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1.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 94, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various risk factors influence obesity differently, and environmental endocrine disruption may increase the occurrence of obesity. However, most of the previous studies have considered only a unitary exposure or a set of similar exposures instead of mixed exposures, which entail complicated interactions. We utilized three statistical models to evaluate the correlations between mixed chemicals to analyze the association between 9 different chemical exposures and obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We fitted the generalized linear regression, weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to analyze the association between the mixed exposures and obesity in the participants aged 6-19 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. RESULTS: In the multivariable logistic regression model, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) (OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.11, 1.40)), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58)), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) (OR (95% CI): 1.42 (1.07, 1.89)) were found to be positively associated with obesity, while methylparaben (MeP) (OR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.68, 0.94)) was negatively associated with obesity. In the multivariable linear regression, MEP was found to be positively associated with the body mass index (BMI) z-score (ß (95% CI): 0.12 (0.02, 0.21)). In the WQS regression model, the WQS index had a significant association (OR (95% CI): 1.48 (1.16, 1.89)) with the outcome in the obesity model, in which 2,5-DCP (weighted 0.41), bisphenol A (BPA) (weighted 0.17) and MEP (weighted 0.14) all had relatively high weights. In the BKMR model, despite no statistically significant difference in the overall association between the chemical mixtures and the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), there was nonetheless an increasing trend. 2,5-DCP and MEP were found to be positively associated with the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), while fixing other chemicals at their median concentrations. CONCLUSION: Comparing the three statistical models, we found that 2,5-DCP and MEP may play an important role in obesity. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the three statistical models, our study confirms the necessity to combine different statistical models on obesity when dealing with mixed exposures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Pediátrica/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111036, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784013

RESUMO

Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) due to contaminated fish intake as part of a high-fat (HFD), high-carbohydrate diets is a reality today for many populations. HFD is associated with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Some studies suggest that MeHg induces those risk factors. We evaluated the effect of MeHg exposure in mice fed with HFD or control diet for eight weeks. In the last experimental 15 days, the half group received a MeHg solution (20 mg/L) replacing water. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, lipoprotein concentrations, and paraoxonase activity were evaluated. Liver cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and IBA-1+ cells, as well as transcriptional levels of genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, were also assessed. HFD and both MeHg groups presented increased BP and total cholesterol (TC). In the liver, HFD but not MeHg was related to an increase in TC. Also, MeHg intoxication reduced paraoxonase activity regardless of diet. MeHg intoxication and HFD increased steatosis and the number of IBA-1+ cells and modified some gene transcripts associated with lipid metabolism. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MeHg effects on CVD risk factors resemble those caused by HFD.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Risco
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698366

RESUMO

Chronic arsenic (As) exposure is a critical public health issue. The As metabolism can be influenced by many factors. The objective of this study is to verify if these factors influence As metabolism in four Italian areas affected by As pollution. Descriptive analyses were conducted on 271 subjects aged 20-49 in order to assess the effect of each factor considered on As methylation. Percentages of metabolites of As in urine, primary and secondary methylation indexes were calculated as indicators for metabolic capacity. The results indicate that women have a better methylation capacity (MC) than men, and drinking As-contaminated water from public aqueducts is associated with poorer MC, especially in areas with natural As pollution. In areas with anthropogenic As pollution occupational exposure is associated with a higher MC while smoking with a poorer MC. Dietary habits and genetic characteristics are probably implicated in As metabolism. BMI, alcohol consumption and polymorphism of the AS3MT gene seem not to influence As MC. Arsenic metabolism may be affected by various factors and in order to achieve a comprehensive risk assessment of As-associated disease, it is crucial to understand how these factors contribute to differences in As metabolism.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Adulto , Arsênico/análise , Intoxicação por Arsênico/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluição da Água , Adulto Jovem
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 107-117, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615245

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess phthalate exposure of non-occupationally exposed working aged population in Finland. Studied phthalates included diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Sample collection campaign took place in 2015. Metabolites of DEP, DnBP and DiBP were detected in all the first morning void urine samples of the non-occupationally exposed volunteers (n = 60; 42 women and 18 men; aged 25-63). Metabolite of BBP and secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were detected in >90% of the samples. MCHP (1.7%), MEHP (18.3%), cx-MiNP (8.3%) and MnOP (1.7%) were less frequently detected. MiNP and OH-MPHP were not detected in any of the urine samples. The observed levels were mostly comparable to the levels published in the adult population in Europe and the US. One notable difference was the observed higher exposure of the Finnish study population to DnBP in comparison to the German, Austrian, Norwegian and US populations. The levels of individual phthalates did not often correlate very well with each other. In most cases, higher exposure to phthalates was seen in females in comparison to males, which is in accordance with other studies. The urinary levels were compared to the biomonitoring equivalents (BEs), which were calculated on the basis of published DNELs (derived no-effect levels). The P95 levels of individual phthalates remained below the respective BEs, the highest risk characterization ratio (RCR) being 0.88 for DnBP and the second highest 0.34 for DiBP. For other phthalates, the RCRs were below 0.2. Using the P95 levels, combined exposure to DnBP, DiBP, DEHP and BBP resulted in risk characterization ratio exceeding 1. This suggests a need to limit the exposure to these phthalates.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Biotransformação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(8): 719-730, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707119

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) substantially cost society as a result of increases in disease and disability but-unlike other toxicant classes such as carcinogens-have yet to be codified into regulations as a hazard category. This Series paper examines economic, regulatory, and policy approaches to limit human EDC exposures and describes potential improvements. In the EU, general principles for EDCs call for minimisation of human exposure, identification as substances of very high concern, and ban on use in pesticides. In the USA, screening and testing programmes are focused on oestrogenic EDCs exclusively, and regulation is strictly risk-based. Minimisation of human exposure is unlikely without a clear overarching definition for EDCs and relevant pre-marketing test requirements. We call for a multifaceted international programme (eg, modelled on the International Agency for Research in Cancer) to address the effects of EDCs on human health-an approach that would proactively identify hazards for subsequent regulation.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/economia , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Ambientais/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Humanos
6.
Gene ; 755: 144909, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569720

RESUMO

In the microbial world, bacteria are the most effective agents in petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) degradation, utilization/mineralization and they serve as essential degraders of crude oil contaminated environment. Some genes and traits are involved in the hydrocarbon utilization process for which transcriptome analyses are important to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among different conditions, leading to a new understanding of genes or pathways associated with crude oil degradation. In this work, three crude oil utilizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains designated as N002, TP16 and J001 subjected to transcriptome analyses revealed a total of 81, 269 and 137 significant DEGs. Among them are 80 up-regulated genes and one downregulated gene of N002, 121 up- regulated and 148 down-regulated genes of TP16, 97 up-regulated and 40 down-regulated genes of J001 which are involved in various metabolic pathways. TP16 strain has shown more number of DEGs upon crude oil treatment in comparison to the other two strains. Through quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the selected DEGs of each strain from transcriptome data were substantiated. The results have shown that the up- regulated and down-regulated genes observed by qRT-PCR were consistent with transcriptome data. Taken together, our transcriptome results have revealed that TP16 is a potential P. aeruginosa strain for functional analysis of identified potential DEGs involved in crude oil degradation.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Petróleo/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Bactérias/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima
7.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 245-256, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598325

RESUMO

Background Epidemiological studies have historically focused on single toxicants, or toxic chemicals, and neurodevelopment, even though the interactions of chemicals and nutrients may result in additive, synergistic, antagonistic, or potentiating effects on neurological endpoints. Investigating the impact of environmentally-relevant chemical mixtures, including heavy metals and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), is more reflective of human exposures and may result in more refined environmental policies to protect the public. Objective In this review, we provide a summary of epidemiological studies that have analyzed chemical mixtures of heavy metals and EDCs and neurobehavior utilizing multi-chemical models, including frequentist and Bayesian methods. Content Studies investigating chemicals and neurobehavior have the opportunity to not only examine the impact of chemical mixtures, but they can also identify chemicals from a mixture that may play a key role in neurotoxicity, investigate interactive effects, estimate non-linear dose response, and identify potential windows of susceptibility. The examination of neurobehavioral domains is particularly challenging given that traits emerge and change over time and subclinical nuances of neurobehavior are often unrecognized. To date, only a handful of epidemiological studies examining neurodevelopment have utilized multi-pollutant models in the investigation of heavy metals and EDCs. However, these studies were successful in identifying contaminants of importance from the exposure mixtures. Summary and Outlook Investigators are encouraged to broaden their focus to include more environmentally relevant mixtures of chemicals using advanced statistical approaches, particularly to aid in identifying potential mechanisms underlying associations.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Ratos
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109099, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370863

RESUMO

Theoretically, both synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (S-EDCs) and natural (exogenous and endogenous) endocrine disrupting chemicals (N-EDCs) can interact with endocrine receptors and disturb hormonal balance. However, compared to endogenous hormones, S-EDCs are only weak partial agonists with receptor affinities several orders of magnitude lower. Thus, to elicit observable effects, S-EDCs require considerably higher concentrations to attain sufficient receptor occupancy or to displace natural hormones and other endogenous ligands. Significant exposures to exogenous N-EDCs may result from ingestion of foods such as soy-based diets, green tea and sweet mustard. While their potencies are lower as compared to natural endogenous hormones, they usually are considerably more potent than S-EDCs. Effects of exogenous N-EDCs on the endocrine system were observed at high dietary intakes. A causal relation between their mechanism of action and these effects is established and biologically plausible. In contrast, the assumption that the much lower human exposures to S-EDCs may induce observable endocrine effects is not plausible. Hence, it is not surprising that epidemiological studies searching for an association between S-EDC exposure and health effects have failed. Regarding testing for potential endocrine effects, a scientifically justified screen should use in vitro tests to compare potencies of S-EDCs with those of reference N-EDCs. When the potency of the S-EDC is similar or smaller than that of the N-EDC, further testing in laboratory animals and regulatory consequences are not warranted.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos
9.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(4): e158-e167, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread environmental contamination caused by mining of copper and cobalt has led to concerns about the possible association between birth defects and exposure to several toxic metals in southern Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We therefore aimed to assess the possible contribution of parental and antenatal exposure to trace metals to the occurrence of visible birth defects among neonates. METHODS: We did a case-control study between March 1, 2013, and Feb 28, 2015, in Lubumbashi, DRC. We included newborns with visible birth defects (cases) and healthy neonates born in the same maternity ward (controls). Mothers were interviewed about potentially relevant exposures, including their partners' jobs. Various trace metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in maternal urine, maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placental tissue, and surface dust at home. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to calculate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% CIs (CI). FINDINGS: Our study included 138 neonates with visible birth defects (about 0·1% of the 133 662 births in Lubumbashi during the study period) and 108 control neonates. Potential confounders were similarly distributed between cases and controls. Vitamin consumption during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of birth defects (adjusted odds ratio 0·2, 95% CI 0·1-0·5). Mothers having paid jobs outside the home (2·8, 1·2-6·9) and fathers having mining-related jobs (5·5, 1·2-25·0) were associated with a higher risk of birth defects. We found no associations for trace metal concentrations in biological samples, except for a doubling of manganese (Mn; 1·7, 1·1-2·7) and zinc (Zn; 1·6, 0·9-2·8) in cord blood. In a separate model including placentas, a doubling of Mn at the fetal side of the placenta was associated with an increased risk of birth defects (3·3, 1·2-8·0), as was a doubling of cord blood Zn (5·3, 1·6-16·6). INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study of the effects of mining-related pollution on newborns in sub-Saharan Africa. Paternal occupational mining exposure was the factor most strongly associated with birth defects. Because neither Mn nor Zn are mined in Lubumbashi, the mechanism of the association between their increased prenatal concentrations and birth defects is unclear. FUNDING: Flemish Interuniversity Council-University Development Cooperation, The Coalition of the North-South movement in Flanders 11.11.11.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Metais/efeitos adversos , Mineração , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Mães , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447902

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a new subgroup of the persistent organic pollutants that have been widely used in industrial production and daily life for over 60 years. The presence of PFASs can be detected in rivers, soil, humans and wildlifes. Studies have shown that PFASs can induce multi-system toxicity in laboratory animals, including liver toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, endocrine toxicity and immunotoxicity. PFASs are closely related to the birth outcomes, growth and development of the offspring. PFASs primarily impair the health of the offspring by regulating peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors pathways, interfering with estrogen, affecting the thyroid system, glucocorticoids, inflammatory responses, and DNA methylation. Thus, more large-scale longitudinal cohort studies should be conducted and more in-depth potential mechanisms of action should be explored to clarify the relationship between intrauterine exposure of PFASs and birth outcomes, growth and development of offspring.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Gravidez
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 398: 115009, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353385

RESUMO

Significant attention has been given to the potential of environmental chemicals to disrupt lipid homeostasis at the cellular level. These chemicals, classified as obesogens, are abundantly used in a wide variety of consumer products. However, there is a significant lack of information regarding the mechanisms by which environmental exposure can contribute to the onset of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several studies have described the interaction of potential obesogens with lipid-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). However, no studies have quantified the degree of modification to lipidomic profiles in relevant human models, making it difficult to directly link PPAR agonists to the onset of lipid-related diseases. A quantitative metabolomic approach was used to examine the dysregulation of lipid metabolism in human liver cells upon exposure to potential obesogenic compounds. The chemicals rosiglitazone, perfluorooctanoic acid, di-2-ethylexylphthalate, and tributyltin significantly increased total lipids in liver cells, being diglycerides, triglycerides and phosphatidylcholines the most prominent. Contrarily, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and the pharmaceutical fenofibrate appeared to lower total lipid concentrations, especially those belonging to the acylcarnitine, ceramide, triglyceride, and phosphatidylcholine groups. Fluorescence microscopy analysis for cellular neutral lipids revealed significant lipid bioaccumulation upon exposure to obesogens at environmentally relevant concentrations. This integrated omics analysis provides unique mechanistic insight into the potential of these environmental pollutants to promote diseases like obesity and NAFLD. Furthermore, this study provides a significant contribution to advance the understanding of molecular signatures related to obesogenic chemicals and to the development of alternatives to in vivo experimentation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo
13.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 150: 102950, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339980

RESUMO

Incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer are increasing, thus making mandatory to improve the knowledge of disease etiology. The hypothesis of a role for anthropogenic chemicals is raising wide consideration. A series of occupational studies revealed that job exposures with high risk of chemical contamination were usually more prone to thyroid cancer development. These include shoe manufacture, preserving industry, building activities, pulp/papermaker industry and the wood processing, agricultural activities, and other work categories characterized by contact with chemicals, such as chemists and pharmacists. However, such epidemiological analyses cannot define a causal relationship. Thyroid-disrupting activity has emerged for a broad set of anthropogenic chemicals, with the best evidence being gained for polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dioxins, bisphenols, phthalates, pesticides, and heavy metals. A series of case-control studies, assessing exposure to thyroid-disrupting agents, as measured on biological matrices, have been recently performed providing the following insights: a) positive relationship with thyroid cancer was found for phthalates, bisphenols, the heavy metals cadmium, copper, and lead; b) polybrominated diphenyl ethers exposure showed no relationship with thyroid cancer c) controversial results were reported for polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides. However, such studies cannot demonstrate the causal link with disease occurrence, as exposure is assessed after tumour development. Studies with different methodological approach are therefore required for defining the role of anthropogenic environmental chemicals in thyroid carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Bifenil Polibromatos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Éteres Fenílicos/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294692

RESUMO

The air quality and distribution of trace elements in a metropolitan area of the Peruvian Andes were evaluated using transplanted epiphytic Tillandsia capillaris as biomonitors. Biomonitors were collected from the non-contaminated area and exposed to five sites with different types of contamination for three months in 2017. After exposure, the content of twenty-one elements were determined by ICP-MS analysis. Datasets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, exposed-to-baseline (EB), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed significant differences among sampling sites for several elements. According to EF ratios for Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn EB ratios value greater than 1.75 were found around urban areas, indicating anthropogenic influence, which can be attributed to vehicular sources. The highest values of As and Cd were found in areas of agricultural practices, therefore their presence could be related to the employment of agrochemicals (pesticides, herbicides, and phosphate fertilizers). HCA shows that most elements come from vehicular sources and lower from agricultural and natural sources.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Tillandsia/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Peru , População Rural , População Urbana
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306705

RESUMO

Environmental chemical pollutants are increasing, which brings various harms to human health. Epigenetics may be an important medium between exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and adverse health effects. Many environmental chemical pollutant exposures can regulate gene expression and promote disease occurrence and development through epigenetic mechanisms. This review outlines the mechanisms of epigenetics and the latest research advances in exposure and epigenetics of several environmental chemical substances (heavy metal arsenic, bisphenol A, dioctyl phthalate and benzene). To further understand and study the relationship between environmental chemical pollutant exposures and epigenetics in order to elucidate the mechanisms of disease occurrence and development.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Arsênico , Benzeno , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Metilação de DNA , Dietilexilftalato , Humanos , Fenóis
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(4): 47004, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure mixtures frequently occur in data across many domains, particularly in the fields of environmental and nutritional epidemiology. Various strategies have arisen to answer questions about exposure mixtures, including methods such as weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression that estimate a joint effect of the mixture components. OBJECTIVES: We demonstrate a new approach to estimating the joint effects of a mixture: quantile g-computation. This approach combines the inferential simplicity of WQS regression with the flexibility of g-computation, a method of causal effect estimation. We use simulations to examine whether quantile g-computation and WQS regression can accurately and precisely estimate the effects of mixtures in a variety of common scenarios. METHODS: We examine the bias, confidence interval (CI) coverage, and bias-variance tradeoff of quantile g-computation and WQS regression and how these quantities are impacted by the presence of noncausal exposures, exposure correlation, unmeasured confounding, and nonlinearity of exposure effects. RESULTS: Quantile g-computation, unlike WQS regression, allows inference on mixture effects that is unbiased with appropriate CI coverage at sample sizes typically encountered in epidemiologic studies and when the assumptions of WQS regression are not met. Further, WQS regression can magnify bias from unmeasured confounding that might occur if important components of the mixture are omitted from the analysis. DISCUSSION: Unlike inferential approaches that examine the effects of individual exposures while holding other exposures constant, methods like quantile g-computation that can estimate the effect of a mixture are essential for understanding the effects of potential public health actions that act on exposure sources. Our approach may serve to help bridge gaps between epidemiologic analysis and interventions such as regulations on industrial emissions or mining processes, dietary changes, or consumer behavioral changes that act on multiple exposures simultaneously. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5838.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise de Regressão
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(4): 47007, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors. High doses of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure can cause pregnancy loss and infant deaths in animals, but the associations between PFAS exposures and risk of miscarriage in humans are not well studied. METHODS: Using a case-control study nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC, 1996-2002), we compared 220 pregnancies ending in miscarriage during weeks 12-22 of gestation, with 218 pregnancies resulting in live births. Levels of seven types of PFAS [PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOSA)] were measured in maternal plasma collected in early gestation (mean gestational week 8). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for miscarriage and each PFAS as a continuous variable or in quartiles, controlling for maternal age, parity, socio-occupational status, smoking and alcohol intake, gestational week of blood sampling, and maternal history of miscarriage. Stratification by parity and PFAS mixture analyses using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression were also conducted. RESULTS: We observed a monotonic increase in odds for miscarriage associated with increasing PFOA and PFHpS levels. The ORs comparing the highest PFOA or PFHpS quartile to the lowest were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.9) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). The ORs were also elevated for the second or third quartile of PFHxS or PFOS, but no consistent exposure-outcome pattern emerged. An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the WQS index of seven PFAS was associated with 64% higher odds for miscarriage (95% CI: 1.15, 2.34). The associations were stronger in parous women, while findings were inconsistent among nulliparous women. CONCLUSION: Maternal exposures to higher levels of PFOA, PFHpS, and PFAS mixtures were associated with the risk of miscarriage and particularly among parous women. Larger replication studies among nulliparous women are needed to allay concerns about confounding by reproductive history. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6202.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213890

RESUMO

Background: Despite mediatization, only half of pregnant women are informed about endocrine disruptors (EDs). We wished to inquire about appropriate environmental health education procedures during pregnancy: Who, when, and how? Methods: The question stems from a comprehensive population health intervention research project. It includes qualitative studies aimed at constructing an educational program in environmental health and an accompanying assessment tool. The validation of a customized questionnaire (PREVED© for Pregnancy Prevention Endocrine Disruptors) about the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of pregnant women regarding exposure to EDs was carried out in a quantitative study. Results: Health education by a prenatal professional with communication skills should take place as early as possible, during the preconception period or early pregnancy, as part of individual consultation or group workshops. In order to customize the discourse and to develop women's empowerment, concomitant presentation of the risks by the products used in each room and of previous solutions is recommended. Conclusion: Appropriate health education procedures on EDs should be done at every contact but taking the KAP of pregnant women into account first. We propose all educational actions should be accompanied by questioning of the KAP of pregnant women; for example, with questions from the PREVED© questionnaire.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Gestantes/educação , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 33-38, ene.-mar. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098369

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Air contamination happens when unsafe or inordinate amounts of substances including gases, particles, and organic atoms are brought into Earth's climate. Objective: This review article defines air pollution, describes the types of pollutants, enumerates the various causative factors, enumerates the ways it impacts human health and suggests preventive measures to reduce the impact of air pollution on human health. Methods: Literature was studied extensively and effects of air pollution on human health have been described. Results and Conclusion: Air pollution has tremendous effects on human health in the form of respiratory diseases and aggravations in the form of asthma and lung cancer, cardiovascular dysfunctions, and malignant growth. An affiliation has been found to exist between male infertility and air pollution and a relationship has been established between air contamination and higher danger of immune dysfunction, neuroinflammation, neurobehavioral hyperactivity, crime, age-unseemly behaviours, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Traffic-related air pollutants have been found to affect skin aging and cause pigmented spots on the face. An association exists between air pollution and irritation of the eyes, dry eye syndrome, risk for retinopathy and adverse ocular outcomes. Chronic exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy has been associated with adverse effects on the developing foetus in the form of low birth weight and still birth. Air contamination has been seen as a significant supporter of the expanded predominance of allergic diseases in children.


Assuntos
Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Doença/etiologia , Costa Rica , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 65, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High concentrations of Co, Ni, and Cr in the blood serum of dental technicians are strongly associated with free radical formation. It has highly reactive properties that can cause further oxidation of molecule in the vicinity. PURPOSE: This study intended to investigate whether the Dental Technician occupational exposure of Co, Ni and Cr, could contribute to the high incidence of cancer. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study to dental technicians, performed after acccepting ethical clearance. Blood was sampled in 3 examinations for Co, Ni, Cr using Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS), MDA was examined with TBARS test, also 8 OHdG and wildtype p53 proteins determined by ELISA method. RESULTS: Comparative statistical analysis, showing a significant difference (p < 0.05) between levels of Co, Ni, and Cr in exposed groups to the control group. But, not all variables was proven to be positively correlated, only with Cr, and Co, and negatively correlated with wild-type p53. CONCLUSION: MDA,8-OHdG and wildtype p53 can be used as genotoxic biomarkers in the metal exposed group, since they can accurately reflect the degree of Oxidative damage.


Assuntos
8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Cromo/sangue , Cobalto/sangue , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicos em Prótese Dentária , Níquel/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Atômica
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