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1.
Environ Int ; 185: 108563, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women in the Shanghai Birth Cohort (SBC) of China faced dual threats of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure and vitamin D (VD) insufficiency, potentially impacting offspring neurodevelopment. However, little is known about whether maternal VD status modifies PFAS-related neurodevelopment effect. OBJECTIVES: To explore the modifying role of maternal VD status in the effect of prenatal PFAS exposure on childhood neurodevelopment. METHODS: We included 746 mother-child pairs from the SBC. Ten PFAS congeners and VD levels were measured in maternal blood samples collected during the first and second trimester respectively. At 2 years of age, toddlers underwent neurodevelopment assessments using Bayley-III Scales. Multivariate linear, logistic regression, and weighted quantile sum approach were used to estimate associations of Bayley-III scores with individual and mixture PFAS. We stratified participants into VD sufficient and insufficient groups and further balanced PFAS differences between these groups by matching all PFAS levels. We fitted the same statistical models in each VD group before and after matching. RESULTS: Nearly half (46.5 %) of pregnant women were VD insufficient (<30 ng/mL). In the overall population, PFAS exposure was associated with lower language scores and an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay, but higher cognitive scores. However, adverse associations with PFAS were mainly observed in the VD sufficient group, while the VD insufficient group showed positive cognitive score associations. Higher PFAS concentrations were found in the VD sufficient group compared to the VD insufficient group. Post-matching, adverse associations in the VD sufficient group were nullified, whereas in the VD insufficient group, positive associations disappeared and adverse associations becoming more pronounced. CONCLUSION: In this Chinese birth cohort, high prenatal PFAS exposure and low maternal VD levels collectively heighten the risk of adverse childhood neurodevelopment. However, disentangling PFAS and VD interrelationships is crucial to avoid paradoxical findings.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Vitamina D , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Vitaminas , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297631, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn anogenital distance (AGD) has been associated with prenatal exposure of phthalates. The association between prenatal phthalate exposure and sex steroid hormones in newborns is unclear. OBJECT: This study aimed to examine whether cord-blood sex hormone levels were associated with prenatal phthalate exposure and newborn anogenital distance (AGD). METHODS: In the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study, we recruited 1,676 pregnant women in their third trimester in 2012-2015 in Taiwan. We determined 11 urinary phthalate metabolites in pregnant women, three maternal and five cord-blood steroid sex-hormone concentrations. Five hundred and sixty-five mother-infant pairs with sufficient data were included. Trained neonatologists measured 263 newborns' AGD. We examined the associations of prenatal phthalate metabolite levels with AGD and hormones using linear regression models and evaluated correlations between maternal and cord-blood sex hormone levels and AGD. RESULTS: Compared with the male newborns exposed to maternal phthalate metabolites at the first tertile, AGD was -3.75, -3.43, and -3.53 mm shorter among those exposed at the median tertile of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monomethyl phthalate (MMP), respectively. Compared with those who had exposed at the first tertile, cord-blood follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased among male newborns exposed at higher levels of MMP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), MBzP and DEHP, and among female newborns exposed at higher levels of MMP, MBzP and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate. However, we did not observe significant correlations of maternal or cord-blood sex steroid hormones with newborns' AGDs. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in cord-blood sex steroid hormone levels were associated with prenatal phthalate exposures, particularly in male newborns. Women aspiring to be pregnant should be alerted of the need of reducing phthalate exposure.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Lactente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos de Coortes , Taiwan , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos
3.
Se Pu ; 42(2): 164-175, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374597

RESUMO

Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a common liver disease with a prevalence of up to 25%; it not only adversely affects human health but also aggravates the economic burden of society. An increasing number of studies have suggested that the occurrence of chronic noncommunicable diseases is affected by both environmental exposures and genetic factors. Research has also shown that environmental pollution may increase the risk of MAFLD and promote its occurrence and development. However, the relationship between these concepts, as well as the underlying exposure effects and mechanism, remains incompletely understood. Lipidomics, a branch of metabolomics that studies lipid disorders, can help researchers investigate abnormal lipid metabolites in various disease states. Lipidome-exposome wide association studies are a promising paradigm for investigating the health effects of cumulative environmental exposures on biological responses, and could provide new ideas for determining the associations between metabolic and lipid changes and disease risk caused by chemical-pollutant exposure. Hence, in this study, targeted exposomics and nontargeted lipidomics studies based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) were used to characterize exogenous chemical pollutants and endogenous lipid metabolites in the sera of patients with MAFLD and healthy subjects. The results demonstrated that fipronil sulfone, malathion dicarboxylic acid, and monocyclohexyl phthalate may be positively associated with the disease risk of patients diagnosed as simple fatty liver disease (hereafter referred to as MAFLD(0)). Moreover, fipronil sulfone, acesulfame potassium, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), 4-hydroxybenzophenone, and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (DBPOB) may be positively associated with the disease risk of patients diagnosed as fatty liver complicated by single or multiple metabolic disorders. Association analysis was carried out to explore the lipid metabolites induced by chemical residues. Triglyceride (TG) and diglyceride (DG) were significantly increased in MAFLD and MAFLD(0). The numbers of carbons of significantly changed DGs and TGs were mainly in the ranges of 32-40 and 35-60, respectively, and both were mainly characterized by changes in polyunsaturated lipids. Most of the lipid-effect markers were positively correlated with chemical residues and associated with increased disease risk. Our research provides a scientific basis for studies on the association and mechanism between serum chemical-pollutant residues and disease outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Humanos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Lipidômica , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Environ Int ; 185: 108486, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367551

RESUMO

A multimorbidity-focused approach may reflect common etiologic mechanisms and lead to better targeting of etiologic agents for broadly impactful public health interventions. Our aim was to identify clusters of chronic obesity-related, neurodevelopmental, and respiratory outcomes in children, and to examine associations between cluster membership and widely prevalent chemical exposures to demonstrate our epidemiologic approach. Early to middle childhood outcome data collected 2011-2022 for 1092 children were harmonized across the ECHO-PATHWAYS consortium of 3 prospective pregnancy cohorts in six U.S. cities. 15 outcomes included age 4-9 BMI, cognitive and behavioral assessment scores, speech problems, and learning disabilities, asthma, wheeze, and rhinitis. To form generalizable clusters across study sites, we performed k-means clustering on scaled residuals of each variable regressed on study site. Outcomes and demographic variables were summarized between resulting clusters. Logistic weighted quantile sum regressions with permutation test p-values associated odds of cluster membership with a mixture of 15 prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites in full-sample and sex-stratified models. Three clusters emerged, including a healthier Cluster 1 (n = 734) with low morbidity across outcomes; Cluster 2 (n = 192) with low IQ and higher levels of all outcomes, especially 0.4-1.8-standard deviation higher mean neurobehavioral outcomes; and Cluster 3 (n = 179) with the highest asthma (92 %), wheeze (53 %), and rhinitis (57 %) frequencies. We observed a significant positive, male-specific stratified association (odds ratio = 1.6; p = 0.01) between a phthalate mixture with high weights for MEP and MHPP and odds of membership in Cluster 3 versus Cluster 1. These results identified subpopulations of children with co-occurring elevated levels of BMI, neurodevelopmental, and respiratory outcomes that may reflect shared etiologic pathways. The observed association between phthalates and respiratory outcome cluster membership could inform policy efforts towards children with respiratory disease. Similar cluster-based epidemiology may identify environmental factors that impact multi-outcome prevalence and efficiently direct public policy efforts.


Assuntos
Asma , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Rinite , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/urina , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 256: 114321, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244249

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a wide-ranging group of chemicals that have been used in a variety of polymer and surfactant applications. While 3M Cordova, Illinois was not one of 3M's primary manufacturing facilities for the legacy long-chain PFAS (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS), it has been a major manufacturing site for short-chain PFAS (compounds that are or may degrade to PFBS or PFBA). The purpose of this research focused on: 1) an analysis of biomonitoring data of employees and retirees, and 2) an analysis of the cohort mortality of workers from 1970 to 2018. Employees had higher PFBS and PFBA serum concentrations than the retirees, while retirees had higher concentrations for PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS. Compared to the 2017-2018 NHANES data, employees' PFOS and PFHxS concentrations in 2022 were two-fold higher, with PFOA levels comparable. These NHANES data did not include serum PFBS or PFBA. Cross-sectional trends of PFOS and PFOA levels from 1997 to 2022 showed PFOS declined from 151 ng/mL to 10.4 ng/mL. Similarly, PFOA decreased from 100 ng/mL to 1.5 ng/mL. A longitudinal analysis of 48 participants with measurements in both 2006 and 2022 showed concentrations decreased by 74% for PFOS and 90% for PFOA. In the mortality study, 1707 employees who worked 1 day or longer were followed for an average of 25.6 years and had 143 (8%) deaths. There were no significantly elevated risks for any specific cause of death, regardless of latency period (0 or 15 years). While no specific PFAS exposures were examined, worker mortality experience (1970-2018) was analyzed by major departments representing primary work areas. Employees and retirees at the Cordova facility continue to have elevated PFOS and PFHxS serum concentrations compared to the general population, however, their legacy PFAS concentrations have declined over time, consistent with the estimated serum elimination half-lives of these PFAS in humans assuming nominal ambient exposures. For PFBS and PFBA, the results indicated no long-term accumulation in the blood likely due to their short serum elimination half-lives. After nearly 50 years of follow-up, this Cordova workforce showed no increased risk of mortality from cancer or any other specific cause of death.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Indústria Química , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorocarbonos/efeitos adversos , Fluorocarbonos/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Illinois , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 48(2): 131-146, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37907715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are potentially obesogenic for children. We undertook a systematic review to synthesize this literature and explore sources of heterogeneity in previously published epidemiological studies. METHODS: Studies that collected individual-level PFAS and anthropometric data from children up to 12 years of age were identified by searching six databases. We excluded studies that only evaluated obesity measures at the time of birth. A full-text review and quality assessment of the studies was performed using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) criteria. Forest plots were created to summarize measures of association and assess heterogeneity across studies by chemical type and exposure timing. Funnel plots were used to assess small-study effects. RESULTS: We identified 24 studies, of which 19 used a cohort design. There were 13 studies included in the meta-analysis examining various chemicals and outcomes. Overall prenatal exposures to four different types of PFAS were not statistically associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. In contrast, for three chemicals, postnatal exposures were inversely related to changes in BMI (i.e., per log10 increase in PFOS: BMI z-score of -0.16 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.10)). There was no substantial heterogeneity in the reported measures of association within prenatal and postnatal subgroups. We observed modest small-study effects, but correction for these effects using the Trim and Fill method did not change our summary estimate(s). CONCLUSION: Our review found no evidence of a positive association between prenatal PFAS exposure and pediatric obesity, whereas an inverse association was found for postnatal exposure. These findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of studies. Future research that can inform on the effects of exposure mixtures, the timing of the exposure, outcome measures, and the shape of the exposure-response curve is needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Obesidade Pediátrica , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 126: 111293, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056199

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a devastating autoimmune illness resulting from excessive keratinocyte growth and leukocyte infiltration into the dermis/epidermis. In the pathogenesis of psoriasis, different immune cells such as myeloid cells and CD4 + T cells play a key role. Th17/Th1 immune responses and oxidant-antioxidant responses are critical in regulation of psoriatic inflammation. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is one of the well-known plasticizers and has widespread use worldwide. DEHP exposure through ingestion may produce harmful effects on the skin through systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which may modify psoriatic inflammation. However, the effect of oral DEHP exposure on inflammatory cytokines and Nrf2/iNOS signaling in myeloid cells and CD4 + T cells in the context of psoriatic inflammation has not been investigated earlier. Therefore, this study explored the effect of DEHP on systemic inflammation in myeloid cells (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23), Th17 (p-STAT3, IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α), Th1 (IFN-γ), Treg (Foxp3, IL-10), and Nrf2/iNOS signaling in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model of psoriasis-like inflammation. Our study showed increased Th17 signaling in imiquimod model which was further aggravated by DEHP exposure. Further, Nrf2 and iNOS signaling were also elevated in IMQ model where DEHP exposure further increased iNOS expression but did not modify the Nrf2 expression. Most importantly, IL-17A levels were also elevated in myeloid cells along with IL-6 which were further elevated by DEHP exposure. Overall, this study shows that IL-17A signaling is upregulated, whereas there is deficiency of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling by DEHP exposure in mice with psoriasiform inflammation. These observations suggest that DEHP aggravates IL-17A-mediated signaling both in CD4 + T cells as well as myeloid cells which is linked to exacerbation of IMQ-induced psoriatic inflammation in mice. Strategies that counteract the effect of DEHP exposure in the context of psoriatic inflammation through downregulation of IL-17A may be fruitful.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Psoríase , Animais , Camundongos , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Pele/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
9.
Reprod Sci ; 31(1): 99-106, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612521

RESUMO

As a public health problem, premature ovarian insufficiency leads to infertility or sub-fertility. In addition to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) increases the lifetime risk of bone fragility, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive impairment. To investigate the effects of environmental pollutants on the occurrence of POI and explore its mechanism, we conducted a computer search for articles published in electronic databases by December 13, 2022. Three reviewers independently examined all included studies and scored the qualities of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale criteria. In this meta-analysis, eight clinical studies as well as ten preclinical findings showed a pooled OR of 2.331 and 95% CI of 1.968-2.760. This confirms that environmental pollutants, including POPs, heavy metals, PAEs, PAHs, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, and cigarette smoke, are indeed significant risk factors for POI. In addition, it is demonstrated from the results of this study that signaling pathway of calcium and PI3K Akt and Xpnpep2, Col1, Col3, Col4, Cx43, Egr3, Tff1, and Ptgs2 genes may all be involved in the process. Environmental pollutants, including POPs, heavy metals, PAEs, PAHs, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, and cigarette smoke, are indeed significant risk factors for POI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Infertilidade , Menopausa Precoce , Metais Pesados , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Feminino , Humanos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Preparações Farmacêuticas
10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 95(3): 241-248, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37758454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurogenerative disease caused by combined genetic susceptibilities and environmental exposures. Identifying and validating these exposures are of paramount importance to modify disease risk. We previously reported that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) associate with ALS risk and survival and aimed to replicate these findings in a new cohort. METHOD: Participants with and without ALS recruited in Michigan provided plasma samples for POPs analysis by isotope dilution with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. ORs for risk models and hazard ratios for survival models were calculated for individual POPs. POP mixtures were represented by environmental risk scores (ERS), a summation of total exposures, to evaluate the association with risk (ERSrisk) and survival (ERSsurvival). RESULTS: Samples from 164 ALS and 105 control participants were analysed. Several individual POPs significantly associated with ALS, including 8 of 22 polychlorinated biphenyls and 7 of 10 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). ALS risk was most strongly represented by the mixture effects of OCPs alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor and cis-nonachlor and an interquartile increase in ERSrisk enhanced ALS risk 2.58 times (p<0.001). ALS survival was represented by the combined mixture of all POPs and an interquartile increase in ERSsurvival enhanced ALS mortality rate 1.65 times (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These data continue to support POPs as important factors for ALS risk and progression and replicate findings in a new cohort. The assessments of POPs in non-Michigan ALS cohorts are encouraged to better understand the global effect and the need for targeted disease risk reduction strategies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Humanos , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Michigan/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Environ Int ; 180: 108244, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalates are endocrine disrupting chemicals used in everyday consumer products. Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between prenatal phthalate concentration and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in offspring, but the findings have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during pregnancy and ADHD related symptoms in children at 2 to 4 years in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: In the Odense Child Cohort from Denmark were women recruited in early pregnancy from 2010 to 2012. Phthalate concentrations were measured in urine samples collected in 3rd trimester and separated into low and high weight phthalates. Parents filled in the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5 to 5 years (CBCL/1½-5), including a 6-item ADHD symptom scale at children aged 2 to 4 years. Data were analysed by use of adjusted negative binomial regression. RESULTS: A total of 658 mother-child pairs were included. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were generally low compared to previous cohorts. A doubling in maternal concentration of the low-weighted phthalate metabolite MCPP was significantly associated with lower ADHD symptoms score in children (IRR: 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91-0.98)), strongest in girls (IRR: 0.92 (0.87-0.98)). Sex differences were observed. High maternal phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with lower ADHD symptom score in girls, significant trends across tertile of MCPP and MnBP (p = 0.018, p = 0.038, respectively). In boys, maternal concentrations of high-molecular-weight phthalates (MBzP, ∑DiNP and ∑DEHP) were associated with an almost significantly higher ADHD symptom score (IRR for a doubling in concentration: 1.04 (95 % CI: 0.99-1.10), IRR: 1.05 (95 % CI: 0.97-1.13), IRR: 1.04 (95 % CI: 0.99-1.10), respectively). CONCLUSION: Maternal concentration of the low-weighted phthalate metabolite MCPP was significantly associated with a lower ADHD symptom score in children, strongest in girls. Maternal concentrations of high-molecular-weight phthalates were associated with non-significant increase in ADHD symptom score in boys.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Sobrepeso , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina
12.
Environ Int ; 181: 108264, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864903

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) in animal and human studies, but prospective data from children are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between prenatal and early postnatal PFAS exposure and BMD at age 7 years. METHODS: In the Odense Child Cohort, Denmark, pregnant women were recruited in 2010-2012, and their children were invited for subsequent health examinations. At 12 weeks of gestation the pregnant women delivered a serum sample, and at age 18 months serum was obtained from the child to measure perfluorooctane sulfonic acid(PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) by LC-MS/MS. At age 7 years DXA scans were performed to measure bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD Z-score. PFAS in pregnancy (n = 881) and/or at age 18 months (n = 668) were regressed against DXA measurements, adjusted for maternal education, child height Z-score, sex (for BMC) and for postnatal exposure, additionally duration of total breastfeeding. We additionally performed structural equation models determining combined effects of pre-and postnatal PFAS exposures. RESULTS: Higher prenatal and early postnatal serum concentrations of all measured PFAS were associated with lower BMC and BMD Z-scores at age 7 years, all estimates were negative although not all significant. For each doubling of 18-month exposure to PFNA or PFOS, BMD Z-scores were lowered by -0.10 (95 % CI -0.19;-0.00) and -0.08 (-0.17;-0.00), respectively after adjustment. Pre- and postnatal PFAS were correlated, but structural equation models suggested that associations with BMD were stronger for 18-month than prenatal PFAS exposure. DISCUSSION: Bone density is established in childhood, and a reduction in BMD during early childhood may have long-term implication for peak bone mass and lifelong bone health. Future studies of the impact of PFAS exposure on fracture incidence will help elucidate the clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gravidez , Lactente , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Prospectivos , Cromatografia Líquida , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade
13.
Ann Ig ; 35(6): 660-669, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37796470

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the correlation between the exposure to environmental and/or occupational pollutants and possible alteration of semen quality, focalizing the attention on the studies performed using a biomonitoring approach. Methods: The review was conducted from inception to May 11 2023, according to the PRISMA Statement 2020 and using the following databases: Scopus, Pubmed and Web of Science. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42023405607). Studies were considered eligible if they reported data about the association between exposure to environmental pollutants and alteration of semen quality using human biomonitoring. The quality assessment was carried out by the use of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Results: In total, 21 articles were included, conducted in several countries. The main matrices used for biomonitoring were urine and blood and the most sought-after contaminants were bisphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other inorganic trace elements. The results of the studies demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the increase of the pollutants' levels in the biological matrices examined and some alterations of the semen quality indicators, such as a decrease in motility, concentration and morphology of the spermatozoa. Conclusions: Male fertility can be negatively affected by the exposure to environmental and/or occupational pollutants. Human biomonitoring programs may be considered a useful tool for specific surveillance programs devoted to early highlight subjects who are more exposed to environmental pollutants in order to reduce risk exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Masculino , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Análise do Sêmen , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sêmen/química , Espermatozoides/química , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
15.
Environ Health ; 22(1): 56, 2023 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37580798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent organic pollutants and suspected endocrine disruptors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarise the associations between prenatal or childhood exposure to PFASs and childhood overweight/obesity. METHODS: The search was performed on the bibliographic databases PubMed and Embase with text strings containing terms related to prenatal, breastfeeding, childhood, overweight, obesity, and PFASs. Only papers describing a biomonitoring study in pregnant women or in children up to 18 years that assessed body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or fat mass in children were included. When the estimates of the association between a PFAS and an outcome were reported from at least 3 studies, a meta-analysis was conducted; moreover, to correctly compare the studies, we developed a method to convert the different effect estimates and made them comparable each other. Meta-analyses were performed also stratifying by sex and age, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. RESULTS: In total, 484 and 779 articles were retrieved from PubMed and Embase, respectively, resulting in a total of 826 articles after merging duplicates. The papers included in this systematic review were 49: 26 evaluating prenatal exposure to PFASs, 17 childhood exposure, and 6 both. Considering a qualitative evaluation, results were conflicting, with positive, negative, and null associations. 30 papers were included in meta-analyses (19 prenatal, 7 children, and 4 both). Positive associations were evidenced between prenatal PFNA and BMI, between PFOA and BMI in children who were more than 3 years, and between prenatal PFNA and WC. Negative associations were found between prenatal PFOS and BMI in children who were 3 or less years, and between PFHxS and risk of overweight. Relatively more consistent negative associations were evidenced between childhood exposure to three PFASs (PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA) and BMI, in particular PFOS in boys. However, heterogeneity among studies was high. CONCLUSION: Even though heterogeneous across studies, the pooled evidence suggests possible associations, mostly positive, between prenatal exposure to some PFASs and childhood BMI/WC; and relatively stronger evidence for negative associations between childhood exposure to PFASs and childhood BMI.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Obesidade Pediátrica , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Masculino , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Sobrepeso , Fluorocarbonos/efeitos adversos
16.
Neurotoxicology ; 98: 39-47, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37536470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates, found in our daily environment, are nowadays suggested to be associated with adverse outcomes. Prenatal exposure was found associated with neurodevelopmental complications such as behavioral difficulties in school age children. AIM: To explore the association between intrauterine exposure to phthalates and emotional/behavioral development of 24 months old toddlers. METHODS: Women were recruited at 11-18 weeks of gestation and provided spot urine samples, analyzed for phthalate metabolites (DEHP, DiNP, MBzBP). Offspring were examined at 24 months of age, using standard maternal report, regarding developmental and behavioral problems (CBCL, ASQ-3, HOME questionnaires) (N = 158). To explore the associations between metabolite levels and developmental outcomes, multivariate GLM analysis (General Linear Model) was used according to tertiles and developmental scores on each developmental outcome. RESULTS: Associations of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) maternal exposure with behavioral-developmental outcomes were found only in boys. Compared with boys with lower DEHP maternal exposure, boys with high DEHP maternal exposure had lower developmental score in personal social abilities in the ASQ-3 questionnaire (50.68 + 8.06 and 44.14 + 11.02, high and low DEHP, respectively, p = 0.03), and more internalizing problems (for example, emotionally reactive score in high and low DEHP: 53.77 + 7.41 and 50.50 + 1.19, respectively, p = 0.029; anxious or depressed score: 53.38 + 5.01 and 50.75 + 1.34, respectively, p = 0.009; and somatic complaints scores 64.03 + 10.1 and 55.84 + 7.84, respectively, p = 0.003), and externalizing problems (49.28 + 8.59 and 43.33 + 9.11, respectively, p = 0.039). No differences were found in the development and behavior problems between high and low DEHP maternal exposure level in girls. CONCLUSION: Maternal DEHP metabolite concentrations measured in first trimester urine was associated with children's emotional/behavioral developmental problems in 24-months old boys, supporting accumulating evidence of DEHP as a potentially harming chemical and call for environmental attention.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Masculino , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Exposição Ambiental
17.
Sleep Med Rev ; 70: 101805, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37392613

RESUMO

Environmental exposures may influence sleep; however, the contributions of environmental chemical pollutants to sleep health have not been systematically investigated. We conducted a systematic review to identify, evaluate, summarize, and synthesize the existing evidence between chemical pollutants (air pollution, exposures related to the Gulf War and other conflicts, endocrine disruptors, metals, pesticides, solvents) and dimensions of sleep health (architecture, duration, quality, timing) and disorders (sleeping pill use, insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing)). Of the 204 included studies, results were mixed; however, the synthesized evidence suggested associations between particulate matter, exposures related to the Gulf War, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, and pesticide exposure with worse sleep quality; exposures related to the Gulf War, aluminum, and mercury with insomnia and impaired sleep maintenance; and associations between tobacco smoke exposure with insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing, particularly in pediatric populations. Possible mechanisms relate to cholinergic signaling, neurotransmission, and inflammation. Chemical pollutants are likely key determinants of sleep health and disorders. Future studies should aim to evaluate environmental exposures on sleep across the lifespan, with a particular focus on developmental windows and biological mechanisms, as well as in historically marginalized or excluded populations.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Criança , Humanos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Sono
18.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1098683, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37404817

RESUMO

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease and closely associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Volatile organic chemicals (VOC), a common environment pollutant, was associated with some autoimmune diseases, while whether VOC exposure or which VOC leads to RA is yet clarified. Methods: A cross-sectional study using data from the 6 survey cycles (2005-2006, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, 2015-2016, 2017-2018, 2017-2020) of NHANES program was performed. The RA or non-arthritis status of participant was identified through a questionnaire survey. The quantile logistic regression method was used for correlation analysis between VOC metabolites (VOCs) in urine and RA. The covariates included age, gender, race, educational level, marital status, total energy intake, physical activity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, urine creatinine, albumin and marihuana use. Results: A total of 9536 participants (aged 20 to 85) with 15 VOCs, comprising 618 RA and 8918 non-arthritis participants, was finally included for analysis. Participants in the RA group showed higher VOCs in urine than that in the non-arthritis group. A positive association between 2 VOCs (AMCC: Q4: OR=2.173, 95%CI: 1.021, 4.627. 3HPMA: Q2: OR=2.286, 95%CI: 1.207 - 4.330; Q4: OR=2.663, 95%CI: 1.288 -5.508.) and RA was detected in the model 3, which was independent of all the covariates. The relative parent compounds of the two VOCs included N,N-Dimethylformamide and acrolein. Discussion: These findings suggested that the VOC exposure significantly associated with RA, providing newly epidemiological evidence for the establishment that environmental pollutants associated with RA. And also, more prospective studies and related experimental studies are needed to further validate the conclusions of this study.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Poluentes Ambientais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos
19.
Environ Int ; 178: 108101, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37487376

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to complex mixtures of phthalates. Gestational exposure to phthalates has been linked to preeclampsia and preterm birth through potential pathways such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Eicosanoids are bioactive signaling lipids that are related to a variety of homeostatic and inflammatory processes. We investigated associations between urinary phthalates and their mixtures with plasma eicosanoid levels during pregnancy using the PROTECT cohort in Puerto Rico (N = 655). After adjusting for covariates, we estimated pair-wise associations between the geometric mean of individual phthalate metabolite concentrations across pregnancy and eicosanoid biomarkers using multivariable linear regression. We used bootstrapping of adaptive elastic net regression (adENET) to evaluate phthalate mixtures associated with eicosanoids and subsequently create environmental risk scores (ERS) to represent weighted sums of phthalate exposure for each individual. After adjusting for false-discovery, in single-pollutant analysis, 14 of 20 phthalate metabolites or parent compound indices showed significant and primarily negative associations with multiple eicosanoids. In our mixture analysis, associations with several metabolites of low molecular weight phthalates - DEP, DBP, and DIBP - became prominent. Additionally, MEHHTP and MECPTP, metabolites of a new phthalate replacement, DEHTP, were selected as important predictors for determining the concentrations of multiple eicosanoids from different pathway groups. A unit increase in phthalate ERS derived from bootstrapping of adENET was positively associated with several eicosanoids mainly from Cytochrome P450 pathway. For example, an increase in ERS was associated with 11(S)-HETE (ß = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.020, 3.180), (±)11,12-DHET (ß = 2.045, 95% CI: 0.250, 3.840), 20(S)-HETE (ß = 0.813, 95% CI: 0.147, 1.479), and 9 s-HODE (ß = 2.381, 95% CI: 0.657, 4.104). Gestational exposure to phthalates and phthalate mixtures were associated with eicosanoid levels during pregnancy. Results from the mixture analyses underscore the complexity of physiological impacts of phthalate exposure and call for further in-depth studies to examine these relationships.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos , Exposição Ambiental
20.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 33(5): 699-709, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37481638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised whether exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter reproductive functions and play a role in the aetiology of infertility in women. With increasing evidence of adverse effects, information on factors associated with exposure is necessary to form firm recommendations aiming at reducing exposure. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify associations between lifestyle factors including the home environment, use of personal care products (PCP), and dietary habits and concentrations of EDCs in ovarian follicular fluid. METHODS: April-June 2016, 185 women undergoing ovum pick-up for in vitro fertilisation in Sweden were recruited. Correlation analyses were performed between self-reported lifestyle factors and concentration of EDCs analysed in follicular fluid. Habits related to cleaning, PCPs, and diet were assessed together with concentration of six per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) [PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA], methyl paraben and eight phthalate metabolites [MECPP, MEHPP, MEOHP, MEHP, cxMinCH, cxMiNP, ohMiNP, MEP, MOHiBP]. Spearman's partial correlations were adjusted for age, parity and BMI. RESULTS: Significant associations were discovered between multiple lifestyle factors and concentrations of EDCs in ovarian follicular fluid. After correcting p values for multiple testing, frequent use of perfume was associated with MEP (correlation ρ = 0.41 (confidence interval 0.21-0.47), p < 0.001); hens' egg consumption was positively associated with PFOS (ρ = 0.30 (0.15-0.43), p = 0.007) and PFUnDA (ρ = 0.27 (0.12-0.40), p = 0.036). White fish consumption was positively associated with PFUnDA (ρ = 0.34 (0.20-0.47), p < 0.001) and PFDA (ρ = 0.27 (0.13-0.41), p = 0.028). More correlations were discovered when considering the raw uncorrected p values. Altogether, our results suggest that multiple lifestyle variables affect chemical contamination of follicular fluid. IMPACT STATEMENT: This study shows how lifestyle factors correlate with the level of contamination in the ovary by both persistent and semi-persistent chemicals in women of reproductive age. Subsequently, these data can be used to form recommendations regarding lifestyle to mitigate possible negative health outcomes and fertility problems associated with chemical exposure, and to inform chemical policy decision making. Our study can also help form the basis for the design of larger observational and intervention studies to examine possible effects of lifestyle changes on exposure levels, and to unravel the complex interactions between biological factors, lifestyle and chemical exposures in more detail.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Líquido Folicular/química , Parabenos/efeitos adversos , Parabenos/análise , Galinhas , Fluorocarbonos/efeitos adversos , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Estilo de Vida
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