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1.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125030, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606000

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes in different regions, although few studies from China have been published. We aimed to investigate the associations between POP exposure and type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. A total of 158 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 158 participants without the disorder from Shandong Province were enrolled in this case-control study during 2016-2017. Nine polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers with detectable levels in ≥75% of the participants were selected for data analysis. The results showed that POP exposure was significantly and positively associated with the risk of diabetes after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, triglycerides and total cholesterol. However, we did not observe an obvious modified effect of adiposity on the associations between POP exposure and diabetes in the present study, as strong associations between POPs and diabetes were observed in both the higher-BMI (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and the lower-BMI (BMI<25 kg/m2) groups. POPs showed stronger associations with diabetes in males than in females. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile of ∑POPs was 6.97 for males, nearly two times higher than that for females (OR = 3.58). All these findings suggest that POP exposure may impact the risk of diabetes in Chinese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Razão de Chances , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 657-663, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892691

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to environmental chemicals with hormonal properties, also called endocrine disrupting chemicals, may be involved in the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). Such exposure may also influence the treatment outcome as it is still present at the time of diagnosis, the beginning of therapy, and beyond. We followed 326 men in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment of localized PCa. We analyzed the relationship between exposure to the estrogenic chlordecone, the antiandrogenic dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, the main metabolite of the insecticide DDT), and the nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) with mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties and the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after surgery. After a median follow-up of 6.1 years after surgery, we found a significant increase in the risk of BCR, with increasing plasma chlordecone concentration (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.39-4.56 for the highest vs. lowest quartile of exposure; p trend = 0.002). We found no associations for DDE or PCB-135. These results shown that exposure to environmental estrogens may negatively influence the outcome of PCa treatment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Clordecona/efeitos adversos , Clordecona/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Seguimentos , Guadalupe , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/sangue , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 839-849, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001807

RESUMO

Specific organochlorines (OCs) have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with varying degrees of evidence. These associations have not been evaluated in Asia, where the high exposure and historical environmental contamination of certain OC pesticides (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH]) are different from Western populations. We evaluated NHL risk and prediagnostic blood levels of OC pesticides/metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in a case-control study of 167 NHL cases and 167 controls nested within three prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze lipid-adjusted OC levels and NHL risk. Median levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the primary DDT metabolite, and ß-HCH were up to 12 and 65 times higher, respectively, in samples from the Asian cohorts compared to several cohorts in the United States and Norway. An increased risk of NHL was observed among those with higher ß-HCH levels both overall (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.0-3.2; ptrend = 0.049) and after excluding cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.1-3.9; ptrend = 0.03), and the association was highly consistent across the three cohorts. No significant associations were observed for other OCs, including p,p'-DDE. Our findings provide support for an association between ß-HCH blood levels and NHL risk. This is a concern because substantial quantities of persistent, toxic residues of HCH are present in the environment worldwide. Although there is some evidence that DDT is associated with NHL, our findings for p,p'-DDE do not support an association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
6.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(6): 909-916, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535774

RESUMO

Alternatives assessment is gaining traction as a systematic method to support the informed substitution of chemicals of concern. The 2nd International Symposium on Alternatives Assessment, on 1-2 November 2018, convened nearly 150 professionals from government agencies, industry, consultant firms, academia, and advocacy organizations to advance a greater understanding of the evolving methods, practices, and challenges in the use of alternatives assessment. This article reviews highlights and lessons from the symposium, including 1) notable advances in methods, 2) shared insights from practitioners on best practices as well as inherent tensions and challenges, and 3) research and practice needs in the field that can be addressed by organizations such as the newly launched Association for the Advancement of Alternatives Assessment. Being interdisciplinary in nature, the establishment of educational frameworks across disciplines and inclusion of diverse expertise in hazard and exposure assessments, life cycle impacts considerations, design principles, and economic and engineering evaluations will ensure continued growth of the field. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:1-8. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos
7.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(3): 293-301, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494642

RESUMO

Introduction Community resilience, the ability of a community to respond positively to adverse situations, is an increasingly important topic in public health. Many resilience frameworks are grounded in concepts initially developed by ecologists to describe and explain the capacity of complex systems, such as a community, to persist or return to its original state following disturbances. As a result, much of the research on resilience is concerned with maintaining systems in their current form, preventing degradation, or promoting recovery. However, for a system that is stuck in a trap, or an unfavorable state, deliberate efforts to build the components that contribute to resilience, called adaptive capacities, may enable that system to reorganize after a disturbance to reach a more favorable state. Objective The purpose of this research was to apply a resilience framework to analyze how the community of St. Gabriel, Louisiana adapted in response to environmental change. Methods We used qualitative case-study methodologies to systematically collect newspaper articles, which served as primary data sources to examine how resilience and adaptive capacity evolved in the community of St. Gabriel, Louisiana. Results Key events in the recent history of St. Gabriel include industrial development, growing concern about environmental health and pollution, the environmental justice (EJ) movement, and the incorporation of the community as a self-governing municipality. Two events, the community's organized resistance to a large hazardous waste facility and the change in government structure, represent critical transformations, or fundamental changes in how the community functions. Conclusion The incorporation of St. Gabriel gave community members more input in planning and development decisions. As a result, the community has taken steps to improve public health in the form of zoning ordinances to prevent new exposure risks and building community infrastructure, such as a new sewer system and a recreation center.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Locais de Resíduos Perigosos , Humanos , Louisiana , Saúde Pública
8.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(3): 235-244, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473690

RESUMO

The presence of legacy pollutants, on-going chemical manufacturing activities, and population shifts have introduced complex, cumulative exposure risks to residents of many highly industrialized communities. These "industrial corridors" present unique challenges to environmental health science professionals, public and private sector decision makers, and residents seeking to make their communities safer and healthier. Social-ecological resilience theory offers a useful framework for the design and implementation of community engagement efforts to help stakeholders take action to reduce their exposure risks. A resilience framework views the human community as a coupled social-ecological system, wherein disturbances to the equilibrium of the system - acute and/or chronic - are common rather than rare events. It recognizes three key capacities of more resilient communities. These are the abilities of community members to self-organize to address changing threat levels, to hold scientifically sound understandings of the risks, and to learn from past experiences and take action - individually or collectively - to adapt to or mitigate the hazards in their local environment. We apply this resilience theory framework to a case study from Camp Minden, Louisiana, conducted through the Louisiana State University (LSU) Superfund Research Center's Community Engagement program and supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The case illuminates a critical path by which resilience theory can be applied to guide bi-directional communication and information-gathering, and co-development of risk-reducing strategies at the community level. These are central elements of community engagement within a contentious, real-world setting. The three components of the resilience framework were supported by specific program mechanisms and activities. The capacity for self-organization among community stakeholders was furthered through the convening of a Dialogue Committee which brought together representatives of concerned residents, regulatory agencies, research scientists, and others. This collaborative problem-solving approach supported a more holistic and scientifically sound understanding of the problem through a series of interactive meetings in which members discussed site-remediation options with thermal-treatment experts and regulators, and shared how recent explosions and concerns about air quality affected them. The members co-developed selection criteria and reached consensus on two types of disposal methods that would best reduce the significant threats to public health and the local environment. We also include a brief summary of our recent randomized survey of over 550 residents of Louisiana's industrialized communities to determine the influences on household-level adaptive behaviors to reduce acute and chronic environmental exposure risks. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicate that residents with more concern and knowledge about environmental hazards, along with confidence in their ability to implement risk-reduction measures - such as checking air-quality forecasts and then limiting outside activities - were much more likely to adopt the exposure-reducing behaviors, even when controlling for socioeconomic and demographic differences among respondents. These findings shed light on the conditions under which residents of these types of communities may be more likely to take action to reduce potential environmental exposure risks, and may help in the design of public education efforts. These "lessons learned" from Louisiana communities facing cumulative environmental exposure risks suggest that application of resilience theory to the design and implementation of community engagement programs may support the longer-term effectiveness of the efforts and enhance overall environmental health resilience. In addition, they provide practical insights about how to operationalize and apply these theoretical concepts to real-world environmental health challenges faced by residents of industrialized communities throughout the world.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Locais de Resíduos Perigosos , Humanos , Louisiana
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 41-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471794

RESUMO

Wildlife is exposed to a diverse range of natural and man-made chemicals. Some environmental chemicals possess specific endocrine disrupting properties, which have the potential to disrupt reproductive and developmental process in certain animals. There is growing evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a key role in reproductive disorders in fish, amphibians, mammals, reptiles and invertebrates. This evidence comes from field-based observations and laboratory based exposure studies, which provide substantial evidence that environmental chemicals can cause adverse effects at environmentally relevant doses. There is particular concern about wildlife exposures to cocktails of biologically active chemicals, which combined with other stressors, may play an even greater role in reproductive disorders than can be reproduced in laboratory experiments. Regulation of chemicals affords some protection to animals of the adverse effects of exposure to legacy chemicals but there continues to be considerable debate on the regulation of emerging pollutants.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Reprodução , Animais
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416231

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are common pollutants in the environment and can induce disruption of the endocrine and immune systems. The present study evaluated the effects of selected common environmental EDCs on secretion of inflammatory biomarkers by RAW264.7 cells. The EDCs investigated were Estradiol (E2), 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and Bisphenol A (BPA). To evaluate if the effects caused by EDCs were modulated by steroid hormone receptors, antagonists of estrogen and androgen receptors were used. The steroid receptor antagonists used were Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor antagonist, and Flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist. Secretion of biomarkers of inflammation, namely nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were monitored. The NO was determined using Griess reaction and IL-6 was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Although 5 µg/mL E2, DHT, and BPA were not toxic to RAW264.7 cell cultures, the same treatments significantly (p < 0.001) reduced both NO and IL-6 secretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cell cultures. The suppression of NO and IL-6 secretion indicate inhibition of inflammation by DHT, E2, and BPA. The inhibitory effects of DHT, E2 and BPA are partially mediated via their cellular receptors, because the effects were reversed by their respective receptor antagonists. Flutamide reversed the effects of DHT, while Tamoxifen reversed the effects of E2 and BPA. In conclusion, E2, BPA, and DHT inhibit the synthesis of inflammation biomarkers by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effects of EDCs can be partially reversed by the addition of an estrogen receptor antagonist for E2 and BPA, and an androgenic receptor antagonist for DHT. The inhibition of inflammatory response in stimulated RAW264.7 cells may be a useful bioassay model for monitoring estrogenic and androgenic pollutants.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Camundongos
11.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(3): 101300, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401055

RESUMO

The onset of puberty strongly depends on organizational processes taking place during the fetal and early postnatal life. Therefore, exposure to environmental pollutants such as Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during critical periods of development can result in delayed/advanced puberty and long-term reproductive consequences. Human evidence of altered pubertal timing after exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals is equivocal. However, the age distribution of pubertal signs points to a skewed distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon and suggests environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Rodent and ovine studies indicate a role of fetal and neonatal exposure to EDCs, along the concept of early origin of health and disease. Such effects involve neuroendocrine mechanisms at the level of the hypothalamus where homeostasis of reproduction is programmed and regulated but also peripheral effects at the level of the gonads or the mammary gland.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Puberdade Precoce/epidemiologia
12.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(5): 967-979, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466685

RESUMO

Inner-city children with asthma are known to have high disease mortality and morbidity. Frequently, asthma in this high-risk population is difficult to control and more severe in nature. Several factors, including socioeconomic hardship, ability to access to health care, adherence to medication, exposure to certain allergens, pollution, crowd environment, stress, and infections, play an important role in the pathophysiology of inner-city asthma. Comprehensive control of home allergens and exposure to tobacco smoke, the use of immune based therapies, and school-based asthma programs have shown promising results in asthma control in this population.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Alérgenos/imunologia , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
13.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(6): 917-935, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273905

RESUMO

Environmental challenges persist across the world, including the Australasian region of Oceania, where biodiversity hotspots and unique ecosystems such as the Great Barrier Reef are common. These systems are routinely affected by multiple stressors from anthropogenic activities, and increasingly influenced by global megatrends (e.g., the food-energy-water nexus, demographic transitions to cities) and climate change. Here we report priority research questions from the Global Horizon Scanning Project, which aimed to identify, prioritize, and advance environmental quality research needs from an Australasian perspective, within a global context. We employed a transparent and inclusive process of soliciting key questions from Australasian members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Following submission of 78 questions, 20 priority research questions were identified during an expert workshop in Nelson, New Zealand. These research questions covered a range of issues of global relevance, including research needed to more closely integrate ecotoxicology and ecology for the protection of ecosystems, increase flexibility for prioritizing chemical substances currently in commerce, understand the impacts of complex mixtures and multiple stressors, and define environmental quality and ecosystem integrity of temporary waters. Some questions have specific relevance to Australasia, particularly the uncertainties associated with using toxicity data from exotic species to protect unique indigenous species. Several related priority questions deal with the theme of how widely international ecotoxicological data and databases can be applied to regional ecosystems. Other timely questions, which focus on improving predictive chemistry and toxicology tools and techniques, will be important to answer several of the priority questions identified here. Another important question raised was how to protect local cultural and social values and maintain indigenous engagement during problem formulation and identification of ecosystem protection goals. Addressing these questions will be challenging, but doing so promises to advance environmental sustainability in Oceania and globally.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Australásia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
14.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(6): 895-908, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283083

RESUMO

Chemical hazard assessment (CHA), which aims to investigate the inherent hazard potential of chemicals, has been developed with the purpose of promoting safer consumer products. Despite the increasing use of CHA in recent years, finding adequate and reliable toxicity data required for CHA is still challenging due to issues regarding data completeness and data quality. Also, collecting data from primary toxicity reports or literature can be time consuming, which promotes the use of secondary data sources instead. In this study, we evaluate and characterize numerous secondary data sources on the basis of 5 performance attributes: reliability, adequacy, transparency, volume, and ease of use. We use GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals v1.4 as the CHA framework, which defines the endpoints of interest used in this analysis. We focused upon 34 data sources that reflect 3 types of secondary data: chemical-oriented data sources, hazard-trait-oriented data sources, and predictive data sources. To integrate and analyze the evaluation results, we applied 2 multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methodologies: multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) and stochastic multiobjective acceptability analysis (SMAA). Overall, the findings in this research program allow us to explore the relative importance of performance criteria and the data source quality for effectively conducting CHA. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:1-14. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(10): 1149-1159, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313498

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental contaminants and consumption of a high, saturated fatty diet has been demonstrated to promote precursors for metabolic syndrome (hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia). The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to the most prevalent environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs) would act as causative agents to promote metabolic syndrome independent of dietary intake. We hypothesized that POPs will activate the advanced glycated end-product (AGE)-and receptor for AGE (RAGE) signaling cascade to promote downstream signaling modulators of cardiovascular remodeling and oxidative stress in the heart. At 5-weeks of age nondiabetic (WT) and diabetic (ob/ob) mice were exposed POPs mixtures by oral gavage twice a week for 6-weeks. At the end of 6-weeks, animals were sacrificed and the hearts were taken for biochemical analysis. Increased activation of the AGE-RAGE signaling cascade via POPs exposure resulted in elevated levels of fibroblast differentiation (α-smooth muscle actin) and RAGE expression indicated maladaptive cardiac remodeling. Conversely, the observed decreased superoxide dismutase-1 and -2 (SOD-1 and SOD-2) expression may exacerbate the adverse changes occurring as a result of POPs treatment to reduce innate cardioprotective mechanisms. In comparison, ventricular collagen levels were decreased in mice exposed to POPs. In conclusion, exposure to organic environmental pollutants may intensify oxidative and inflammatory stressors to overwhelm protective mechanisms allowing for adverse cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 152996, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352020

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the impact of lead at hormetic (0.075 mM Pb(NO3)2) and sublethal (0.5 mM Pb(NO3)2) doses on the intensity of oxidative stress in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. 'Cysterski'). Our first objective was to determine how exposure of pea seedlings to Pb alters the plant defence responses to pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris), and whether these responses could indirectly affect A. pisum. The second objective was to investigate the effects of various Pb concentrations in the medium on demographic parameters of pea aphid population and the process of its feeding on edible pea. We found that the dose of Pb sublethal for pea seedlings strongly reduced net reproductive rate and limited the number of A. pisum individuals reaching the phloem. An important defence line of pea seedlings growing on Pb-supplemented medium and next during combinatory effect of the two stressors Pb and A. pisum was a high generation of superoxide anion (O2-). This was accompanied by a considerable reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and a decrease in the level of Mn2+ ions. A the same time, weak activity of Mn-SOD was detected in the roots of the seedlings exposed to the sublethal dose of Pb and during Pb and aphid interaction. Apart from the marked increase in O2-, an increase in semiquinone radicals occurred, especially in the roots of the seedlings treated with the sublethal dose of Pb and both infested and non-infested with aphids. Also, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation markedly intensified in aphid-infested leaves. It reached the highest level 24 h post infestation (hpi), mainly in the cell wall of leaf epidermis. This may be related to the function of H2O2 as a signalling molecule that triggers defence mechanisms. The activity of peroxidase (POX), an important enzyme involved in scavenging H2O2, was also high at 24 hpi and at subsequent time points. Moreover, the contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), products of lipid peroxidation, rose but to a small degree thanks to an efficient antioxidant system. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants, both in infested and non-infested and leaves was higher than in the control. In conclusion, the reaction of pea seedlings to low and sublethal doses of Pb and then A. pisum infestation differed substantially and depended on a direct contact of the stress factor with the organ (Pb with roots and A. pisum with leaves). The probing behavior of A. pisum also depended on Pb concentration in the plant tissues.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Herbivoria , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hormese , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ervilhas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia
17.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357662

RESUMO

Glutathione transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) is expressed in some human tissues and is abundant in mammalian erythrocytes (here termed e-GST). This enzyme is able to detoxify the cell from endogenous and exogenous toxic compounds by using glutathione (GSH) or by acting as a ligandin. This review collects studies that propose GSTP1-1 as a useful biomarker in different fields of application. The most relevant studies are focused on GSTP1-1 as a biosensor to detect blood toxicity in patients affected by kidney diseases. In fact, this detoxifying enzyme is over-expressed in erythrocytes when unusual amounts of toxins are present in the body. Here we review articles concerning the level of GST in chronic kidney disease patients, in maintenance hemodialysis patients and to assess dialysis adequacy. GST is also over-expressed in autoimmune disease like scleroderma, and in kidney transplant patients and it may be used to check the efficiency of transplanted kidneys. The involvement of GSTP in the oxidative stress and in other human pathologies like cancer, liver and neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders is also reported. Promising applications of e-GST discussed in the present review are its use for monitoring human subjects living in polluted areas and mammals for veterinary purpose.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 223-231, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271988

RESUMO

To investigate the influence of haze on human dermal exposure to a series of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), paired forehead wipes were collected from 46 volunteers (23 males, 23 females) using gauze pads soaked in isopropyl alcohol under heavy and light haze pollution levels. The median levels of ∑27HFRs and ∑27PCBs in all 92 samples were 672 and 1300ng/m2, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (171ng/m2) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) (134ng/m2) were the dominant components of HFRs, indicating that dermal exposure may also be the significant pathway for non-volatile compounds. PCB-37 contributed the most to ∑27PCBs, with a median concentration of 194ng/m2, followed by PCB-60 (141ng/m2). Generally, PBDE, PCB and DD (dehalogenated derivatives of DPs) levels on the foreheads of female participants (291, 1340, 0.92ng/m2) were higher (p=0.037, 0.001, and 0.031, respectively) than those of male participants (226, 989, and 0.45ng/m2). A significant difference (p=0.001) in PCBs was found between light (1690ng/m2) and heavy (996ng/m2) haze pollution conditions. Nevertheless, HFR levels under heavy (median=595ng/m2, ranging from 295 to 1490ng/m2) and light haze pollution conditions (ranging from 205 to 1220ng/m2 with a median of 689ng/m2) did not show significant differences (p=0.269). The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from dermal exposure to ∑8HFRs and ∑27PCBs was 8.72×10-5 and 1.63×10-2, respectively, raising more concern about populations' exposure to PCBs than HFRs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Halogenação , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Pele
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212893

RESUMO

Dioxins are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants whose background levels are still reason for concern. There is mounting evidence from both epidemiological and experimental studies that paternal exposure to the most potent congener of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), can lower the male/female ratio of offspring. Moreover, in laboratory rodents and zebrafish, TCDD exposure of parent animals has been reported to result in reduced reproductive performance along with other adverse effects in subsequent generations, foremost through the paternal but also via the maternal germline. These impacts have been accompanied by epigenetic alterations in placenta and/or sperm cells, including changes in methylation patterns of imprinted genes. Here, we review recent key studies in this field with an attempt to provide an up-to-date picture of the present state of knowledge to the reader. These studies provide biological plausibility for the potential of dioxin exposure at a critical time-window to induce epigenetic alterations across multiple generations and the significance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in mediating these effects. Currently available data do not allow to accurately estimate the human health implications of these findings, although epidemiological evidence on lowered male/female ratio suggests that this effect may take place at realistic human exposure levels.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Herança Materna , Herança Paterna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Biomarcadores , Dioxinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
20.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(6): 631-642, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161525

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of many essential non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on plants is still limited, especially at environmentally realistic concentrations. This paper presents the influence of three of the most frequently used NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen) at environmentally realistic concentrations on the autochthonous green leafy vegetables: orache (Atriplex patula L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Our research was focused on the determination of the photosynthetic parameters, the emission rate of volatile organic compounds, and the evaluation of the ultrastructure of leaves of studied vegetables after exposure to abiotic stress induced by environmental pollutants, namely NSAIDs. The data obtained indicate a moderate reduction of foliage physiological activity as a response to the stress induced by NSAIDs to the selected green leafy vegetables. The increase of the 3-hexenal and monoterpene emission rates with increasing NSAIDs concentration could be used as a sensitive and a rapid indicator to assess the toxicity of the NSAIDs. Microscopic analysis showed that the green leafy vegetables were affected by the selected NSAIDs. In comparison to the controls, the green leafy vegetables treated with NSAIDs presented irregular growth of glandular trichomes on the surface of the adaxial side of the leaves, less stomata, cells with less cytoplasm, irregular cell walls and randomly distributed chloroplasts. Of the three NSAIDs investigated in this study, ibuprofen presented the highest influence. The results obtained in this study can be used to better estimate the impact of drugs on the environment and to improve awareness on the importance of the responsible use of drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Atriplex/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Atriplex/fisiologia , Atriplex/ultraestrutura , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Alface/fisiologia , Alface/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Naproxeno/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Spinacia oleracea/fisiologia , Spinacia oleracea/ultraestrutura
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