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1.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 755-761, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859829

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health not only as the absence of disease but as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Gratitude is one of the concepts most commonly associated with well-being from the empirical point of view. Despite of this, we seldom use the concept, possibly due to the lack of dissemination of its scientific bases and possible clinical applications. At an anatomical level, it is related consistently with the medial prefrontal cortex and at molecular level, with the neuropeptide oxytocin. It has been associated with better physical and mental health parameters, both in healthy and sick populations. It is usually measured using scales, being the most used worldwide the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 item (GQ-6). There are exercises that can enhance gratitude and its benefits, such as the gratitude letter and the gratitude journal. Given the current state of knowledge about gratitude, and considering its potential benefits, low risks, ability to complement other treatments, the simple and cost-effectiveness of gratitude interventions, a continuing research on this topic and its practical implementation is warranted.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Atitude , Neurobiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicoterapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 17-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705488

RESUMO

Because of the poor link between psychiatric diagnosis and neurobiological findings, it is difficult to classify mental disorders. The changes made to psychiatric diagnostic systems over the years can be understood in terms of "practical conservatism." The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I and DSM-II were theoretically supported by the psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approach. Subsequently, psychiatric diagnoses of this kind were opposed by the anti-psychiatry movement, as well as by the findings of the Rosenhan experiment. Thus, the DSM-III revolution contained more empiricism, aligning psychiatry with biomedicine. Psychiatric diagnoses are classified and defined in terms of Kraepelinian dualism, using a categorical approach. The empirical trend was continued in the DSM-IV. To overcome the limitations of current psychiatric diagnostic systems and integrate fundamental genetic, neurobiological, behavioral, environmental, and experimental components into psychiatry, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) were established. To overcome the limitations of the categorical approach, psychiatrists have considered adopting a dimensional approach. However, their efforts were frustrated in the DSM-5 revision process. Thus, the DSM-5 is characterized by the rearrangement of psychiatric diagnoses, the partial adoption of a dimensional approach, the introduction of new diagnoses, and harmonization with the International Classification of Diseases.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Neurobiologia
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 479-489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705509

RESUMO

Understanding of the psychopathology of various psychiatric disorders is evolving, with newer avenues of research enlightening us from genetics, epigenetics, functional neurobiology, neural circuits, hormones and social/environmental determinants. We are now aware that neurobiological factors are contributing to the development of psychiatric illnesses coupled with their interaction with psychosocial factors. Resilience is defined as the ability to bounce back after an adversity or life event that was traumatic and life-changing. It is a factor that is a unique psychopathological construct as it is a biopsychosocial factor which determines an individual's response to an illness and recovery from the same. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stress and to revert to a positive state. There has been now a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience with respect to stress risk vulnerability and such dimensions of psychopathology. Resilience is a factor that must be evaluated in every patient and that shall help us determine the outcome of psychiatric disorders and will also be a determinant in the occurrence of relapses. Early identification of vulnerable patients shall lead to the implementation of resilience-based interventions in these populations and shall prevent against future occurrence of these disorders. In this chapter, we posit the construct of resilience as a psychopathological construct for mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Neurobiologia
4.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1576-1585, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551594

RESUMO

Memory retrieval involves the interaction between external sensory or internally generated cues and stored memory traces (or engrams) in a process termed 'ecphory'. While ecphory has been examined in human cognitive neuroscience research, its neurobiological foundation is less understood. To the extent that ecphory involves 'reawakening' of engrams, leveraging recently developed technologies that can identify and manipulate engrams in rodents provides a fertile avenue for examining retrieval at the level of neuronal ensembles. Here we evaluate emerging neuroscientific research of this type, using cognitive theory as a guiding principle to organize and interpret initial findings. Our Review highlights the critical interaction between engrams and retrieval cues (environmental or artificial) for memory accessibility and retrieval success. These findings also highlight the intimate relationship between the mechanisms important in forming engrams and those important in their recovery, as captured in the cognitive notion of 'encoding specificity'. Finally, we identify several questions that currently remain unanswered.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Neurobiologia , Animais , Ciência Cognitiva , Humanos
6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(11): 951-960, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395526

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterised by a well defined microdeletion that is associated with a high risk of neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, seizures and epilepsy, and early-onset Parkinson's disease. Preclinical and clinical data reveal substantial variability of the neuropsychiatric phenotype despite the shared underlying deletion in this genetic model. Factors that might explain this variability include genetic background effects, additional rare pathogenic variants, and potential regulatory functions of some genes in the 22q11.2 deletion region. These factors might also be relevant to the pathophysiology of these neuropsychiatric disorders in the general population. We review studies that might provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the expression of neuropsychiatric disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and potential implications for these common disorders in the general (non-deleted) population. The recurrent hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion, associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, has attracted attention as a genetic model for common neuropsychiatric disorders because of its association with substantially increased risk of such disorders.1 Studying such a model has many advantages. First, 22q11.2 deletion has been genetically well characterised.2 Second, most genes present in the region typically deleted at the 22q11.2 locus are expressed in the brain.3-5 Third, genetic diagnosis might be made early in life, long before recognisable neuropsychiatric disorders have emerged. Thus, this genetic condition offers a unique opportunity for early intervention, and monitoring individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome throughout life could provide important information on factors contributing to disease risk and protection. Despite the commonly deleted region being shared by about 90% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, neuropsychiatric outcomes are highly variable between individuals and across the lifespan. A clear link remains to be established between genotype and phenotype.3,5 In this Review, we summarise preclinical and clinical studies investigating biological mechanisms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, with a focus on those that might provide insight into mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and in the general population.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Neurobiologia , Humanos
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3450, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371722

RESUMO

In this article, we introduce a biomimetic audiomorphic device that captures the neurobiological architecture and computational map inside the auditory cortex of barn owl known for its exceptional hunting ability in complete darkness using auditory cues. The device consists of multiple split-gates with nanogaps on a semiconducting MoS2 channel connected to the source/drain contacts for imitating the spatial map of coincidence detector neurons and tunable RC circuits for imitating the interaural time delay neurons following the Jeffress model of sound localization. Furthermore, we use global back-gating capability to demonstrate neuroplasticity to capture behavioral and/or adaptation related changes in the barn owl. Finally, the virtual source model for current transport is combined with finite element COMSOL multiphysics simulations to explain and project the performance of the biomimetic audiomorphic device. We find that the precision of the biomimetic device can supersede the barn owl by orders of magnitude.


Assuntos
Biomimética/instrumentação , Biomimética/métodos , Computação Matemática , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transistores Eletrônicos , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Córtex Auditivo , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Sinais (Psicologia) , Modelos Animais , Neurobiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Semicondutores , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estrigiformes
8.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 98(4): 273-278, jul.-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023537

RESUMO

Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric condition that leads to significant impairment in everyday life. Advancements in neurobiological investigations contributed to a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms behind OCD, leading to the understanding that current models employed to conceptualize OCD are not adequate and might be a significant factor in precluding further advancements in how OCD is treated. In this paper, we will use OCD as a model to discuss the limitations of the current diagnostic systems in Psychiatry and to present the novel perspectives based on neurobiological findings that might lead to considerable advancements in treatments for OCD.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia/tendências , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia
9.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 55(7): 469-476, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347615

RESUMO

The placebo effect is a phenomenon of great scientific interest that affects the response in both inactive and active treatments. It is broadly understood as the product of a central integration of positive expectations, reward learning and continuous conditioning inducing physiological changes in the brain. The placebo effect is accepted as a phenomenon which can be harnessed in clinical practice. It has emerged that there is not a single neurobiological mechanism involved in placebo responses, but many depending on the underlying disease. Molecular neuroimaging techniques with positron emission tomography and selective radiotracers have been significant in the understanding of the neurobiological systems involved in the placebo effect. The aim of this review was to summarize the key findings relating to the neurobiology behind the placebo effect.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurobiologia , Efeito Placebo , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
10.
Brain Nerve ; 71(7): 649-655, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289239

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence and brain science have kept a swinging relationship with opposing views: "Artificial realization of intelligence should be free from biological constraints" and "We should reverse-engineer the best existing implementation of intelligence." In this article, we first review today's achievements of artificial intelligence and its impacts on brain and life sciences. We then discuss how progresses in brain science can contribute to future developments in artificial intelligence.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Encéfalo , Neurobiologia/tendências , Humanos
14.
Curr Biol ; 29(9): R327-R329, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063725

RESUMO

The development of sensory receptive fields requires the coordinated spatial patterning of neurites from multiple sensory neuron subtypes. A new study identifies a role for neuron-skin cell interactions in preventing the bundling of dendritic arbors from distinct neurons.


Assuntos
Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa , Dendritos , Epiderme , Neurobiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais
15.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 28(4): 371-375, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088586

RESUMO

Since its development and theorisation in the 60s, attachment theory has greatly influenced both clinical and developmental psychology suggesting the existence of complex dynamics based on the relationship between an infant and its caregiver, that affects personality traits and interpersonal relationships in adulthood. Many studies have been conducted to explore the association between attachment styles and psychosocial functioning and mental health. By contrast, only a few studies have investigated the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment style, showing mixed results. Therefore, in this review, we described current evidence from structural and functional imaging studies with the final aim to disentangle the neural correlates of attachment style in healthy individuals. Overall, different attachment styles have been correlated with volumetric alterations mainly in the cingulate cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and anterior temporal pole. Consistently, functional imaging studies suggested patterns of activations in fronto-striatal-limbic circuits during the processing of social and attachment-related stimuli. Further studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological signature of attachment style, possibly taking into consideration a wide range of demographic, psychosocial and clinical factors that may mediate the associations between the style of attachment and brain systems (e.g., gender, personality traits, psychosocial functioning, early-life experience).


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Apego ao Objeto , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neurobiologia , Neuroimagem
16.
Psychol Psychother ; 92(2): 224-237, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001926

RESUMO

In this brief overview, I offer a conceptual approach to the mind that can support whatever clinical, research, public policy, or other approach you may be involved with. It seeks to help both the understanding and cultivating of mental health and well-being in our world, and may be especially important in encouraging future psychotherapists to be systems-oriented and multidisciplinary in their work. As the ideas of this framework have been published in a number of texts, I will simply have a brief listing of those and other selected publications at the end of this article and outline the main ideas and factual points as we move along. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Consilience across wide range of disciplines leads to an integrated framework defining the mind, mental health, and the strategies of intervention to cultivate well-being.


Assuntos
Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Saúde Mental , Neurobiologia
17.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 14: 11-24, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929855

RESUMO

Biological systems-level principles of the genetic landscape underlying the neurobiology of dyslexia provide a novel and heuristic theoretical framework for a new understanding of the disability. Dyslexia may result from reduced neuroplasticity and earlier peak of maturation of the posterior corpus callosum, temporoparietal region of the left hemisphere reading network, and temporoparietal region of the right hemisphere circuitry of attentional networks. This precocious abridgement of a typically prolonged maturation originates prenatally or in early childhood, driven by environmentally-guided epigenetic mechanisms as retrogressive, adaptive responses to stress. Epigenetics suggests the importance of identifying circumstances that influence reading-related maturational timing; and network control theory suggests an instructional orientation for enhancing plasticity. Thus, dyslexia may be an unexceptional genetic variation resulting from gene/environment interactions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Corpo Caloso/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Compreensão/fisiologia , Dislexia/genética , Epigênese Genética , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Leitura
18.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 47(2): 54-60, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181340

RESUMO

Introducción. El trastorno por déficit de atención (TDA) ha sido estudiado desde muchos puntos de vista, sin embargo, todavía se desconocen los mecanismos neurobiológicos subyacentes al mismo. Los potenciales evocados y entre ellos el componente P300 pueden servir para investigar los procesos de las funciones cognitivas y atencionales deficitarios en los niños con TDA. Metodología. En este estudio analizamos la eficacia del programa del neuroeducativo HERVAT (acrónimo de Hidratación, Equilibrio, Respiración. Visión, Audición, Tacto) en el potencial evocado P300 en un grupo de niños, entre 7 y 11 años con TDA. Resultados. Los resultados indican que al final del estudio los niños con TDA que han hecho el programa HERVAT han mejorado la latencia del P300 y han reorganizado la actividad cerebral hacia áreas frontales mientras que el grupo control mantiene la misma latencia del P300 y las mismas áreas corticales posteriores durante la tarea de discriminación de estímulos multisensoriales. Conclusiones. Como conclusión podríamos decir que el programa neuroeducativo HERVAT manifiesta su eficacia en el acortamiento de la latencia del potencial evocado P300, responsable del procesamiento cerebral de la información, así como en la reorganización de la actividad cerebral desde áreas posteriores cerebrales hacia áreas corticales frontales, responsables de los procesos atencionales de las funciones ejecutivas


Introduction. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) has been investigated from various perspectives. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this condition remain unknown. Evoked potentials, including P300, can be used to investigate the processes underlying deficient attentional and cognitive functions in children with ADD. Methods. In this study, we analyze the effect of a neuroeducational program, HERVAT (Hidratacion [hydration], Equilibrio [balance], Respiracion [breathing], Vision [vision], Audicion [hearing], Tacto [touch]), on evoked potential P300 in a group of children aged 7-11 years with ADD. Results. At the end of the study, the latency of P300 improved and brain activity was reorganized toward frontal areas in children with ADD who undertook the HERVAT program. In the control group, on the other hand, the latency of P300 and the posterior cortical areas remained unchanged during tests to discriminate between multisensory stimuli. Conclusions. In conclusion, the neuroeducational program HERVAT effectively shortened the latency of evoked potential P300, which is responsible for information processing in the brain, and reorganized brain activity from posterior areas toward frontal cortical areas, which are responsible for the attentional processes involved in executive function


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Neurobiologia/instrumentação , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos
19.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 36: 100637, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889546

RESUMO

Trauma experienced in early life has unique neurobehavioral outcomes related to later life psychiatric sequelae. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as critical, with trauma experienced within species-atypical aberrations in caregiving quality as particularly detrimental. Using data from primarily rodent models, we review the literature on the interaction between trauma and attachment in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver's presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. Together these data suggest that infant trauma processing and its enduring effects are impacted by both the immaturity of brain areas for processing trauma and the unique functioning of the early-life brain, which is biased towards forming robust attachments regardless of the quality of care. Understanding the critical role of the caregiver in further altering early life brain processing of trauma is important for developing age-relevant treatment and interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neurobiologia/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 277: 17-22, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926150

RESUMO

Research on neurobiological impairments in clinical and genetic high risk for developing psychosis individuals (CHR) has identified several brain abnormalities that impact both brain structure and function. The current review will discuss research examining brain abnormalities in clinical and genetic high risk for psychosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) focusing on structural brain abnormalities, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) focusing on the integrity of white matter tracks, functional MRI focusing on functional brain abnormalities, and EEG and event related potential (ERP) methodologies focusing on indices of cognitive dysfunction in CHR. Studies conducted across these different methodologies sought to identify brain regions and brain processes that would distinguish between those high risk individuals who converted to psychosis versus those who did not. In addition, in some of the studies, the distinction was made between individuals who converted to psychosis, those who did not, and those individuals who remained clinically symptomatic while not converting to psychosis. The brain regions most often identified as abnormal in this subject group were the brain areas often found abnormal in schizophrenia, including frontal and temporal regions. Similarly, several cognitive processes often found to be abnormal in schizophrenia have been also found impaired in CHR.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Neurobiologia , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
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