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1.
Anal Chem ; 96(14): 5349-5356, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554084

RESUMO

The patterning of hydrophilic paper with hydrophobic materials has emerged as an interesting method for the fabrication of paper-based devices (PADs). Herein, we demonstrate a digitally automated, easy, low-cost, eco-friendly, and readily available method to create highly hydrophobic barriers on paper that can be promptly employed with PADs by simply using a bioink made with rosin, a commercially available natural resin obtained from conifer trees. The bioink can be easily delivered with the use of a ballpoint pen to produce water- and organic solvent-resistant barriers, showing superior properties when compared to other methods such as wax-printing or permanent markers. The approach enables the pen to be attached to a commercially available cutting printer to perform the semiautomated fabrication of hydrophobic barriers for PADs. With the aid of digitally controlled optimization, together with features of machine learning and design of experiments, we show a thorough investigation on the barrier strength that can be further adjusted to the desired application's needs. Then, we explored the barrier sturdiness across various uses, such as wide range aqueous pH sensing and the harsh acidic/organic conditions needed for the colorimetric detection of cholecalciferol.


Assuntos
Papel , Água , Solventes , Impressão/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e42140, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care providers worldwide are rapidly adopting electronic medical record (EMR) systems, replacing paper record-keeping systems. Despite numerous benefits to EMRs, the environmental emissions associated with medical record-keeping are unknown. Given the need for urgent climate action, understanding the carbon footprint of EMRs will assist in decarbonizing their adoption and use. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate and compare the environmental emissions associated with paper medical record-keeping and its replacement EMR system at a high-volume eye care facility in southern India. METHODS: We conducted the life cycle assessment methodology per the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 14040 standard, with primary data supplied by the eye care facility. Data on the paper record-keeping system include the production, use, and disposal of paper and writing utensils in 2016. The EMR system was adopted at this location in 2018. Data on the EMR system include the allocated production and disposal of capital equipment (such as computers and routers); the production, use, and disposal of consumable goods like paper and writing utensils; and the electricity required to run the EMR system. We excluded built infrastructure and cooling loads (eg. buildings and ventilation) from both systems. We used sensitivity analyses to model the effects of practice variation and data uncertainty and Monte Carlo assessments to statistically compare the 2 systems, with and without renewable electricity sources. RESULTS: This location's EMR system was found to emit substantially more greenhouse gases (GHGs) than their paper medical record system (195,000 kg carbon dioxide equivalents [CO2e] per year or 0.361 kg CO2e per patient visit compared with 20,800 kg CO2e per year or 0.037 kg CO2e per patient). However, sensitivity analyses show that the effect of electricity sources is a major factor in determining which record-keeping system emits fewer GHGs. If the study hospital sourced all electricity from renewable sources such as solar or wind power rather than the Indian electric grid, their EMR emissions would drop to 24,900 kg CO2e (0.046 kg CO2e per patient), a level comparable to the paper record-keeping system. Energy-efficient EMR equipment (such as computers and monitors) is the next largest factor impacting emissions, followed by equipment life spans. Multimedia Appendix 1 includes other emissions impact categories. CONCLUSIONS: The climate-changing emissions associated with an EMR system are heavily dependent on the sources of electricity. With a decarbonized electricity source, the EMR system's GHG emissions are on par with paper medical record-keeping, and decarbonized grids would likely have a much broader benefit to society. Though we found that the EMR system produced more emissions than a paper record-keeping system, this study does not account for potential expanded environmental gains from EMRs, including expanding access to care while reducing patient travel and operational efficiencies that can reduce unnecessary or redundant care.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hospitais Especializados , Registros Médicos , Papel , Clima , Software , Meio Ambiente , Índia , Oftalmologia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Mudança Climática
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(8): 3966-3973, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353415

RESUMO

The occurrence of chlorinated derivatives of bisphenol S (Clx-BPS) and BPS was investigated in nine types of paper products (n = 125), including thermal paper, corrugated boxes, mail envelopes, newspapers, flyers, magazines, food contact paper, household paper, and business cards. BPS was found in all paper product samples, while Clx-BPS were mainly found in thermal paper (from below the limit of detection (

Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Papel , Humanos , Alimentos , Comércio
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 275, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363444

RESUMO

The economic development of a country directly depends upon industries. But this economic development should not be at the cost of our natural environment. A substantial amount of water is spent during paper production, creating water scarcity and generating wastewater. Therefore, the Pollution Control Board classifies this industry into red category. Water is used in different papermaking stages such as debarking, pulping or bleaching, washing, and finishing. The wastewater thus generated contains lignin and xenobiotic compounds such as resin acids, chlorinated lignin, phenols, furans, dioxins, chlorophenols, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), extractable organic halogens (EOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, plasticizers, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Nowadays, several microorganisms are used in the detoxification of these hazardous effluents. Researchers have found that microbial degradation is the most promising treatment method to remove high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from wastewater. Microorganisms also remove AOX toxicity, chlorinated compounds, suspended solids, color, lignin, derivatives, etc. from the pulp and paper mill effluents. But in the current scenario, mill effluents are known to deteriorate the environment and therefore it is highly desirable to deploy advanced technologies for effluent treatment. This review summarizes the eco-friendly advanced treatment technologies for effluents generated from pulp and paper mills.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Lignina , Descontaminação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Halogênios , Água , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Papel
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339741

RESUMO

Iodine is an essential micronutrient for humans due to its fundamental role in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. As a key parameter to assess health conditions, iodine intake needs to be monitored to ascertain and prevent iodine deficiency. Iodine is available from various food sources (such as seaweed, fish, and seafood, among others) and dietary supplements (multivitamins or mineral supplements). In this work, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) to quantify iodide in seaweed and dietary supplements is described. The developed µPAD is a small microfluidic device that emerges as quite relevant in terms of its analytical capacity. The quantification of iodide is based on the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iodine, which acts as the catalyst to produce the blue form of TMB. Additionally, powder silica was used to intensify and uniformize the colour of the obtained product. Following optimization, the developed µPAD enabled iodide quantification within the range of 10-100 µM, with a detection limit of 3 µM, and was successfully applied to seaweeds and dietary supplements. The device represents a valuable tool for point-of-care analysis, can be used by untrained personnel at home, and is easily disposable, low-cost, and user-friendly.


Assuntos
Iodo , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Humanos , Microfluídica , Iodetos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Iodo/análise , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Papel
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 210, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355912

RESUMO

The influence of pulp carryover on the efficiency of the xylanase (X) treatment of industrial unbleached and oxygen-delignified eucalypt kraft pulps (A1 and A2 pulps, with kappa number (KN) values of 16 and 10, respectively), collected at the same pulp mill, was studied regarding the consumption of bleaching chemicals and pulp bleachability. Another non-oxygen-delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp of KN 13 was received after the extended cooking from a different pulp mill (pulp B). The assays were performed with both lab-washed (carryover-free) and unwashed (carryover-rich) pulps. Both lab-washed and unwashed pulps with carryover were subjected to X treatment, the former being demonstrating considerably higher ClO2 savings than the pulps containing carryover. The savings of bleaching reagents were higher when the X stage was applied to the A1 pulp than to the A2 pulp. This advantage of A1 pulp, however, was not confirmed when using unwashed pulps. In contrast, the gains obtained from the X treatment of unwashed pulp A2 were practically as high as those observed for the lab-washed A2 pulp. Furthermore, a similar effect in X stage was recorded for unwashed pulps having close KN: oxygen-delignified A2 pulp and non-oxygen-delignified B pulp. The results suggest that pulp carryover and initial pH were the key factors relating to the effectiveness of X treatment. The application of X treatment to the A2 unwashed pulp (after the oxygen stage) not only saved 20% of the ClO2 and 10% of the sodium hydroxide, but also improved the brightness stability of the bleached pulp without affecting its papermaking properties. KEY POINTS: • Xylanase treatment boosts kraft pulp bleaching • Pulp carryover hinders the xylanase treatment • Nearly 20% of ClO2 and 10% NaOH savings can be reached using xylanase.


Assuntos
Oxigênio , Papel , Oxigênio/química
7.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0297034, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to determine the order in which science and health researchers read scientific papers, their reasons for doing so and the perceived difficulty and perceived importance of each section. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An online survey open to science and health academics and researchers distributed via existing research networks, X (formerly Twitter), and LinkedIn. RESULTS: Almost 90% of respondents self-declared to be experienced in reading research papers. 98.6% of the sample read the abstract first because it provides an overview of the paper and facilitates a decision on continuing to read on or not. Seventy-five percent perceived it to be the easiest to read and 62.4% perceived it to be very important (highest rank on a 5-point Likert scale). The majority of respondents did not read a paper in the IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion) format. Perceived difficulty and perceived importance influenced reading order. CONCLUSION: Science and health researchers do not typically read scientific and health research papers in IMRAD format. The more important a respondent perceives a section to be, the more likely they are to read it. The easier a section is perceived, the more likely it will be read. We present recommendations to those teaching the skill of writing scientific papers and reports.


Assuntos
Papel , Leitura , Humanos , Pesquisadores
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 308: 123727, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38061104

RESUMO

We proposed a triple functional SERS substrate by immobilized Ag nanoparticles on the surface of filter paper. The high dense Ag nanoparticles were distributed on the SERS substrate via in-situ growth process. By optimizing the parameter in preparation process, the optimal filter paper SERS substrate was fabricated by using 30 mM of AgNO3 with 20 S growth time. Due to capillary-effect wicking of cellulose fiber, the paper SERS substrate provide simple, fast and pump-free function for transferring analyte onto sharp tip through development of fluid. The fluid flow also brings target concentrate effect within the tip area. Furthermore, the separation feasibility was obtained during the development process of fluid. The preconcentrated effects not only enhanced the SERS signal of analyte, but also improve the fluorescence visible effect. The filter paper SERS substrate was successfully used for separating, concentrating and detecting Sudan dye from chili product, the detection limit could achieve 10-6 M. This study developed a portable, cost-effective and eco-friendly SERS substrate for separating and detecting trace chemical in food.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Papel , Prata , Celulose , Filtração , Análise Espectral Raman
9.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 146: 105526, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37995898

RESUMO

Thermal printing technology requires a color developer to activate the dye under the action of heat. Bisphenol A (BPA) has traditionally been used for this purpose, although it has increasingly been replaced by bisphenol S (BPS) in recent years. Due to concerns regarding their toxicity, the Swiss authorities have banned both BPA and BPS from thermal papers since 2020. The impact of this regulatory decision was evaluated during 3 monitoring campaigns: in 2013-2014, 2019 and 2021. They were used to describe the starting point, the transition phase, and the status after entry into force of the ban, respectively. Whereas the use of BPA as color developer dropped from 82.2% in 2013/14 to 10.8% in 2021, the fraction of BPS-based thermal paper rose from 3.1% to 19.1% during the same period, despite being banned. However, Pergafast® 201 (PF201) is now the main color developer in thermal paper in Switzerland, with an occurrence of 60.3%. Other alternatives such as D-8, TGSA, PPSMU, NKK-1304, BPS-MAE, D-90 and Blue4est® have only been marginally detected. This study demonstrates the efficiency of the regulatory measure and the feasibility to substitute BPA in thermal papers with less-toxic alternatives.


Assuntos
Papel , Fenóis , Suíça , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 246: 115846, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38006702

RESUMO

The use of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) for aiding medical diagnosis is a growing trend in the literature mainly due to their low cost, easy use, simple manufacturing, and great potential for application in low-resource settings. Many important biomarkers (proteins, ions, lipids, hormones, DNA, RNA, drugs, whole cells, and more) and biofluids are available for precise detection and diagnosis. We have reviewed the advances µPADs in medical diagnostics have achieved in the last few years, focusing on the most common human biofluids (whole blood/plasma, sweat, urine, tears, and saliva). The challenges of detecting specific biomarkers in each sample are discussed, along with innovative techniques that overcome such limitations. Finally, the difficulties of commercializing µPADs are considered, and future trends are presented, including wearable devices and integrating multiple steps in a single platform.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Humanos , Microfluídica , Papel , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Biomarcadores
11.
Food Chem ; 439: 138179, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091789

RESUMO

Orientationally immobilized enzyme microreactors (OIMERs), embedded in microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) were developed for improved detection of pesticide residues in food. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was orientationally immobilized on the reusable Part I of the µPADs, using the specific affinity binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to a glycosyl group on AChE. Using the disposable Part II, facile colorimetric quantification was performed with a smartphone and software, or qualitative detection by a naked-eye visual test. The AChE immobilized in OIMERs not only had improved activity and stability, but also high sensitivity, with a limit of detection as low as (0.007 ± 0.003) µg/mL. The method was used to detect pesticides residues in real vegetable samples; the recovery (88.6-102.7%) showed high reliability for pesticide residues detection in foods. A molecular docking study and an enzyme kinetic analysis were conducted to characterize the mechanism of action of the OIMERs.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Microfluídica , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Papel
12.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(2): 289-297, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38086976

RESUMO

In this study, the potential of ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic enzymatic bleaching approach was investigated, for manufacturing wheat straw-based paper. The enzymatic step was found to be most effective, with xylanase-pectinase dose of 4-1.7 IU/g pulp and time period of 180 min. The absorption spectra of the pulp free filtrate samples obtained after treatment of the pulp with ultrafiltered enzymes showed the removal of more impurities, in comparison to the treatment with crude enzymes. Microscopic analysis also showed the removal of lignin impurities in enzymatically bleached pulp samples. This bleaching approach using enzymes resulted in 27% reduction in ClO2 dose. Ultrafiltered enzymes treated pulp samples also showed improved quality-related parameters, and Gurley porosity, burst index, breaking length, double fold, tear index, and viscosity increased by 19.05, 13.70, 8.18, 29.27, 4.41, and 13.27%, respectively. The lignin content, TDS, TSS, BOD and COD values also decreased in the effluent samples obtained after enzymatic bleaching plus 73% chemical bleaching dose. The BOD and COD values of the effluent samples improved by 23.01 and 23.66%, respectively. Thus, indicating the potential of ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic enzymes in reducing pollution during bleaching of wheat straw. This is the first study, mentioning the efficacy of ultrafiltered enzymes in the bleaching of wheat straw-based paper with better optical-strength-related properties and effluent characteristics.


Assuntos
Lignina , Papel , Triticum/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Poligalacturonase
13.
Nature ; 626(7998): 327-334, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109939

RESUMO

The pulp and paper industry is an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions1,2. Country-specific strategies are essential for the industry to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, given its vast heterogeneities across countries3,4. Here we develop a comprehensive bottom-up assessment of net greenhouse gas emissions of the domestic paper-related sectors for 30 major countries from 1961 to 2019-about 3.2% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the same period5-and explore mitigation strategies through 2,160 scenarios covering key factors. Our results show substantial differences across countries in terms of historical emissions evolution trends and structure. All countries can achieve net-zero emissions for their pulp and paper industry by 2050, with a single measure for most developed countries and several measures for most developing countries. Except for energy-efficiency improvement and energy-system decarbonization, tropical developing countries with abundant forest resources should give priority to sustainable forest management, whereas other developing countries should pay more attention to enhancing methane capture rate and reducing recycling. These insights are crucial for developing net-zero strategies tailored to each country and achieving net-zero emissions by 2050 for the pulp and paper industry.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Indústrias , Internacionalidade , Papel , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Madeira , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Efeito Estufa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/isolamento & purificação , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Metano/análise , Metano/isolamento & purificação , Reciclagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Reciclagem/tendências , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Florestas , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Clima Tropical
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21230, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040821

RESUMO

Oyster Farming is one of important fisheries and aquaculture industries in Taiwan. Each year, approximately 4000-5000 tons of discarded bamboo scaffolding (BS) used in oyster farming, are generated, so the treatment and utilization of BS should be taken seriously. This study evaluates the suitability of BS for pulp and papermaking by assessing the chemical compositions, microstructural, and fiber morphology. The pulping properties is investigated by soda pulping. The chemical composition of BS shows the potential for application in pulping. The BS microstructure shows that can enhance pulping reactions, while the fiber morphology indicates the possibility of producing high-strength paper. Through the pulping experiment, it demonstrated that BS is suitable for pulping with lower NaOH dosage and longer digestion time. The condition at 170 °C with 14% NaOH dosage for 90 min digestion has the highest yield. After refining the highest pulping yield BS pulp, it can improve the handsheet strength and bulk of the OCC-BS mixed pulp, which can achieve the strength property required for industrial paper. In summary, BS exhibits the potential for pulping application and produces a better paper strength than OCC pulp, exhibiting the feasibility of enhancing the circular utilization value of BS in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Celulose , Papel , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Celulose/química , Indústrias , Agricultura
15.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(12)2023 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131761

RESUMO

Herein, a cost-effective and portable microfluidic paper-based sensor is proposed for the simultaneous and rapid detection of glucose, free amino acids, and vitamin C in fruit. The device was constructed by embedding a poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA)-modified cellulose paper chip within a hydrophobic acrylic plate. We successfully showcased the capabilities of a filter paper-based microfluidic sensor for the detection of fruit nutrients using three distinct colorimetric analyses. Within a single paper chip, we simultaneously detected glucose, free amino acids, and vitamin C in the vivid hues of cyan blue, purple, and Turnbull's blue, respectively, in three distinctive detection zones. Notably, we employed more stable silver nanoparticles for glucose detection, replacing the traditional peroxidase approach. The detection limits for glucose reached a low level of 0.049 mmol/L. Meanwhile, the detection limits for free amino acids and vitamin C were found to be 0.236 mmol/L and 0.125 mmol/L, respectively. The feasibility of the proposed sensor was validated in 13 different practical fruit samples using spectrophotometry. Cellulose paper utilizes capillary action to process trace fluids in tiny channels, and combined with pCBAA, which has superior hydrophilicity and anti-pollution properties, it greatly improves the sensitivity and practicality of paper-based sensors. Therefore, the paper-based colorimetric device is expected to provide technical support for the nutritional value assessment of fruits in the field of rapid detection.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Aminoácidos , Frutas/química , Glucose/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Papel , Prata/química , Celulose
16.
Molecules ; 28(21)2023 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37959759

RESUMO

Paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI MS) has emerged as a notable method for the rapid analysis of biological samples. However, the typical cellulose-based paper tip is incompatible with protein detection due to the strong interaction between cellulose hydroxyl groups and proteins. In this study, we utilized a commercially available polyolefin-based synthetic paper, Teslin®, as an alternative PSI substrate for simple protein analysis. We have named this method "droplet PSI" MS, as the aqueous protein solution droplet retains its shape on the Teslin® paper tip. For droplet PSI, no further chemical pretreatment was necessary for the Teslin® substrate; the only required preparation was shaping the Teslin® paper into a triangular tip. In droplet PSI MS, protein ion signals were instantly detected from a protein solution droplet upon applying a spray solvent in situ along with high voltage (HV). When compared with conventional PSI MS, our method demonstrated superior sensitivity. The droplet PSI MS utilizing Teslin® also showcased flexibility in real-time observation of protein alterations induced by an acid additive. Additionally, the effects of spray solvent composition and the application method were discussed.


Assuntos
Celulose , Papel , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Solventes/química , Proteínas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
17.
Anal Methods ; 16(1): 33-39, 2023 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010169

RESUMO

Whisky adulteration is a prevalent practice driven by the high cost of these beverages. Counterfeiters commonly dilute whisky with less expensive alcoholic beverages, water, food additives, drugs or pharmaceuticals. Paracetamol (PAR), an analgesic drug that mitigates hangovers and headaches, is commonly used to adulterate whisky. Currently, the primary method for quantifying PAR levels is high-performance liquid chromatography, but this technique is both time consuming and usually generates more residues. In this context, the utilization of miniaturized and portable analytical devices becomes imperative for conducting point-of-care/need analyses. These devices offer several advantages, including portability, user-friendliness, low cost, and minimal material wastage. This study proposes the selective distance-based PAR quantification on whisky samples using a paper-based microfluidic analytical device (µPAD). Colorimetric detection on paper-based platforms offers great benefits such as affordability, portability, and the ability to detect PAR without complicated instrumentation. The optimal detection conditions were achieved by introducing 5 µL of a mixture containing 7.5 mmol L-1 of Fe(III) and K3[Fe(CN)6] into the detection zone, along with 12 µL of whisky samples into the sample zone. The method exhibited linear behavior within the concentration range from 15 to 120 mg L-1, with a determination coefficient of 0.998. PAR was quantified in adulterated samples. The results obtained with the paper-based devices were compared with a referenced method, and no significant differences were observed at a confidence level of 95%. The µPAD allowed to determine ca. 1 drop of pharmaceutical medicine PAR of 200 mg mL-1 in 1 L of solution, demonstrating excellent sensitivity. This method offers cost-effective and rapid analysis, reducing the consumption of samples, reagents, and wastes. Consequently, it could be considered a viable and portable alternative for analyzing beverages at criminal scenes, customs, and police operations, thereby enhancing the field of forensics.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Compostos Férricos , Microfluídica , Papel
18.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(11): 6379-6389, 2023 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875260

RESUMO

Paper is an ideal candidate for the development of new disposable diagnostic devices because it is a low-cost material, allows transport of the liquid on the device by capillary action, and is environmentally friendly. Today, colorimetric analysis is most often used as a detection method for rapid tests (test strips or lateral flow devices) but usually gives only qualitative results and is limited by a relatively high detection threshold. Here, we describe studies using fluorescence as a readout tool for paper-based diagnostics. We study how the optical readout is affected by light transmission, scattering, and fluorescence as a function of paper characteristics such as thickness (grammage), water content, autofluorescence, and paper type/composition. We show that paper-based fluorescence analysis allows better optical readout compared to that of nitrocellulose, which is currently the material of choice in colorimetric assays. To reduce the loss of analyte molecules (e.g., proteins) due to adsorption to the paper surface, we coat the paper fibers with a protein-repellent hydrogel. For this purpose, we use hydrophilic copolymers consisting of N,N-dimethyl acrylamide and a benzophenone-based cross-linker, which are photochemically transformed into a fiber-attached polymer hydrogel on the paper fiber surfaces in situ. We show that the combination of fluorescence detection and the use of a protein-repellent coating enables sensitive paper-based analysis. Finally, the success of the strategy is demonstrated by using a simple LFD application as an example.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Papel , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Proteínas , Hidrogéis
19.
Analyst ; 148(21): 5496-5506, 2023 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37782094

RESUMO

A simple, rapid chemical coating and patterning method was developed and optimized for paper-based substrates for use in paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). A variety of chlorosilanes were explored for coating paper substrates, and their effectiveness in forming hydrophobic surfaces was characterized via contact angle goniometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Trichloromethylsilane was selected as the primary coating agent because of the short time required to produce a hydrophobic surface (contact angle > 130°), as well as the ease of patterning. Patterning was performed using 3D-printed masks and an oxygen/plasma cleaner. Optimal mask thickness and oxygen/plasma cleaning parameters were determined to produce channels varying from 0.5 to 2.5 mm in width. The effectiveness of the patterned substrates for PS-MS was determined via analysis of four antiretrovirals: emtricitabine, lamivudine, efavirenz, and dolutegravir. Calibration curves were made for each antiretroviral at varying channel widths, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification for each drug were determined. These results show that this patterning method results in an average 7.2-fold improvement in sensitivity and an average 190-fold improvement in limits of detection over uncoated paper substrates in a neat matrix. In a proof-of-concept experiment, calibration curves were generated for each antiretroviral in urine. A patterned paper substrate with a 2-mm channel resulted in an average 7.4-fold improvement in sensitivity and an average 18-fold improvement in limits of detection over uncoated paper substrates.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Oxigênio , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Papel
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(40): 46747-46755, 2023 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37782693

RESUMO

Point-of-care (POC) devices can provide inexpensive, practical, and expedited solutions for applications ranging from biomedicine to environmental monitoring. This work reports on the development of low-cost microfluidic substrates for POC systems suitable for analytical assays, while also satisfying the need for social and environmentally conscious practices regarding circular economy, waste reduction, and the use of local resources. Thus, an innovative greener process to extract cellulose from plants including abaca, cotton, kozo, linen, and sisal, originating from different places around the world, is developed, and then the corresponding paper substrates are obtained to serve as platforms for POC assays. Hydrophobic wax is used to delineate channels that are able to guide solutions into chambers where the colorimetric assay for total cholesterol quantification is carried out as a proof of concept. Morphological and physicochemical analyses are performed, including the evaluation of fiber diameter, shape and density, and mechanical and thermal properties, together with peel adhesion of the printed wax channels. Contact angle and capillary flow tests ascertain the suitability of the substrates for liquid assays and overall viability as low-cost, sustainable microfluidic substrates for POC applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Papel , Colorimetria , Floresta Úmida , Celulose , Bioensaio , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip
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