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1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458501

RESUMO

Nicotiana benthamiana is an indigenous plant species distributed across northern Australia. The laboratory accession (LAB) of N. benthamiana has become widely adopted as a model host for plant viruses, and it is distinct from other accessions morphologically, physiologically, and by having an attenuation-of-function mutation in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (NbRdr1) gene, referred to as NbRdr1m. Recent historical evidence suggested LAB was derived from a 1936 collection by John Cleland at The Granites of the Northern Territory, although no scientific evidence was provided. We provide scientific evidence and further historical evidence supporting the origin of LAB as The Granites. Analysis of a herbarium specimen of N. benthamiana collected by Cleland in 1936 revealed that The Granites population contains plants heterozygous for the NbRdr1 locus, having both the functional NbRdr1 and the mutant NbRdr1m alleles. N. benthamiana was an important cultural asset actively utilised as the narcotic Pituri (chewing tobacco) by the Warlpiri Aboriginal people at the site, who prevented women of child-bearing age from consuming it. We propose that Aboriginal people selected some of the unique traits of LAB that have subsequently facilitated its adoption as a model plant, such as lack of seed dormancy, fast maturity, low nornicotine content, and gracility.


Assuntos
Vírus de Plantas , Tabaco , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Northern Territory , Patologia Vegetal , Vírus de Plantas/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco sem Fumaça
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2400: 297-317, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905212

RESUMO

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an important tool for observing the ultrastructure of plant virions and their host cells. The two main applicable TEM technologies used in plant virology are negative staining and ultrathin section. Negative staining is mainly used to observe the high-resolution structure of virus particles under a transmission electron microscope. Sample preparation for negative staining is convenient and fast, making it suitable for studying the virions in crude sap or purified solution. A modification of negative staining, by combining immunological reaction, named as technique of immuno-negative staining, is used to enrich or identify viruses. Ultrathin section is used for ultrastructural cytopathological studies in the virus-infected host cells, including the morphology of virus particles, the structure of viral induced inclusion bodies, the subcellular distribution of virions and the structural alteration of the host cell induced by viral infection. Such information is valuable to analyze the behavior of virus in replication, assembly, and intercellular transportation, and thus to understand the viral infection cycle. The present chapter describes the operation details of negative staining and ultrathin section TEM.


Assuntos
Patologia Vegetal , Elétrons , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Coloração Negativa , Vírus de Plantas , Vírion
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(1): 117-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913996

RESUMO

Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have a high potential for use in several areas of agriculture including plant pathology. Nanoparticles (NPs) alone can be applied for disease management due to their antimicrobial properties. Moreover, nanobiosensors allow a rapid and sensitive diagnosis of pathogens because NPs can be conjugated with nucleic acids, proteins and other biomolecules. The use of ENM in diagnosis, delivery of fungicides and therapy is an eco-friendly and economically viable alternative. This review focuses on different promising studies concerning ENM used for plant disease management including viruses, fungi, oomycetes and bacteria; diagnosis and delivery of antimicrobials and factors affecting the efficacy of nanomaterials, entry, translocation and toxicity. Although much research is required on metallic NPs due to the possible risks to the final consumer, ENMs are undoubtedly very useful tools to achieve food security in the world. KEY POINTS: • Increasing global population and fungicides have necessitated alternative technologies. • Nanomaterials can be used for detection, delivery and therapy of plant diseases. • The toxicity issues and safety should be considered before the use of nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanoestruturas , Patologia Vegetal , Agricultura , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960609

RESUMO

This paper showcases the development of plant virology in Croatia at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, from its beginning in the 1950s until today, more than 70 years later. The main achievements of the previous and current group members are highlighted according to various research topics and fields. Expectedly, some of those accomplishments remained within the field of plant virology, but others make part of a much-extended research spectrum exploring subviral pathogens, prokaryotic plant pathogens, fungi and their viruses, as well as their interactions within ecosystems. Thus, the legacy of plant virology in Croatia continues to contribute to the state of the art of microbiology far beyond virology. Research problems pertinent for directing the future research endeavors are also proposed in this review.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia Molecular/história , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Patologia Vegetal/história , Plantas/virologia , Croácia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
6.
mBio ; 12(5): e0306820, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663100

RESUMO

Cytokinin (CK) is an important plant developmental regulator, having activities in many aspects of plant life and response to the environment. CKs are involved in diverse processes in the plant, including stem cell maintenance, vascular differentiation, growth and branching of roots and shoots, leaf senescence, nutrient balance, and stress tolerance. In some cases, phytopathogens secrete CKs. It has been suggested that to achieve pathogenesis in the host, CK-secreting biotrophs manipulate CK signaling to regulate the host cell cycle and nutrient allocation. CK is known to induce host plant resistance to several classes of phytopathogens from a few works, with induced host immunity via salicylic acid signaling suggested to be the prevalent mechanism for this host resistance. Here, we show that CK directly inhibits the growth, development, and virulence of fungal phytopathogens. Focusing on Botrytis cinerea (Bc), we demonstrate that various aspects of fungal development can be reversibly inhibited by CK. We also found that CK affects both budding and fission yeast in a similar manner. Investigating the mechanism by which CK influences fungal development, we conducted RNA next-generation sequencing (RNA-NGS) on mock- and CK-treated B. cinerea samples, finding that CK alters the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, and endocytosis. Cell biology experiments demonstrated that CK affects cytoskeleton components and cellular trafficking in Bc, lowering endocytic rates and endomembrane compartment sizes, likely leading to reduced growth rates and arrested developmental programs. Mutant analyses in yeast confirmed that the endocytic pathway is altered by CK. Our work uncovers a remarkably conserved role for a plant growth hormone in fungal biology, suggesting that pathogen-host interactions resulted in fascinating molecular adaptations on fundamental processes in eukaryotic biology. IMPORTANCE Cytokinins (CKs), important plant growth/developmental hormones, have previously been associated with host disease resistance. Here, we demonstrate that CK directly inhibits the growth, development, and virulence of B. cinerea (Bc) and many additional phytopathogenic fungi. Molecular and cellular analyses revealed that CK is not toxic to Bc, but rather, Bc likely recognizes CK and responds to it, resulting in cell cycle and individual cell growth retardation, via downregulation of cytoskeletal components and endocytic trafficking. Mutant analyses in yeast confirmed that the endocytic pathway is a CK target. Our work demonstrates a conserved role for CK in yeast and fungal biology, suggesting that pathogen-host interactions may cause molecular adaptations in fundamental processes in eukaryotic biology.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Doença , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Patologia Vegetal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schizosaccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Virulência
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(11): 190, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632549

RESUMO

Considering that current biotechnological advances have been contributing towards improving the well-being of humanity, endophytic fungi, such as Lasiodiplodia, are promising sources of new substances to be used in chemical, pharmaceutical and agrochemical processes. Bioactive secondary metabolites are examples of such substances, although it is widely known that Lasiodiplodia inflicts irreparable damage to several crops of major economic importance. They are often produced as a response against biotic and abiotic factors, thus revealing that they play different roles, such as in signaling and defense mechanisms. Therefore, this review presents a few subtle differences between pathogenicity and mutualistic endophyte-host interactions. Moreover, the main secondary metabolites produced by Lasiodiplodia endophytes have been described with respect to their relevant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Patologia Vegetal , Simbiose
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(10): 180, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562178

RESUMO

Agricultural production is one of most important activities for food supply and demand, that provides a source of raw materials, and generates commercial opportunities for other industries around the world. It may be both positively and negatively affected by climatic and biological factors. Negative biological factors are those caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Given the serious problems posed by phytoparasitic nematodes for farmers, causing crop losses globally every year, the agrochemical industry has developed compounds with the capacity to inhibit their development; however, they can cause the death of other beneficial organisms and their lixiviation can contaminate the water table. On the other hand, the positive biological factors are found in biotechnology, the scientific discipline that develops products, such as nematophagous fungi (of which Purpureocillium lilacinum and Pochonia chlamydosporia have the greatest potential), for the control of pests and/or diseases. The present review focuses on the importance of nematophagous fungi, particularly sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, their research on the development of biological control agents, the mass production of fungi Purpureocillium lilacinum and Pochonia chlamydosporia, and their limited commercialization due to the lack of rigorous methods that enable the anticipation of complex interactions between plant and phytopathogenic agents.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fungos , Nematoides/microbiologia , Patologia Vegetal , Animais , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/patogenicidade , Hypocreales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hypocreales/patogenicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas/parasitologia
9.
Annu Rev Virol ; 8(1): 23-50, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255543

RESUMO

At the time I entered college and for a few years afterward, I had very few concrete goals. Hence, my progress was more a matter of luck than planning and was somewhat analogous to a small wood chip floating down a slow stream, bumping into various objects tossed and turned hither and thither, all the while being surrounded by larger and more appealing chips. I have been extremely lucky to have been associated with numerous helpful and knowledgeable mentors, colleagues, postdocs, students, and coworkers whose advice had major impacts on my life. Therefore, throughout this article, I have attempted to acknowledge central individuals who contributed to my progress in academia and to highlight the positive bumps to my chip on the steam that affected the directions of my career.


Assuntos
Patologia Vegetal , Humanos , Rios
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(5)2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787847

RESUMO

With the increasing volume of high-throughput sequencing data from a variety of omics techniques in the field of plant-pathogen interactions, sorting, retrieving, processing and visualizing biological information have become a great challenge. Within the explosion of data, machine learning offers powerful tools to process these complex omics data by various algorithms, such as Bayesian reasoning, support vector machine and random forest. Here, we introduce the basic frameworks of machine learning in dissecting plant-pathogen interactions and discuss the applications and advances of machine learning in plant-pathogen interactions from molecular to network biology, including the prediction of pathogen effectors, plant disease resistance protein monitoring and the discovery of protein-protein networks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of advances in plant defense and pathogen infection and to indicate the important developments of machine learning in phytopathology.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Patologia Vegetal/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantas/genética , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/estatística & dados numéricos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Teorema de Bayes , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/genética , Proteínas NLR/imunologia , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/química , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Plantas/imunologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/virologia , /imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
12.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525648

RESUMO

Plant diseases have been threatening food production. Controlling plant pathogens has become an important strategy to ensure food security. Although chemical control is an effective disease control strategy, its application is limited by many problems, such as environmental impact and pathogen resistance. In order to overcome these problems, it is necessary to develop more chemical reagents with new functional mechanisms. Due to their special living environment, marine organisms have produced a variety of bioactive compounds with novel structures, which have the potential to develop new fungicides. In the past two decades, screening marine bioactive compounds to inhibit plant pathogens has been a hot topic. In this review, we summarize the screening methods of marine active substances from plant pathogens, the identification of marine active substances from different sources, and the structure and antibacterial mechanism of marine active natural products. Finally, the application prospect of marine bioactive substances in plant disease control was prospected.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Patologia Vegetal
13.
Phytopathology ; 111(7): 1080-1090, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356427

RESUMO

New tools and advanced technologies have played key roles in facilitating basic research in plant pathology and practical approaches for disease management and crop health. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for genome editing and other molecular applications. This review aims to introduce and highlight the CRISPR/Cas toolkit and its current and future impact on plant pathology and disease management. We will cover the rapidly expanding horizon of various CRISPR/Cas applications in the basic study of plant-pathogen interactions, genome engineering of plant disease resistance, and molecular diagnosis of diverse pathogens. Using the citrus greening disease as an example, various CRISPR/Cas-enabled strategies are presented to precisely edit the host genome for disease resistance, to rapidly detect the pathogen for disease management, and to potentially use gene drive for insect population control. At the cutting edge of nucleic acid manipulation and detection, the CRISPR/Cas toolkit will accelerate plant breeding and reshape crop production and disease management as we face the challenges of 21st century agriculture.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Patologia Vegetal , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Gerenciamento Clínico , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas
14.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238421

RESUMO

Over a hundred years of research on plant viruses has led to a detailed understanding of viral replication, movement, and host-virus interactions. The functions of vast viral genes have also been annotated. With an increased understanding of plant viruses and plant-virus interactions, various viruses have been developed as vectors to modulate gene expressions for functional studies as well as for fulfilling the needs in biotechnology. These approaches are invaluable not only for molecular breeding and functional genomics studies related to pivotal agronomic traits, but also for the production of vaccines and health-promoting carotenoids. This review summarizes the latest progress in these forefronts as well as the available viral vectors for economically important crops and beyond.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Plantas/virologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Edição de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Patologia Vegetal , Plantas/genética , Vacinas
15.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092281

RESUMO

Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged viruses are basic research tools widely applied in studies concerning molecular determinants of disease during virus infection. Here, we described a new generation of genetically stable infectious clones of tomato torrado virus isolate Kra (ToTVpJL-Kra) that could infect Nicotiana benthamiana and Solanum lycopersicum. Importantly, a modified variant of the viral RNA2-with inserted sGFP (forming, together with virus RNA1, into ToTVpJL-KraGFP)-was engineered as well. RNA2 of ToTVpJL-KraGFP was modified by introducing an additional open reading frame (ORF) of sGFP flanked with an amino acid-coding sequence corresponding to the putative virus protease recognition site. Our further analysis revealed that sGFP-tagged ToTV-Kra was successfully passaged by mechanical inoculation and spread systemically in plants. Therefore, the clone might be applied in studying the in vivo cellular, tissue, and organ-level localization of ToTV during infection. By performing whole-plant imaging, followed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy, the presence of the ToTVpJL-KraGFP-derived fluorescence signal was confirmed in infected plants. All this information was verified by sGFP-specific immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis. The molecular biology of the torradovirus-plant interaction is still poorly characterized; therefore, the results obtained here opened up new possibilities for further research. The application of sGFP-tagged virus infectious clones and their development method can be used for analyzing plant-virus interactions in a wide context of plant pathology.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Vírus de Plantas/metabolismo , Secoviridae/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Patologia Vegetal/instrumentação
16.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(3)2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029995

RESUMO

The present study investigated the morphology of fresh and brine-cured table olives (TOs) as well as the changes that occur when drupes are attacked by the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae. Morphological analyses were performed using light microscopy (LM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS). The LM analysis was carried out with visible light to evaluate sections stained with either PAS or Azan mixtures as well as unstained sections observed at fluorescence microscopy. The results of the analyses showed that: i) Azan and PAS staining played a useful complementary role, increasing the information provided by the histological analysis. Indeed, in both fresh and brine-cured TOs, epidermal layers and mesocarpal cells were clearly revealed, including sclereid cells. The histological analysis allowed also to identifying the presence of secoiridoid-biophenols (seco-BPs) in both cell walls and vacuoles, as well as in the drupe regions that had been attacked by fruit flies, where they were found at higher concentrations; ii) in fresh and brine-cured olives, the excitation at 480 nm revealed the distribution of the fluorophores, among which the seco-BP are enclosed; iii) the ESEM-EDS analysis revealed the natural morphology of fresh olives, including the dimensions of their cell layers and the size and depth of the mechanical barriers of suberized or necrotic cells around the larva holes. In addition, the elemental composition of regions of interest of the drupe was determined in fresh and brine-cured TOs. The results highlighted the effectiveness of combined use of LM and ESEM-EDS in order to obtain a picture, as complete as possible, of the structural morphology of TOs. Such analytical combined approach can be used to support multidisciplinary studies aimed at the selection of new cultivars more resistant to fly attack.


Assuntos
Larva/patogenicidade , Olea/citologia , Olea/parasitologia , Tephritidae/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções/parasitologia , Infecções/patologia , Iridoides/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Olea/química , Fenóis/análise , Patologia Vegetal , Sais/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897822

RESUMO

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS: is the main aflatoxin producer in food and feed and has wide ecological niches. Contamination of food products such as pistachio nuts and aflatoxin secretion directly affects food safety and international food product trades. Abilities of 13 yeast strains isolated from 200 soil and pistachio nut samples collected in Iranian orchards to reduce the growth of A. flavus as well as aflatoxin production were assessed in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile compounds tests. The growth of A. flavus was reduced by 32-60%, 13-31% and 40-61% in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile compounds, respectively, while aflatoxin B1 production was diminished by 90.6-98.3%. Based on these assays, five yeast strains were selected for co-inoculation experiments using soil, pistachio hulls and leaf. A significant reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) ranging from 23% to 110% (p < .05) was observed. Molecular, physiological and morphological identification revealed these were strains of Pichia kudriavzevii and Lachansea thermotolerans. Aflatoxin biocontrol with yeast strains possesses many advantages including the ease of commercial production and organic application which is an environmental approach. More investigation is required to understand the efficiency of selective strains to inhibit A. flavus and aflatoxin production as well as withstand predominant abiotic stress in pistachio orchards and mass production in field application.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Pistacia/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Irã (Geográfico) , Nozes/microbiologia , Pichia/metabolismo , Patologia Vegetal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
18.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2391-2397, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689885

RESUMO

Chinese mesona (Platostoma palustre) plays an important role as special crop in Southeast Asia and Taiwan for the production of herbal tea, grass jelly, and further processed food. In order to assess the potential threat of fungi to Chinese mesona, we surveyed isolates from symptomless plants in the area of mesona production, as well as from leaf spots of potted plants in a garden shop and a plantation in a botanical garden in Taiwan. From leaves, stems, and roots of 15 symptomless plants sampled at five collection events over two years, 154 isolates from 810 surface-sterilized plant fragments were obtained and identified based on DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region, and partially of the ß-tubulin and histone H3 genes. The most common species belonged to the genera Cercospora, Colletotrichum, and Fusarium and were considered to be potential plant pathogens. Latent pathogenicity was confirmed by an infection experiment with an endophytic strain of Corynespora cassiicola. Observation of leaf spot disease associated with Cercospora kikuchii suggested pathogenicity of this fungus, which was also isolated as an endophyte from symptomless leaves. We hypothesize that the most common endophytic fungi are latent pathogens in the host and may cause plant disease when the host becomes weakened by senescence or changed cultivation condition. Leaf spots of plants in the botanical garden were associated with a species of Pseudocercospora, which was not found among the endophytic isolates and is newly described based on morphology and analysis of translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Lamiaceae , Patologia Vegetal , Endófitos , Taiwan
19.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 58: 161-180, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543952

RESUMO

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can be an effective and advantageous way to accomplish extension and outreach objectives in plant pathology. The greatest opportunities for extension-focused PPPs may be in response to large-scale or emerging disease management concerns or in addressing complex issues that impact agriculture, such as climate change, digital technology, and public perception of science. The most fertile ground for forming PPPs is where the needs and strengths of the public and private sectors are complementary. Developing PPPs depends as much on professional relationships as on technical skills or contracts. Defining and making room for the success of all partners, identifying and addressing barriers to success, and earning and maintaining trust are components that contribute to the effectiveness of PPPs. Case studies in plant pathology demonstrate the positive impact PPPs can have on partners and stakeholders and provide guidance on the formation of PPPs in the future.


Assuntos
Patologia Vegetal , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Estados Unidos
20.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 58: 313-341, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511041

RESUMO

Plant pathology must contribute to improving food security in a safe operating space, which is shrinking as a result of declining natural resources, climate change, and the growing world population. This review analyzes the position of plant pathology in a nexus of relationships, which is mapped and where the coupled dynamics of crop growth, disease, and yield losses are modeled. We derive a hierarchy of pathogens, whereby pathogens reducing radiation interception (RI), radiation use efficiency (RUE), and harvest index increasingly impact crop yields in the approximate proportions: 1:4.5:4,700. Since the dawn of agriculture, plant breeding has targeted the harvest index as a main objective for domesticated plants. Surprisingly, the literature suggests that pathogens that reduce yields by directly damaging harvestable plant tissues have received much less attention than those that reduce RI or RUE. Ecological disease management needs to target diverse production situations and therefore must consider variation in attainable yields; this can be achieved through the reengineering of agrosystems to incorporate built-in dynamic diversity of genes, plants, and crop stands.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Patologia Vegetal , Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Abastecimento de Alimentos
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