conditions where aggression is problematic.


Assuntos
Agressão , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurobiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais , Neurotransmissores
4.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(2): 47-53, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193246

RESUMO

En la actualidad se defiende la interacción entre la cognición, la emoción y la motivación en el desarrollo de la alta capacidad intelectual; sin embargo, pocos son los estudios que describen los niveles de función corticales y subcorticales superpuestos para explicar su manifestación. Esta revisión pretende integrar los mecanismos neurobiológicos que facilitan la motivación y la práctica en los niños con altas capacidades durante las primeras fases de su aprendizaje. La alta sensibilidad al entorno parece estar relacionada con unas neuronas piramidales y espinosas más rápidas y eficientes, la detección y la búsqueda de la novedad con la actividad de los sistemas neuromoduladores dopaminérgicos, noradrenérgicos y glutamatérgicos en el hipocampo y el sistema mesolímbico, la mayor predisposición al desafío con un mayor número de conexiones en la corteza cingulada anterior, la motivación intrínseca y la perseverancia con la maduración precoz y la mayor plasticidad de las vías frontoparietales, frontoestriales y mesolímbicas


The interaction between cognition, emotion and motivation in giftedness development is currently advocated; however, few studies describe the levels of cortical and subcortical functions superimposed to explain their manifestation. This review aims to integrate neurobiological mechanisms that facilitate motivation and practice in giftedness children during the early stages of their learning. High sensitivity to the environment seems to be related to faster and more efficient pyramidal and spiny neurons, detection and search for novelty with the activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuromodulator systems in the hippocampus and the mesolimbic system, the greater predisposition to the challenge with a greater number of connections in the anterior cingulate cortex, the intrinsic motivation and the perseverance with the early maturation and greater plasticity of the frontoparietal, frontostriatal and mesolimbic net


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Motivação , Propriedade Intelectual , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Neurobiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Criança Superdotada/psicologia
6.
Australas Psychiatry ; 28(6): 636-638, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: If the narrative of "coronavirus" has an underlying theme, it may perhaps for some be one of survival, whilst for others, the theme might be suffering. The recurring motif of survival has continued throughout history, yet for the first time the sum of all fears has amounted to a run on the bare essentials. This paper seeks to offer an alternative formulation of "panic buying," with references to literature, philosophy, and contemporary neurobiology. CONCLUSION: The bare essentials disappeared perhaps as part of some self-fulfilling prophecy: the supermarkets became bare because others inadvertently lead us to believe they would become bare. The contagion model of emotional propagation provides a psychological model of how "panic buying" by an individual might lead to the replication of panic in an observer. The Polyvagal Theory further informs us of how the threat posed by the pandemic primes our limbic system to perceive danger, and explains how witnessing others engaging in fight-flight responses might evoke a fearful affect in an observer. In the end, it is perhaps through Nietzsche's study of classical tragedy that we may find some meaning to the pandemic, allowing our collective lived experience to serve as a template for growth.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Vítimas de Desastres/psicologia , Medo , Neurobiologia , Pânico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Sobrevida/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Ajustamento Emocional , Humanos , Pandemias , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia Social
7.
Vínculo ; 17(1): 1-24, jan.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1127519

RESUMO

A Neuro-Psicanálise é uma área de investigação e estudo conceptual e epistemológico focado na reavaliação das hipóteses propostas pelo modelo psicanalítico da mente perante o recente manancial de novos dados científicos provindo de diferentes áreas de Cérebro e da sua atividade cerebral, o que tem permitindo o desenvolvimento e esclarecimento dos modelos neuro-dinâmicos relacionados com a atividade mental tanto consciente, assim como inconsciente. Os autores fizeram uma resenha sobre as circunstâncias de ordem histórica, filosófica e científica por detrás do nascimento deste movimento de diálogo entre a Psicanálise e as Neurociências Modernas, a Sociedade Internacional para a Neuro-Psicanálise, cujos fundamentos históricos estão consubstanciados na própria obra e vida de Sigmund Freud, o qual iniciou a vida profissional, como investigador em laboratórios de histologia médica, aí se interessou pelo estudo do sistema nervoso central e mais tarde iniciou atividade clínica em Neurologia. Somente a partir dos anos 50 do Seculo XX ocorreram as primeiras iniciativas precursoras para uma investigação neurocientífica moderna e foi na década de 80 que começou a surgir o manancial de dados científicos provindos de diferentes áreas de investigação neurológica, os quais permitem aventar as possibilidades de existirem eventuais correlações e correspondências entre os termos psicológicos e psicanalíticos com certas áreas e circuitos neurofisiológicos do Cérebro, assim possibilitando reabertura de um diálogo tão desejado por Freud e expresso na sua monografia intitulada: "Projecto para uma Psicologia Científica" de 1895, entre o modelo psicanalítico da Mente e os modelos neurobiológicos e neurocientíficos do Cérebro.


Neuro-Psychoanalysis is an area of conceptual and epistemological research focused on the reevaluation of hypotheses proposed by the psychoanalytic model of Mind (Psyché) facing recent and new scientific data emerging from the investigations over different Brain's areas and activities, which allows a development and clarification of new neuro-dynamic models related to both conscious and unconscious mental activity. The authors reviewed the historical, philosophical and scientific circumstances behind the birth of this movement of dialogue between Psychoanalysis and Modern Neurosciences, the International Society for Neuro-Psychoanalysis, whose historical foundations are embodied in the work and life of Sigmund Freud, who started his professional life as a researcher in medical histology laboratories and became interested in the study of the central nervous system and later on began his clinical practice in Neurology. Only at the decade of the 50s, the first precursor initiatives over modern neuroscientific research have taken place and only at the 80s emerge several sources of scientific data from different areas of neurological research which allowed the first possibilities for possible correlations and correspondences between psychological and psychoanalytic terms with certain areas and neurophysiological circuits of the Brain, thus enabling the reopening of a dialogue desired by Freud, in his monograph entitled: "Project for a Scientific Psychology" from 1895, between the psychoanalytic model of Mind and new neurobiological and neuroscientific models of the Brain.


El neuro-psicoanálisis es un área de investigación y de estudio conceptual y epistemológico centrado en la reevaluación de las hipótesis propuestas por el modelo psicoanalítico de la Mente frente a la riqueza reciente de nuevos datos científicos provenientes de diferentes áreas del Cerebro y su actividad cerebral, lo que ha permitido desarrollo y clarificación de modelos neurodinámicos relacionados tanto con la actividad mental consciente como inconsciente. Los autores revisaron las circunstancias históricas, filosóficas y científicas detrás del nacimiento de este movimiento de diálogo entre la Psicoanálisis y las Neurociencias, la Sociedad Internacional para el Neuro-Psicoanálisis, cuyos fundamentos históricos están encarnados en el trabajo y la vida de Sigmund Freud quien comenzó su vida profesional como investigador en laboratorios de histología médica e se interesó en el estudio del sistema nervioso central y más tarde comenzó la actividad clínica en Neurología. Solo a partir de los años 50 del siglo XX tuvieron lugar las primeras iniciativas precursoras para la investigación neurocientífica moderna, y fue en los años 80 que comenzó a surgir la fuente de datos científicos de diferentes áreas de la investigación neurológica, lo que permite avanzar las posibilidades de la existencia de posibles correlaciones y correspondencias entre términos psicológicos y psicoanalíticos con ciertas áreas y circuitos neurofisiológicos del cerebro, permitiendo así la reapertura de un diálogo tan deseado por Freud en su monografía titulada: "Proyecto para una psicología científica" de 1895 entre el modelo psicoanalítico de la mente y los nuevos modelos neurobiológicos y neurocientíficos del cerebro.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Neurobiologia , Neurociências , Sistema Nervoso Central , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Teoria Freudiana , Neurologia
8.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (240): 9-18, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194754

RESUMO

La revisión comenta la importancia de espiritualidades y religiones en la Antropología evolutiva, y analiza desde el punto de vista cerebro-mente la estructura de estas trascendencias. Sugiere que estas dimensiones mentales podrían tenerse en cuenta en la psiquiatría, al margen de consideraciones ideológicas, como elementos de salud espiritual, factor con frecuencia olvidado


The review comments on the importance of spiritualities and religions in evolutionary Anthropology, and analize from the brainmind point of view the structure of transcendencies. He suggest that these mental dimensions could be taken into account in psychiatry, apart of ideological considerations, as element of spiritual health, a factor often forgotten


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Mental , Espiritualidade , Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Religião e Psicologia , Teoria da Mente , Atenção Plena , Neurobiologia
9.
Compr Psychiatry ; 100: 152184, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422426

RESUMO

Anosmia and hypogeusia, the inability or decreased ability to smell and taste, have been reported as common complaints in SARS-CoV-2 patients who were still in an asymptomatic phase. These impairments affect the ability to sense odors in foods and the environment, obviously affecting quality of life, related to social interactions and general well-being. The British Association of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT-UK) considers loss of sense of smell in their list of COVID-19's markers of infection. Here we present two cases in which early manifestations of anosmia and hypogeusia were experienced with psycho-sensorial and atmospheric phenomena. Psychiatrists, neurologists and physicians in general should be aware of this symptom presentation in order to avoid mistreatment, given that persistent olfactory dysfunction might increase the risks of nutritional deficit and lead to development of adjustment disorders. All clinicians should be aware that the presentation of SARS-CoV-2's symptoms goes far beyond respiratory and sensorial dimensions and involves psychosensorial and neurological dimensions; these clinical observations could shed light on the neurobiological substrates involved in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Ageusia/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurobiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Olfato
10.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 61: iii-iv, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359783

Assuntos
Neurobiologia
11.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(5): 536-551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267339

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness characterized by changes in mood that alternate between mania and hypomania or between depression and mixed states, often associated with functional impairment. Although effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available, several patients with BD remain symptomatic. The advance in the understanding of the neurobiology underlying BD could help in the identification of new therapeutic targets as well as biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and response to treatment in BD. In this review, we discuss genetic, epigenetic, molecular, physiological and neuroimaging findings associated with the neurobiology of BD. Despite the advances in the pathophysiological knowledge of BD, the diagnosis and management of the disease are still essentially clinical. Given the complexity of the brain and the close relationship between environmental exposure and brain function, initiatives that incorporate genetic, epigenetic, molecular, physiological, clinical, environmental data, and brain imaging are necessary to produce information that can be translated into prevention and better outcomes for patients with BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Neuroimagem
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274538

RESUMO

Mind-body medicine (MBM) is based on the assumption that interactions between the brain, mind, body, and behavior can be used to activate health-promoting pathways towards better health. It includes behavioral medical approaches and techniques in conjunction with exercise, relaxation, stress regulation, and nutrition. MBM and MBM interventions are well-established in the US healthcare system. This also includes an exploration of their underlying mechanisms. In Germany, too, a growing body of interventions are now summarized under this generic term.In this narrative review, the emergence of MBM is illuminated in the context of historical developments as well as against the background of the meditation research that has been emerging since the 1970s and the investigation of the stress phenomenon. References to basic research including neurobiological reward/placebo physiology are presented. Distinctions to psychotherapy are made and an implementation framework is described.MBM is related to health promotion and the therapy of chronic, especially lifestyle-related diseases. It is based on the salutogenesis approach, i.e., a paradigm that seeks to explore and reinforce health determinants and resistance resources (individual resilience and coherence factors) and strives to reduce stress. This approach corresponds to self-healing or self-care principles. Neurobiologically, it is associated with the placebo effect. MBM interventions typically follow the BERN model (behavior-exercise-relaxation-nutrition).As a facilitator of self-healing and self-care, MBM can be professionally trained and empowered. For doing so, "health promotion experts" are used.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Terapias Mente-Corpo , Autocuidado , Exercício Físico , Alemanha , Humanos , Neurobiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251489

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) assisted human brain research is a dynamic interdisciplinary field with great interest, rich literature, and huge diversity. The diversity in research topics and technologies keeps increasing along with the tremendous growth in application scope of AI-assisted human brain research. A comprehensive understanding of this field is necessary to assess research efficacy, (re)allocate research resources, and conduct collaborations. This paper combines the structural topic modeling (STM) with the bibliometric analysis to automatically identify prominent research topics from the large-scale, unstructured text of AI-assisted human brain research publications in the past decade. Analyses on topical trends, correlations, and clusters reveal distinct developmental trends of these topics, promising research orientations, and diverse topical distributions in influential countries/regions and research institutes. These findings help better understand scientific and technological AI-assisted human brain research, provide insightful guidance for resource (re)allocation, and promote effective international collaborations.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Bibliometria , Mapeamento Encefálico/tendências , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurobiologia/tendências , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Modelos Teóricos , Publicações
15.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 47: 23-52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157666

RESUMO

Impulsive decisions are those that favor immediate over delayed rewards, involve the acceptance of undue risk or uncertainty, or fail to adapt to environmental changes. Pathological levels of impulsive decision-making have been observed in individuals with mental illness, but there may be substantial heterogeneity in the processes that drive impulsive choices. Understanding this behavioral heterogeneity may be critical for understanding associated diverseness in the neural mechanisms that give rise to impulsivity. The application of reinforcement learning algorithms in the deconstruction of impulsive decision-making phenotypes can help bridge the gap between biology and behavior and provide insights into the biobehavioral heterogeneity of impulsive choice. This chapter will review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms of impulsive decision-making in nonhuman animals; specifically, the role of the amine neuromodulatory systems (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine) in impulsive decision-making and reinforcement learning processes is discussed. Ultimately, the integration of reinforcement learning algorithms with sophisticated behavioral and neuroscience techniques may be critical for advancing the understanding of the neurochemical basis of impulsive decision-making.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Reforço Psicológico , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Dopamina , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Recompensa
16.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 24(4): 265-266, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160563

RESUMO

What is the function of the insular cortex? Two recent studies (by Gehrlach et al. and Livneh et al.) offer new insight into how this enigmatic brain region integrates interoception and exteroception in the service of emotion. The findings provide much needed causal evidence for the nascent theory of interoceptive inference.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Encéfalo , Córtex Cerebral , Emoções , Humanos , Neurobiologia
17.
Neuron ; 105(3): 407-410, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027831

RESUMO

In a recent issue of Cell, Satterstrom et al. leverage de novo high-impact variants to identify 102 genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most of these genes have roles in regulation of gene expression or neuronal communication, implicating both developmental and functional changes in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Autístico , Exoma , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Recompensa
18.
Development ; 147(3)2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014864

RESUMO

Roberto Mayor is Professor of Developmental and Cellular Neurobiology at University College London. Elected an EMBO member in 2019 and a former International Scholar of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, his lab works on the development of the neural crest, in particular its induction and migration. We met Roberto in Buenos Aires at the tenth biennial meeting of the Latin American Society for Developmental Biology (LASDB, the society he founded in 2001), and discussed the role serendipity has played in his career, why we need a more holistic view of the cell during development, and the challenges and potential of science in Latin America.


Assuntos
Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Neurobiologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Passatempos , Humanos , Londres , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/psicologia , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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