Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.137
Filtrar
1.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(7): 185-197, Ene-Jun, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232184

RESUMO

Introducción: Los objetivos primarios del core data set son reducir la heterogeneidad y promover la armonización entre las fuentes de datos en la esclerosis múltiple (EM), reduciendo así el tiempo necesario para ejecutar esfuerzos en la recolección de datos de vida real. Recientemente, un grupo liderado por la Multiple Sclerosis Data Alliance ha desarrollado un core data set para la recolección de datos del mundo real en EM a nivel global. Nuestro objetivo ha sido adaptar y consensuar este conjunto de datos globales a las necesidades de América Latina para que pueda ser implementado por los registros ya desarrollados y en proceso de desarrollo en la región. Material y métodos. Se conformó un grupo de trabajo regionalmente y se adaptó el core data set creado globalmente (proceso de traducción al español, incorporación de variables regionales y consenso sobre variables que se iban a utilizar). El consenso se obtuvo a través de la metodología Delphi remoto de ronda de cuestionarios y discusión a distancia de las variables del core data set. Resultados: Veinticinco profesionales de América Latina llevaron adelante el proceso de adaptación entre noviembre de 2022 y julio de 2023. Se estableció un acuerdo sobre un core data set de nueve categorías y 45 variables, versión 2023, con la sugerencia de implementarlo en registros desarrollados o en vías de desarrollo y cohortes de EM en la región. Conclusión: El core data set busca armonizar las variables recolectadas por los registros y las cohortes de EM en América Latina con el fin de facilitar dicha recolección y permitir una colaboración entre fuentes. Su implementación facilitará la recolección de datos de vida real y la colaboración en la región.(AU)


Introduction: The primary objective of the core data set is to reduce heterogeneity and promote harmonization among data sources in EM, thereby reducing the time needed to execute real life data collection efforts. Recently, a group led by the Multiple Sclerosis Data Alliance has developed a core data set for collecting real-world data on multiple sclerosis (MS) globally. Our objective was to adapt this global data set to the needs of Latin America, so that it can be implemented by the registries already developed and in the process of development in the region. Material and methods: A working group was formed regionally, the core data set created globally was adapted (translation process into Spanish, incorporation of regional variables and consensus on variables to be used). Consensus was obtained through the remote Delphi methodology of a round of questionnaires and remote discussion of the core data set variables. Results: A total of 25 professionals from Latin America carried out the adaptation process between November 2022 and July 2023. Agreement was established on a core data set of nine categories and 45 variables, version 2023 to suggest its implementation in developed or developing registries, and MS cohorts in the region. Conclusion: The core data set seeks to harmonize the variables collected by registries and cohorts in MS in Latin America in order to facilitate said collection and allow collaboration between sources. Its implementation will facilitate real life data collection and collaboration in the region.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Ficha Clínica , Prontuários Médicos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Neurologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
2.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(7): 199-207, Ene-Jun, 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232186

RESUMO

Introducción: El neurocientífico español Justo Gonzalo y Rodríguez-Leal (1910-1986) investiga la organización funcional de la corteza cerebral durante más de cuatro décadas. Sus hallazgos le llevan a formular una teoría neurofisiológica basada en las leyes de la excitabilidad nerviosa, que denomina dinámica cerebral. En el presente trabajo se expone de forma cronológica cómo surgen las principales ideas sobre las que se articula.Desarrollo: En 1939 Gonzalo observa los denominados fenómenos de acción dinámica: desfasamiento, facilitación y repercusión cerebral. Le siguen dos principios: efecto cerebral de la lesión según la magnitud y posición (1941), y organización sensorial, según un desarrollo espiral (1947). Paralelamente, caracteriza lo que llama el síndrome central de la corteza cerebral. En la década de los cincuenta desarrolla los conceptos de gradiente cortical, similitud y alometría. En contraposición a las concepciones modulares de la corteza cerebral, en las que una región es responsable de una función, Gonzalo expresa que ‘los gradientes corticales dan la localización de los sistemas mientras la similitud y alometría revelan su trama funcional’.Conclusiones: La teoría de dinámica cerebral se articula en dos etapas. La primera (de 1938 a 1950) se caracteriza por una importante base clínica con observación de nuevos fenómenos y formulación de nuevos conceptos. La segunda (de 1950 a 1960) incluye la introducción de conceptos de mayor alcance, como el gradiente funcional cortical, y leyes de alometría que se basan en un cambio de escala. Actualmente, varios autores consideran que el concepto de gradiente es clave para entender la organización cerebral.(AU)


Introduction: The Spanish neuroscientist Justo Gonzalo y Rodríguez-Leal (1910-1986) investigated the functional organisation of the cerebral cortex over more than four decades. His findings led him to formulate a neurophysiological theory based on the laws of nervous excitability, which he called brain dynamics. This paper presents in chronological order how the main ideas on which it is based arose.Development: In 1939, Gonzalo observed the phenomena of dynamic action: asynchrony or disaggregation, facilitation and cerebral repercussion. This was followed by two principles: the cerebral effect of lesions according to their magnitude and position (1941), and spiral development of the sensory field (1947). At the same time, he characterised what he called the central syndrome of the cerebral cortex. In the 1950s he developed the concepts of the cortical gradient, similarity and allometry. In contrast to modular conceptions of the cerebral cortex, in which one region is responsible for one function, Gonzalo argued that ‘cortical gradients provide the location of systems, while similarity and allometry reveal their functional mechanism.’Conclusions: The theory of brain dynamics was established in two stages. The first (between 1938 and 1950) had an important clinical foundation, involving the observation of new phenomena and the formulation of new concepts. The second (between 1950 and 1960) included the introduction of more far-reaching concepts, such as the functional cortical gradient, and allometry laws based on a change of scale. Today, various authors believe that the concept of the gradient is crucial for understanding how the brain is organised.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Córtex Cerebral , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Neurologia/história , Cérebro/anatomia & histologia , Neurofisiologia
3.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(8): 213-218, Ene-Jun, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232509

RESUMO

Introducción: Más de un 50% de los pacientes diagnosticados con esclerosis múltiple (EM) comunican problemas con la función manipulativa e impedimentos en su vida diaria a causa de esta alteración. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la afectación que la fuerza de pinza, la fuerza de presa y la destreza manipulativa ejercen sobre la calidad de vida y la autonomía personal de las personas diagnosticadas de EM, y estudiar si existe diferencia de estos aspectos entre los distintos tipos de esta enfermedad. Sujetos y métodos: Se contó con una muestra total de 126 participantes, de los cuales 57 fueron controles, y 69, casos. A todos ellos se les evaluó con el Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54, el Nine-Hole Peg Test, la dinamometría de pinza y de presa para la medición de la fuerza, y el índice de Barthel para la evaluación de las actividades básicas de la vida diaria. Resultados: Las personas con EM presentaron peores fuerza de pinza, fuerza de presa, destreza manipulativa, desempeño en actividades básicas de la vida diaria y calidad de vida (p < 0,001). La fuerza de presa es un factor condicionante en el desempeño de actividades básicas y calidad de vida en personas con EM. En cuanto al tipo de EM, el tipo remitente-recurrente presentó mejores valores (p < 0,001).Conclusiones: Los hallazgos de este estudio apuntan a que los pacientes diagnosticados con EM presentan una disminución en la fuerza de pinza, la fuerza de presa, la destreza manipulativa, la calidad de vida y la autonomía en las actividades de la vida diaria en comparación con la población sana.(AU)


Introduction: More than 50% of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis report problems with manipulative function and impairments in their daily lives due to this disorder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine how pinch strength, prey strength and manipulative dexterity affect the quality of life and personal autonomy of people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and to study whether there is a difference in these aspects between different types of multiple sclerosis.Subjects and methods: There was a total sample of 126 participants, of which 57 were controls and 69 cases. All of them were assessed with a Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 test, Nine-Hole Peg Test and Barthel Index.Results: People with multiple sclerosis have worse pinch strength, prey strenght, manipulative dexterity, performance in basic activities of daily living and quality of life (p < 0.001). Prey strength is a conditioning factor for performance and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. As for the type of multiple sclerosis, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis presented better values (p < 0.001).Conclusions: The findings of this study point to the fact that patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis have a decrease in prey strength, pinch strength, manipulative dexterity, quality of life and autonomy in activities of daily living compared to the healthy population.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Esclerose Múltipla , Nível de Saúde , Atividades Cotidianas , Neurologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
4.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(8): 229-235, Ene-Jun, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232510

RESUMO

La alteración aguda del estado mental en pediatría se refiere a un cambio repentino y significativo en la función cerebral y el nivel de conciencia de un niño. Puede manifestarse como confusión, desorientación, agitación, letargo o incluso pérdida de la conciencia. Esta condición es una emergencia médica, y requiere una evaluación y una atención inmediatas. Existen diversas causas de alteración aguda del estado mental en niños, algunas de las cuales incluyen infecciones del sistema nervioso central, como la meningitis o la encefalitis, los traumatismos craneoencefálicos, los trastornos metabólicos, las convulsiones o las intoxicaciones, entre otras. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar, preparar y calificar la bibliografía actual para determinar las mejores recomendaciones sobre el tratamiento ante casos de alteración aguda del estado mental en pediatría de diferentes causas. El estudio se basó en la calificación de expertos en el campo para poder determinar la calificación de las recomendaciones, además de ser sometido a la revisión por parte del comité científico de la Academia Iberoamericana de Neurología Pediátrica. Nuestra guía representa una ayuda para el tratamiento de este síntoma inespecífico desde un enfoque básico y avanzado, aplicable por cualquier neurólogo pediatra.(AU)


In pediatric patients, an acute altered mental status refers to a sudden and significant change in a child’s brain function and level of consciousness. It may manifest as confusion, disorientation, agitation, lethargy or even a loss of consciousness. This condition is a medical emergency, and requires immediate evaluation and attention. There are several causes of acute altered mental status in children, including infections of the central nervous system such as meningitis or encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, metabolic disorders, seizures and poisoning, among others. The aim of this study was to analyse, prepare and classify the current literature in order to determine the best recommendations for the treatment of cases of acute altered mental status with various causes in pediatric patients. The study was based on opinions from experts in the field in order to classify the recommendations, and was submitted to the scientific committee of the Iberoamerican Academy of Pediatric Neurology for review. Our guide is an aid for the treatment of this non-specific symptom based on a basic and advanced approach, which can be applied by any pediatric neurologist.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde da Criança , Consciência , Confusão , Fadiga Mental , Disfunção Cognitiva , Pediatria , Neurologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
5.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(8): 219-228, Ene-Jun, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232511

RESUMO

Introducción: La doble tarea es una intervención no farmacológica en personas con condiciones neurodegenerativas, utilizada en la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP), principalmente para favorecer el desempeño motor. El objetivo de esta revisión es reunir la evidencia actual sobre cómo el entrenamiento de doble tarea afecta a los procesos cognitivos en personas que presenten EP. Material y métodos. Se desarrolló una revisión sistemática, aplicando las directrices de PRISMA, incluyendo artículos obtenidos en las bases de datos de PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct y Springer Link. La calidad metodológica se evaluó mediante PEDro y ROBINS-I. Resultados: Doce artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión: nueve de ellos corresponden a ensayos controlados aleatorizados y los tres restantes fueron estudios no aleatorizados. Se identificaron mejoras en la atención y las funciones ejecutivas, aunque la diversidad en enfoques y duración dificulta llegar a conclusiones definitivas. Conclusiones: Es crucial expandir la investigación, estandarizando los programas de intervención. Del mismo modo, es importante llevar a cabo estudios longitudinales y controlados aleatorizados en muestras representativas que permitan llegar a conclusiones aplicables a otros contextos.(AU)


Introduction: Dual-tasking is a non-pharmacological intervention in people with neurodegenerative conditions, and is used in Parkinson’s disease (PD), primarily to enhance motor performance. The aim of this review is to compile the current evidence on how dual-task training affects cognitive processes in people with PD. Material and methods: A systematic review was undertaken, applying PRISMA guidelines, which included articles obtained from the PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Springer Link databases. Methodological quality was assessed using PEDro and ROBINS-I. Results: Twelve articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria: nine of them were randomized controlled trials, and the remaining three were non-randomized studies. Improvements in attention and executive functions were identified, although the diversity of approaches and duration means that reaching definitive conclusions is difficult. Conclusions: Increased research and standardized intervention programmes are essential. Longitudinal and randomized controlled studies in representative samples which provide conclusions that are applicable to other contexts are also important.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cognição , Doença de Parkinson , Neurologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
9.
Nervenarzt ; 95(5): 494-496, 2024 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700718
13.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 47(3): 87-96, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are varied and may result in missed or delayed diagnosis. This investigation explores the diverse clinical manifestations and demographic characteristics of vitamin B12 deficiency in neurology outpatients, aiming to enhance timely diagnosis and outcomes. METHODS: The severity of vitamin B12 deficiency was classified as absolute (≤150 pg/mL) or borderline deficiency (150-300 pg/mL). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 165 outpatients with vitamin B12 deficiency at the department of neurology between May 2020 and May 2021. RESULT: Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 23.0% of the patients. The most common age range was 50-60 years, the most common cause was vegetarianism, and the most common symptom was headache. Epileptiform symptoms were more likely to occur in younger patients (<20 years old) with vitamin B12 deficiency, whereas psychiatric symptoms were more likely to occur in older patients (>70 years old). Vegetarians, salivation, and nonmegaloblastic anemia were more obvious in patients with absolute vitamin B12 deficiency, whereas headaches often showed borderline B12 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of vitamin B12 deficiency are complex and nonspecific. The diagnosis should be based on multiple factors.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Humanos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neurologia
14.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 82(7): 1-2, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740023

RESUMO

Spasmodic torticollis was an early designation used for cervical dystonia. The origin of this name is attributed to French physician and writer François Rabelais in the mid-sixteenth century. This early description of torticollis in the book Pantagruel was an inspiration for the understanding of cervical dystonia. The art expressed in Rabelais' literature ‒ which was immortalized by the drawings of Gustave Doré ‒ influenced poetry, art, and photography, and led to the adoption of the term torticollis in the neurological sciences.


Uma designação inicial usada para distonia cervical era torcicolo espasmódico. A origem desse termo é atribuída ao médico e escritor francês François Rabelais em meados do século XVI. Essa descrição inicial do torcicolo no livro Pantagruel foi uma inspiração para a compreensão da distonia cervical. A arte exibida na literatura de Rabelais ‒ imortalizada pelos desenhos de Gustave Doré ‒ influenciou a poesia, a arte e a fotografia, e levou à adoção do termo torcicolo nas ciências neurológicas.


Assuntos
Torcicolo , Torcicolo/história , França , História do Século XVI , Neurologia/história , Pessoas Famosas
15.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 82(5): 1-4, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740036

RESUMO

One of the most important figures in the history of neurohistology, Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965) contributed in numerous ways to neuroscience, particularly in the fields of neuronal plasticity and the understanding of sensory ganglia. His daughter Natalia Ginzburg, née Levi (1916-1991), on the other hand, achieved fame as one of the most celebrated Italian writers of the twentieth century. Lessico Famigliare (Family Lexicon), from 1963, is a semibiographical account of her life in which she describes the life and character of her father in detail, providing depth and complexity to a seminal figures in the development of neuroscience. A thorough reading of the book enables modern neurologists to fully appreciate Levi's life and contributions, by means of humanizing him and giving context to his life and works. The present article provides a summary of Levi's and Natalia's lives and times as well as an analysis of the book and of the intimate, vivid descriptions of the neurohistologist's life.


Uma das figuras mais importantes da história da neuro-histologia, Giuseppe Levi (1872­1965) contribuiu de diversas maneiras para a neurociência, particularmente no campo da plasticidade neuronal e na compreensão dos gânglios sensitivos. Sua filha Natalia Ginzburg, nascida Levi (1916­1991), pelo contrário, adquiriu fama como uma das escritoras italianas mais célebres do século XX. Lessico Famigliare (Léxico familiar), de 1963, é um relato semibiográfico de sua vida, na qual ela descreve a vida e o comportamento de seu pai em detalhes, e confere profundidade e complexidade a uma figura seminal no desenvolvimento da neurociência. Uma leitura aprofundada do livro permite que neurologistas modernos apreciem a vida e as contribuições de Levi de forma mais completa, o humanizando e dando contexto a sua vida e suas obras. O autor resume as vidas e épocas de Levi e Natalia, bem como avalia o livro e as descrições íntimas, vívidas, da vida do neurohistologista.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura , História do Século XX , História do Século XIX , Itália , Medicina na Literatura/história , Neurologia/história , Neurociências/história
16.
Neurology ; 102(11): e209497, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759131

RESUMO

Large language models (LLMs) are advanced artificial intelligence (AI) systems that excel in recognizing and generating human-like language, possibly serving as valuable tools for neurology-related information tasks. Although LLMs have shown remarkable potential in various areas, their performance in the dynamic environment of daily clinical practice remains uncertain. This article outlines multiple limitations and challenges of using LLMs in clinical settings that need to be addressed, including limited clinical reasoning, variable reliability and accuracy, reproducibility bias, self-serving bias, sponsorship bias, and potential for exacerbating health care disparities. These challenges are further compounded by practical business considerations and infrastructure requirements, including associated costs. To overcome these hurdles and harness the potential of LLMs effectively, this article includes considerations for health care organizations, researchers, and neurologists contemplating the use of LLMs in clinical practice. It is essential for health care organizations to cultivate a culture that welcomes AI solutions and aligns them seamlessly with health care operations. Clear objectives and business plans should guide the selection of AI solutions, ensuring they meet organizational needs and budget considerations. Engaging both clinical and nonclinical stakeholders can help secure necessary resources, foster trust, and ensure the long-term sustainability of AI implementations. Testing, validation, training, and ongoing monitoring are pivotal for successful integration. For neurologists, safeguarding patient data privacy is paramount. Seeking guidance from institutional information technology resources for informed, compliant decisions, and remaining vigilant against biases in LLM outputs are essential practices in responsible and unbiased utilization of AI tools. In research, obtaining institutional review board approval is crucial when dealing with patient data, even if deidentified, to ensure ethical use. Compliance with established guidelines like SPIRIT-AI, MI-CLAIM, and CONSORT-AI is necessary to maintain consistency and mitigate biases in AI research. In summary, the integration of LLMs into clinical neurology offers immense promise while presenting formidable challenges. Awareness of these considerations is vital for harnessing the potential of AI in neurologic care effectively and enhancing patient care quality and safety. The article serves as a guide for health care organizations, researchers, and neurologists navigating this transformative landscape.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neurologia , Humanos , Neurologia/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
17.
19.
Lancet Neurol ; 23(6): 561, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760094
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 524, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the subspecialty of neuropalliative care has emerged with the goal of improving the quality of life of patients suffering from neurological disease, though gaps remain in neuropalliative care education and training. E-learning has been described as a way to deliver interactive and facilitated lower-cost learning to address global gaps in medical care. We describe here the development of a novel, international, hybrid, and asynchronous curriculum with both self-paced modules and class-based lectures on neuropalliative care topics designed for the neurologist interested in palliative care, the palliative care physician interested in caring for neurological patients, and any other physician or advanced care providers interested in neuropalliative care. METHODS: The course consisted of 12 modules, one per every four weeks, beginning July 2022. Each module is based on a case and relevant topics. Course content was divided into three streams (Neurology Basics, Palliative Care Basics, and Neuropalliative Care Essentials) of which two were optional and one was mandatory, and consisted of classroom sessions, webinars, and an in-person skills session. Evaluation of learners consisted of multiple choice questions and written assignments for each module. Evaluation of the course was based on semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with both educator and learner, the latter of which will be published separately. Audio files were transcribed and underwent thematic analysis. For the discussion of the results, Khan's e-learning framework was used. RESULTS: Ten of the 12 participating educators were interviewed. Of the educators, three identified as mid-career and seven as senior faculty, ranging from six to 33 years of experience. Nine of ten reported an academic affiliation and all reported association with a teaching hospital. Themes identified from the educators' evaluations were: bridging the global gap, getting everybody on board, defining the educational scope, investing extensive hours of voluntary time and resources, benefiting within and beyond the curriculum, understanding the learner's experience, creating a community of shared learning, adapting future teaching and learning strategies, and envisioning long term sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: The first year of a novel, international, hybrid, and asynchronous neuropalliative care curriculum has been completed, and its educators have described both successes and avenues for improvement. Further research is planned to assess this curriculum from the learner perspective.


Assuntos
Currículo , Cuidados Paliativos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Instrução por Computador , Neurologia/educação , Educação a Distância
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...