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2.
Science ; 378(6624): 1033, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480620

RESUMO

Marc Tessier-Lavigne's early papers are subject of school and journal investigations.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Má Conduta Científica , Western Blotting , Fibras Nervosas
3.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 477, 2022 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, ECT cognitive impairment remains a major concern. The neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms underlying ECT antidepressant and cognitive impairment effects remain unknown. This investigation aims to identify ECT antidepressant-response and cognitive-impairment multimodal brain networks and assesses whether they are associated with the ECT-induced electric field (E-field) with an optimal pulse amplitude estimation. METHODS: A single site clinical trial focused on amplitude (600, 700, and 800 mA) included longitudinal multimodal imaging and clinical and cognitive assessments completed before and immediately after the ECT series (n = 54) for late-life depression. Another two independent validation cohorts (n = 84, n = 260) were included. Symptom and cognition were used as references to supervise fMRI and sMRI fusion to identify ECT antidepressant-response and cognitive-impairment multimodal brain networks. Correlations between ECT-induced E-field within these two networks and clinical and cognitive outcomes were calculated. An optimal pulse amplitude was estimated based on E-field within antidepressant-response and cognitive-impairment networks. RESULTS: Decreased function in the superior orbitofrontal cortex and caudate accompanied with increased volume in medial temporal cortex showed covarying functional and structural alterations in both antidepressant-response and cognitive-impairment networks. Volume increases in the hippocampal complex and thalamus were antidepressant-response specific, and functional decreases in the amygdala and hippocampal complex were cognitive-impairment specific, which were validated in two independent datasets. The E-field within these two networks showed an inverse relationship with HDRS reduction and cognitive impairment. The optimal E-filed range as [92.7-113.9] V/m was estimated to maximize antidepressant outcomes without compromising cognitive safety. CONCLUSIONS: The large degree of overlap between antidepressant-response and cognitive-impairment networks challenges parameter development focused on precise E-field dosing with new electrode placements. The determination of the optimal individualized ECT amplitude within the antidepressant and cognitive networks may improve the treatment benefit-risk ratio. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02999269.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Neurobiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia
4.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 143: 104956, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368525

RESUMO

Flow is a cognitive state that manifests when there is complete attentional absorption while performing a task. Flow occurs when certain internal as well as external conditions are present, including intense concentration, a sense of control, feedback, and a balance between the challenge of the task and the relevant skillset. Phenomenologically, flow is accompanied by a loss of self-consciousness, seamless integration of action and awareness, and acute changes in time perception. Research has begun to uncover some of the neurophysiological correlates of flow, as well as some of the state's neuromodulatory processes. We comprehensively review this work and consider the neurodynamics of the onset of the state, considering large-scale brain networks, as well as dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and endocannabinoid systems. To accomplish this, we outline an evidence-based hypothetical situation, and consider the flow state in a broader context including other profound alterations in consciousness, such as the psychedelic state and the state of traumatic stress that can induce PTSD. We present a broad theoretical framework which may motivate future testable hypotheses.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Neurobiologia , Humanos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Atenção
5.
Neuron ; 110(22): 3656-3660, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356578

RESUMO

In May, an interdisciplinary group gathered in Crete for the Molecular Neurobiology Workshop. Scientists shared data acquired by vastly diverse techniques to understand how the nervous system, with only a limited number of components, is assembled to respond to infinite stimuli. Ideas of molecular cues, timing, switching, and context emerged.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Neurobiologia
6.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 65, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417009

RESUMO

What sets someone on a life trajectory? This question is at the heart of studies of 21st-century neurosciences that build on scientific models developed over the last 150 years that attempt to link psychopathology risk and human development. Historically, this research has documented persistent effects of singular, negative life experiences on people's subsequent development. More recently, studies have documented neuromolecular effects of early life adversity on life trajectories, resulting in models that frame lives as disproportionately affected by early negative experiences. This view is dominant, despite little evidence of the stability of the presumably early-developed molecular traits and their potential effects on phenotypes. We argue that in the context of gaps in knowledge and the need for scientists to reason across molecular and phenotypic scales, as well as time spans that can extend beyond an individual's life, specific interpretative frameworks shape the ways in which individual scientific findings are assessed. In the process, scientific reasoning oscillates between understandings of cellular homeostasis and organisms' homeorhesis, or life trajectory. Biologist and historian François Jacob described this framework as the "attitude" that researchers bring to bear on their "objects" of study. Through an analysis of, first, historical and contemporary scientific literature and then ethnographic research with neuroscientists, we consider how early life trauma came to be associated with specific psychological and neurobiological effects grounded in understandings of life trajectories. We conclude with a consideration of the conceptual, ontological, and ethical implications of interpreting life trajectories as the result of the persistence of long-embodied biological traits, persistent life environments, or both.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Neurobiologia , Humanos , Antropologia Cultural , Princípios Morais , Lógica
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20080, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418382

RESUMO

The inter-individual variation in stroke outcomes is large and protein studies could point to potential underlying biological mechanisms. We measured plasma levels of 91 neurobiological proteins in 209 cases included in the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke using a Proximity Extension Assay, and blood was sampled in the acute phase and at 3-month and 7-year follow-ups. Levels were also determined once in 209 controls. Acute stroke severity and neurological outcome were evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. In linear regression models corrected for age, sex, and sampling day, acute phase levels of 37 proteins were associated with acute stroke severity, and 47 with 3-month and/or 7-year outcome at false discovery rate < 0.05. Three-month levels of 8 proteins were associated with 7-year outcome, of which the associations for BCAN and Nr-CAM were independent also of acute stroke severity. Most proteins followed a trajectory with lower levels in the acute phase compared to the 3-month follow-up and the control sampling point. Conclusively, we identified multiple candidate plasma biomarkers of stroke severity and neurological outcome meriting further investigation. This study adds novel information, as most of the reported proteins have not been previously investigated in a stroke cohort.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Plasma , Biomarcadores , Neurobiologia
8.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 48: 101490, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395529

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time of major psychological development in the cognitive, affective, and social domains. Development in these domains can also show interactions with each other. One way in which these interactions between these domains become apparent is in the form of risk-taking behavior in adolescence. Compared to children and adults, adolescents show increased risky decision-making. An example of risk-taking behavior is substance use, including smoking and the use of e-cigarettes (Huizink). A leading explanation for risk-taking behavior has been an increase in reward sensitivity in adolescence. However, adolescents also show differential processing of risk compared to children and adults. A focus on risk processing could broaden the perspective on adolescent risk-taking behavior (van Duijvenvoorde).


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Psicopatologia , Recompensa
9.
Alcohol Res ; 42(1): 12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338609

RESUMO

This article is part of a Festschrift commemorating the 50th anniversary of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Established in 1970, first as part of the National Institute of Mental Health and later as an independent institute of the National Institutes of Health, NIAAA today is the world's largest funding agency for alcohol research. In addition to its own intramural research program, NIAAA supports the entire spectrum of innovative basic, translational, and clinical research to advance the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of alcohol use disorder and alcohol-related problems. To celebrate the anniversary, NIAAA hosted a 2-day symposium, "Alcohol Across the Lifespan: 50 Years of Evidence-Based Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment Research," devoted to key topics within the field of alcohol research. This article is based on Dr. Sinha's presentation at the event. NIAAA Director George F. Koob, Ph.D., serves as editor of the Festschrift.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Neurobiologia , National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.) , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia
10.
Life Sci ; 311(Pt A): 121137, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349604

RESUMO

AIM: Evolving type 2 diabetes (T2D) may influence locomotion and affective state, promoting metabolic dysfunction. We examined behaviour and neurobiology in a model of T2D, testing for benefits with dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). METHODS: Male C57Bl/6 mice received vehicle or 75 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) and 21 wks of control or Western diets (43 % fat, 40 % carbohydrate, 17 % protein). Sub-sets received dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA; 10 % of fat intake) for 6 wks. Behaviour was examined via open field and sucrose preference tests, and hippocampal and frontal cortex (FC) leptin and dopamine levels and inflammatory signalling assessed. KEY FINDINGS: T2D mice exhibited weight gain (+15 %), hyperglycemia (+35 %), hyperinsulinemia (+60 %) and insulin-resistance (+80 % higher HOMA-IR), together with anxiety-like behaviour (without anhedonia) that appeared independent of body weight and glycemic status. Cortical leptin declined whereas receptor mRNA increased. Supplementation with ALA did not influence metabolic state, while enhancing locomotion and reducing anxiety-like behaviours in healthy but not T2D mice. Hippocampal dopamine was selectively increased by ALA in T2D mice, with a trend to reduced circulating leptin in both groups. Across all groups, anxiety-like behaviour was associated with declining cortical and hippocampal leptin levels and increasing receptor mRNA, while declining dopamine levels were accompanied by decreased dopamine/serotonin receptor transcripts. SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic T2D induced anxiogenesis in mice appears to be independent of metabolic homeostasis but linked to central leptin-resistance, together with disturbed dopamine and serotonin signalling. Despite anxiolytic effects of ALA in healthy mice, no metabolic or behavioural benefits were evident in T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Ácido alfa-Linolênico/farmacologia , Leptina , Neurobiologia , Dopamina , Ácidos Graxos , Dieta Ocidental , RNA Mensageiro
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360245

RESUMO

A psychiatric disorder is a mental illness involving significant disturbances in thinking, emotional regulation or behavior [...].


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neurobiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética
12.
13.
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol ; 38: 419-446, 2022 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201298

RESUMO

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) endows animals with the remarkable ability to sense and respond to a dynamic world. Emerging evidence shows the PNS also participates in tissue homeostasis and repair by integrating local changes with organismal and environmental changes. Here, we provide an in-depth summary of findings delineating the diverse roles of peripheral nerves in modulating stem cell behaviors and immune responses under steady-state conditions and in response to injury and duress, with a specific focus on the skin and the hematopoietic system. These examples showcase how elucidating neuro-stem cell and neuro-immune cell interactions provides a conceptual framework that connects tissue biology and local immunity with systemic bodily changes to meet varying demands. They also demonstrate how changes in these interactions can manifest in stress, aging, cancer, and inflammation, as well as how these findings can be harnessed to guide the development of new therapeutics.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Neuroimunomodulação , Animais , Homeostase , Inflamação , Células-Tronco
14.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 142: 104899, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183863

RESUMO

Despite decades of research in the field of addiction, relapse rates for substance use disorders remain high. Consequently, there has been growing focus on providing evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders, resulting in the increased development and use of cognitive and psychological interventions. Such treatment approaches, including contingency management, community-reinforcement approach, and cognitive bias modification, have shown promising clinical efficacy in reducing substance use and promoting abstinence during treatment. However, these interventions are still somewhat limited in achieving sustained periods of abstinence post-treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these treatment approaches remain largely unknown and under-studied, in part, due to a lack of translational animal models. The adoption of a reverse translational approach may assist in development of more representative models that can facilitate elucidation of the mechanisms behind these clinically relevant interventions. This review examines our current understanding of addiction neurobiology from clinical, preclinical research and existing animal models, and considers how the efficacy of such behavioral-oriented interventions alone, or in combination with pharmacotherapy, may be enhanced to improve treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Animais , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Neurobiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Cognição
16.
Brain Res Bull ; 190: 152-167, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191730

RESUMO

A suitable enriched environment favors development but can also influence behavior and neuronal circuits throughout development. Studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) can be used as an essential tool or combined with conventional treatments to improve psychiatric and neurological symptoms, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both disorders affect a significant percentage of the wofrld's population and have complex pathophysiology. Moreover, the available treatments for MDD and ASD are still inadequate for many affected individuals. Experimental models demonstrate that EE has significant positive effects on behavioral modulation. In addition, EE has effects on neurobiology, including improvement in synaptic connections and neuroplasticity, modulation of neurotransmissions, a decrease in inflammation and oxidative stress, and other neurobiology effects that can be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD and ASD. Thus, this review aims to describe the leading behavioral and neurobiological effects associated with EE in MDD and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Neurobiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios
17.
West Afr J Med ; 39(8): 874-884, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug addiction is a chronic biochemical drug use disorder that affects the human brain and behaviour, and leads to an uncontrollable use of a licit or illicit drug. Drug addiction can commence, usually in the young, with the use of a non-medical or a recreational drug in social gatherings, which becomes more frequent over a period of time. It is associated with incremental doses of the drug in order to achieve a state of euphoria. Addiction to drugs has been identified as a relevant social and health problem presenting a risk to public health, especially with regards to communicable diseases (e.g., HIV and AIDS, hepatitis B or C, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to discuss the neural mechanisms and circuitry responsible for the development and maintenance of addiction. It also examined the cycle of drug addiction and the associated encephalic regions and pathways. METHOD: The search strategy used for the review employed electronic databases in the search for relevant research articles, and they included Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Springer, and the Directory of Open Access Journals. Articles on drug addiction were identified and reviewed for selection. The keywords used in the search were: Neurobiology and [Drug Abuse], Neurobiology and [Drug Addiction], Neurobiology and [Drug Misuse], Neurobiology and [Substance Abuse], Neurobiology and [Substance Misuse], Neural Mechanisms and [Drug Abuse], Neural Mechanisms and [Drug Addiction], and Neural Mechanisms and [Drug Use Disorders]. The search was also aided by scanning the references of identified journal articles. Works identified (86 in number) were those written in English and published between 1996 and 2020. RESULT: One hundred and fifty journal articles and other materials were identified. Eighty-six (86) articles and other works were extracted and reviewed after screening of the titles. abstracts and keywords, and in tandem with the selection criteria. Findings show that addiction is a complex neurobiochemical disorder that is learnt and stored in the brain as memory. The disorder alters the cyto-architecture of the brain and its functions. Relapse from drug addiction is a common occurrence. It is preventable and can be treated, although no single modality of treatment fits all forms of drug addiction. CONCLUSION: Addiction to drugs is the most severe form of drug use disorder. The abuse of drugs and psychoactive substances can harm the security of all societies, including the rule-of-law. It inflicts pain and suffering to individuals and families alike, and may eventuate in deaths. Repetitive use of an addictive drug alters the way and manner the brain perceives pleasure. Drugs of abuse induce structural changes in the neurones in the brain, and in turn, alter the neurotransmitter function, and thereby, create moods and other sensations. These anatomical and physiological changes in the brain may progress even after the stoppage of drugs.


CONTEXTE: La toxicomanie est un trouble biochimique chronique de la consommation de drogues qui affecte le cerveau et le comportement humain et conduit à une consommation incontrôlable d'une drogue licite ou illicite. La toxicomanie peut commencer, généralement chez les jeunes, par la consommation d'une drogue à usage non médical ou récréatif lors de rencontres sociales, qui devient plus fréquente au fil du temps. Elle est associée à des doses progressives de la drogue afin d'atteindre un état d'euphorie. La dépendance aux drogues a été identifiée comme un problème social et sanitaire important, présentant un risque pour la santé publique, notamment en matière des maladies transmissibles (par exemple, le VIH et le sida, l'hépatite B ou C) la tuberculose et les infections sexuellement transmissibles). OBJECTIF: Les objectifs de l'étude étaient de discuter des mécanismes et circuits neuronaux responsables du développement du entretien de la dépendance. Elle a également examiné le cycle de la toxicomanie et les régions et voies encéphaliques associées. MÉTHODE: La stratégie de recherche utilisée pour l'examen a fait appel à des bases de données électroniques pour la recherche d'articles pertinent et ils consistent Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Springer et le Directory of Open Access Journals. Les articles sur la toxicomanie ont été identifiés et examinés pour être sélectionnés. Les mots-clés utilisés dans la recherche étaient : Neurobiologie et [Abus de drogues], Neurobiologie et [Toxicomanie], neurobiologie et [abus de drogues], neurobiologie et [abus de substances], neurobiologie et [abus de substances], Mécanismes neuraux et [abus de drogues], Mécanismes neuraux et [toxicomanie]. Mécanismes neuraux et [troubles liés à la consommation de drogues]. La recherche a également été facilitée par l'analyse des références des articles de revues identifiés. Les ouvrages identifiés (au nombre de 86) étaient ceux rédigés en anglais et publiés entre 1996 et 2020. RÉSULTAT: Cent cinquante articles de journaux et autres matériaux ont été identifiés. Quatre-vingt-six (86) articles et autres travaux ont été extraits et examinés après avoir passé en revue les titres, les résumés et les mots-clés, et en tandem avec les critères de sélection.Les résultats montrent que l'addiction est un trouble neurobiochimique complexe qui est appris et stocké dans le cerveau en tant que mémoire. Ce trouble modifie la cyto-architecture du cerveau et ses fonctions. La rechute de la toxicomanie est un phénomène courant. Elle est évitable et peut être traitée, bien qu'il n'existe pas de modalité unique de traitement pour toutes les formes de toxicomanie. CONCLUSION: La toxicomanie est la forme la plus grave de trouble lié à l'usage de drogues. L'abus de drogues et de substances psychoactives peut nuire à la sécurité de toutes les sociétés, y compris à l'État de droit. Il inflige de la douleur et de la souffrance aux individus et aux familles, et peut entraîner la mort. L'usage répétitif d'une drogue addictive modifie la manière dont le cerveau perçoit le plaisir. Les drogues d'abus induisent des changements structurels dans les neurones du cerveau et modifient à leur tour la fonction des neurotransmetteurs et créent ainsi des humeurs et d'autres sensations. Ces changements anatomiques et physiologiques dans le cerveau peuvent progresser même après l'arrêt de la drogue. MOTS CLÉS: Neurone, Compulsivité, Impulsivité, Récompense, Renforcement, Dépendance, Tolerance.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Recidiva , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/metabolismo
18.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 195: 107684, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174887

RESUMO

Twice-exceptional learners face a unique set of challenges arising from the intersection of extraordinary talent and disability. Neurobiology research has the capacity to complement pedagogical research and provide support for twice-exceptional learners. Very few studies have attempted to specifically address the neurobiological underpinnings of twice-exceptionality. However, neurobiologists have built a broad base of knowledge in nervous system function spanning from the level of neural circuits to the molecular basis of behavior. It is known that distinct neural circuits mediate different neural functions, which suggests that 2e learning may result from enhancement in one circuit and disruption in another. Neural circuits are known to adapt and change in response to experience, a cellular process known as neuroplasticity. Plasticity is controlled by a bidirectional connection between the synapse, where neural signals are received, and the nucleus, where regulated gene expression can return to alter synaptic function. Complex molecular mechanisms compose this connection in distinct neural circuits, and genetic alterations in these mechanisms are associated with both memory enhancements and psychiatric disorder. Understanding the consequences of these changes at the molecular, cellular, and circuit levels will provide critical insights into the neurobiological bases of twice-exceptionality.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia , Sinapses , Humanos , Sinapses/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
19.
Ber Wiss ; 45(3): 317-331, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086849

RESUMO

Employing and extending Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's analytical concept of epistemic things, this essay proposes one reason why squid giant axons, unusually large invertebrate nerve fibers, had such great impacts on twentieth-century neurobiology. The 1930s characterizations of these axons by John Zachary Young reshaped prevailing assumptions about nerve cells as epistemic things, I argue. Specifically, Young's preparations of these axons, which consisted of fibers attached to laboratory technologies, highlighted similarities between giant axons and more familiar ones via lines of comparative study common to aquatic biology. Young's work convinced other biologists that the squid giant fibers were, in fact, axons, despite their unusual fused (syncytial) structures, thereby promoting further studies, such as intracellular measurements, made possible by the fiber's size. Tracing direct relations between preparations of squid axons and broader interpretations of neurons as epistemic things, this paper renders an actors' category, "preparations," into an analytical one. In turn, it offers glimpses into how aquatic organisms shaped twentieth-century neurobiology and how local experiments can drive broader, disciplinary changes.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes , Neurobiologia , Animais , Axônios/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas , Neurônios
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