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2.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 108, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may impact bone mineral density (BMD) through a variety of mechanisms. Studies of phthalate exposure and BMD in humans are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize published data on the association between phthalate metabolites and BMD in humans and to provide methodological suggestions for future research. METHODS: A single investigator searched PubMed for relevant studies, including observational studies of phthalate exposure and BMD in children and postmenopausal women. Twelve studies were screened with 5 meeting the eligibility criteria and included for review. A quality assessment form was used as a quality measure and key information was extracted from the included studies. RESULTS: In one prospective study among postmenopausal women, higher levels of monocarboxyoctyl phthalate (MCOP) and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) were significantly associated with lower BMD among nonusers of hormone therapy (HT). In cross-sectional studies of postmenopausal women, monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) were negatively associated with BMD, and MCNP was positively associated with BMD, but these results were not replicated across studies. In studies of fetal exposure to phthalates and childhood BMD, significant positive associations between MCPP and BMD in children at age 12 years were found in 1 study, while associations were null in the other study. CONCLUSIONS: Studies among postmenopausal women provide suggestive evidence of an association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentration and decreased BMD. Results from studies of childhood BMD are inconclusive given the limited data and their limitations. More research is needed to address limitations and further investigate the association between phthalate exposure and human BMD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Densidade Óssea , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
4.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 42(4): 743-760, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265973

RESUMO

The school is a microenvironment well-known to host many indoor allergens and pollutants, with a strong association between school allergen exposure and childhood asthma morbidity. Despite advances in therapies, asthma continues to be one of the most common chronic conditions among children, associated with significant morbidity, health care utilization, and productivity loss. Asthma prevalence is also disproportionately high among children in minority communities. This review will focus on environmental exposures associated with asthma morbidity (cockroach, mouse, cat and dog, dust mite, fungus, air pollution). This review will also discuss recent school-based interventions to improve allergy morbidity among school-aged children. Understanding the multifaceted environmental factors which may contribute to asthma pathogenesis is necessary to help guide potential school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Asma , Exposição Ambiental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Criança
5.
Environ Int ; 169: 107541, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress from excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a hypothesized contributor to preterm birth. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure is reported to generate ROS in laboratory settings, and is linked to adverse birth outcomes globally. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between PFAS and oxidative stress has not been examined in the context of human pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers among pregnant people. METHODS: Our analytic sample included 428 participants enrolled in the Illinois Kids Development Study and Chemicals In Our Bodies prospective birth cohorts between 2014 and 2019. Twelve PFAS were measured in second trimester serum. We focused on seven PFAS that were detected in >65 % of participants. Urinary levels of 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin-F2α, prostaglandin-F2α, 2,3-dinor-8-iso-PGF2α, and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-8-iso-PGF2α were measured in the second and third trimesters as biomarkers of oxidative stress. We fit linear mixed-effects models to estimate individual associations between PFAS and oxidative stress biomarkers. We used quantile g-computation and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to assess associations between the PFAS mixture and averaged oxidative stress biomarkers. RESULTS: Linear mixed-effects models showed that an interquartile range increase in perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was associated with an increase in 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin-F2α (ß = 0.10, 95 % confidence interval = 0, 0.20). In both quantile g-computation and BKMR, and across all oxidative stress biomarkers, PFOS contributed the most to the overall mixture effect. The six remaining PFAS were not significantly associated with changes in oxidative stress biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to investigate the relationship between PFAS exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress during human pregnancy. We found that PFOS was associated with elevated levels of oxidative stress, which is consistent with prior work in animal models and cell lines. Future research is needed to understand how prenatal PFAS exposure and maternal oxidative stress may affect fetal development.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Nascimento Prematuro , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Dimaprit/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
6.
Environ Int ; 169: 107527, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are simultaneously exposed to several non-persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which may influence the risk of childhood obesity and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Previous prospective studies have mostly examined single-chemical effects, with inconsistent findings. We assessed the association between prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols, individually and as a mixture, and body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in preadolescents. METHODS: We used data from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study (n = 1,015), where the 1st and 3rd- trimester maternal urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites and six phenols were quantified. At 11 years of age, we calculated BMI z-scores and measured systolic and diastolic BP. We estimated individual chemical effects with linear mixed models and joint effects of the chemical mixture with hierarchical Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR). Analyses were stratified by sex and by puberty status. RESULTS: In single-exposure models, benzophenone-3 (BP3) was nonmonotonically associated with higher BMI z-score (e.g. Quartile (Q) 3: ß = 0.23 [95% CI = 0.03, 0.44] vs Q1) and higher diastolic BP (Q2: ß = 1.27 [0.00, 2.53] mmHg vs Q1). Methyl paraben (MEPA) was associated with lower systolic BP (Q4: ß = -1.67 [-3.31, -0.04] mmHg vs Q1). No consistent associations were observed for the other compounds. Results from the BKMR confirmed the single-exposure results and showed similar patterns of associations, with BP3 having the highest importance in the mixture models, especially among preadolescents who reached puberty status. No overall mixture effect was found, except for a tendency of higher BMI z-score and lower systolic BP in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to UV-filter BP3 may be associated with higher BMI and diastolic BP during preadolescence, but there is little evidence for an overall phthalate and phenol mixture effect.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Obesidade Pediátrica , Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Teorema de Bayes , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Parabenos/efeitos adversos , Parabenos/análise , Fenol , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez
7.
EBioMedicine ; 83: 104236, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances PFOS and PFOA are persistent and bioaccumulative exogenous chemicals in the human body with a range of suspected negative health effects. It is hypothesised that exposure during prenatal and early postnatal life might have particularly detrimental effects on intrauterine and childhood growth. In a Danish longitudinal mother-child cohort we investigate effect of PFOS and PFOA in pregnancy and infancy on intrauterine and childhood growth and anthropometry. METHODS: COPSAC2010 is an ongoing population based mother-child cohort of 738 pregnant women and their children followed from 24 week gestation with longitudinal deep clinical phenotyping until age 10 years. In this observational cohort sub study plasma PFOS and PFOA concentrations were semi-quantified by untargeted metabolomics in the mothers at week 24 and 1 week postpartum and in the children at ages 6 and 18 months and calibrated using a targeted pipeline. We examined associations to intrauterine and childhood growth and anthropometry, including interactions with child sex. Untargeted and targeted blood metabolomics profiles were integrated to investigate underlying mechanisms. FINDINGS: Pregnancy plasma PFOA concentrations were associated with lower birth size -0.19 [-0.33; -0.05] BMI z-score per 1-ng/mL and increased childhood height (z-scored) at age 6: 0.18 [0.05; 0.31], but there was no association between childs' own infancy plasma PFOA concentration and height. Pregnancy plasma PFOS concentrations were also associated with lower birth BMI (-0.04 [-0.08; -0.01]), but in childhood pregnancy plasma PFOS concentration interacted with child sex on BMI and fat percentage at 6 years with negative associations in girls and positive in boys. The effect of maternal plasma PFOS concentration on lower girl BMI was borderline mediated through increasing child plasma lactosyl-ceramide levels (p-mediation=0.08). Similarly the effect of maternal plasma PFOS concentration on higher boy fat percentage was borderline mediated through increasing child plasma lactosyl-ceramide levels (p-mediation=0.07). Infancy concentrations of plasma PFOS associated with lower height in childhood, -0.06 z-score at age 6 [-0.19; -0.03]. INTERPRETATION: Higher PFOS and PFOA plasma concentrations during pregnancy had detrimental effects on fetal growth. The effects on childhood growth were not similar as PFOA increased child height, opposite of PFOS in multipollutant models suggesting a differing fetal programming effect. Sex specific growth effects were borderline mediated through an altered lactosyl-ceramide metabolism, proposing a possible mechanism of PFOS that has long-lasting health consequences in this observational study. FUNDING: All funding received by COPSAC are listed on www.copsac.com. The Lundbeck Foundation (Grant no R16-A1694); The Novo Nordic Foundation (Grant nos NNF20OC0061029, NNF170C0025014, NNF180C0031764) The Ministry of Health (Grant no 903516); Danish Council for Strategic Research (Grant no 0603-00280B) and The Capital Region Research Foundation have provided core support to the COPSAC research center. Effort from JALS is supported by R01HL123915, R01HL141826, and R01HL155742 from NIH/NHLBI. CEW was supported by the Swedish Heart Lung Foundation (HLF 20180290, HLF 20200693). BC has received funding for this project from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 946228). The funding agencies did not have any role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Antropometria , Coorte de Nascimento , Caprilatos , Ceramidas , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
8.
Environ Int ; 167: 107417, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914335

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) in animal and human studies, but prospective data from children are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between prenatal and early postnatal PFAS exposure and BMD at age 7 years. METHODS: In the Odense Child Cohort, Denmark, pregnant women were recruited in 2010-2012, and their children were invited for subsequent health examinations. At 12 weeks of gestation the pregnant women delivered a serum sample, and at age 18 months serum was obtained from the child to measure perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) by LC-MS/MS. At age 7 years DXA scans were performed to measure bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD Z-score. PFAS in pregnancy (n = 924) and/or at age 18 months (n = 511) were regressed against DXA measurements, adjusted for maternal education, child height Z-score, sex (for BMC) and for postnatal exposure, additionally duration of total breastfeeding. We additionally performed structural equation models determining combined effects of pre-and postnatal PFAS exposures. RESULTS: Higher prenatal and early postnatal serum concentrations of all measured PFAS were associated with lower BMC and BMD Z-scores at age 7 years, all estimates were negative although not all significant. For each doubling of prenatal or 18-month exposure to PFDA, BMD Z-scores were lowered by -0.07 (95 % CI -0.10; -0.03) and -0.14 (-0.25; -0.03), respectively after adjustment. Pre- and postnatal PFAS were correlated, but structural equation models suggested that associations with BMD were stronger for 18-month than prenatal PFAS exposure. DISCUSSION: Bone density is established in childhood, and a reduction in BMD during early childhood may have long-term implication for peak bone mass and lifelong bone health. Future studies of the impact of PFAS exposure on fracture incidence will help elucidate the clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitaminas
10.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 556: 111737, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931299

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activity has created unique environmental drivers, which may interact to produce unexpected effects. My aim was to conduct a systematic review of the interactive effects of anthropogenic drivers on endocrine responses in non-human animals. The interaction between temperature and light can disrupt reproduction and growth by impacting gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, melatonin, and growth hormone. Temperature and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) interact to modify reproduction with differential effects across generations. The combined effects of light and EDCs can be anxiogenic, so that light-at-night could increase anxiety in wildlife. Light and noise increase glucocorticoid release by themselves, and together can modify interactions between individuals and their environment. The literature detailing interactions between drivers is relatively sparse and there is a need to extend research to a broader range of taxa and interactions. I suggest that incorporating endocrine responses into Adverse Outcome Pathways would be beneficial to improve predictions of environmental effects.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sistema Endócrino , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Reprodução
11.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 451: 116177, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905821

RESUMO

Determining the mechanisms of toxicity induced by pollutants has long been a research priority in lieu of considering the mechanisms of resilience that prevent deleterious impacts. Protective mechanisms in many taxa can be therapeutically targeted to enhance resilience to synthetic toxicants. For example, the environmental sensor, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nfe2l2 or Nrf2), a transcription factor, facilitates transcription of many protective genes. Hypospadias is a common malformation of the penis. The risk of being born with hypospadias increases with pollutant exposure. We use vinclozolin-induced hypospadias in the mouse as a model to test the hypothesis that pollutant-induced birth defects can be prevented and reduced in severity by augmenting natural mechanisms of resilience. Pregnant mice were exposed to the demasculinizing toxicant, vinclozolin, in combination with increasing doses of the NRF2 activator, sulforaphane. The sulforaphane dose that most effectively increased masculinization (anogenital distance) was identified and used to test the hypothesis that sulforaphane reduces the hypospadias-inducing potency of vinclozolin. Finally, a Nrf2 knockout study was conducted to test whether NRF2 was required for the sulforaphane-induced rescue effects. Sulforaphane supplementation to vinclozolin exposed embryos increased anogenital distance in a nonlinear fashion typical of Nrf2 activators. The most effective dose of sulforaphane (45 mg/kg) reduced the occurrence and severity of vinclozolin-induced hypospadias and corrected penis morphogenesis. The sulforaphane-induced rescue effect was dependent on the presence of Nrf2. Nrf2 plays a critical role in protecting the fetus from vinclozolin and reduces the incidence and severity of hypospadias, the most common birth defect in boys in many countries. This work lays a foundation for developing prenatal supplements that will protect the fetus from pollutant-induced hypospadias. Studying the protective mechanisms that drive resilience to toxicants will facilitate innovation of protective therapies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hipospadia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Hipospadia/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Oxazóis , Gravidez , Sulfóxidos
12.
Environ Int ; 165: 107335, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), defined here as hypertensive disorders with onset in pregnancy (i.e., gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension), affect up to 10% of pregnancies in the United States and are associated with substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic outcomes during pregnancy, but associations between PFAS and HDP are inconsistent and joint effects of PFAS mixtures have not been evaluated. METHODS: We studied 1,558 pregnant individuals from the Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of eight PFAS in plasma samples (median 9.7 weeks of gestation). Using clinical records, we calculated trimester-specific mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and categorized HDP status [no HDP (normotensive & chronic hypertension), gestational hypertension, preeclampsia]. We estimated associations of individual PFAS with HDP using multinomial logistic regression and estimated associations with blood pressure using linear regression. We used Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and quantile g-computation to assess joint effects of the PFAS mixture on HDP and blood pressure measures. RESULTS: Four percent of participants developed preeclampsia and 7% developed gestational hypertension. We observed higher odds of gestational hypertension, but not preeclampsia, per doubling of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) [OR = 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.03)], perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) [OR = 1.38 (1.04, 1.82)], and perfluorohexane sulfonate [OR = 1.28 (1.06, 1.54)] concentrations. We observed higher mean DBP per doubling of PFOA [2nd trimester (T2): 0.39 mmHg (-0.01, 0.78); 3rd trimester (T3): 0.56 mmHg (0.14, 0.98)] and PFOS [T2: 0.46 mmHg (0.11, 0.82); T3: 0.43 mmHg (0.05, 0.80)]. The PFAS mixture was positively associated with odds of gestational hypertension [75th vs. 50th percentile: OR = 1.14 (95% credible interval:1.03, 1.25), BKMR] and mean DBP [T2 = 0.17 mmHg (-0.06, 0.40); T3 = 0.22 mmHg (-0.03, 0.48), BKMR]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that exposure to certain PFAS may increase the odds of gestational hypertension during pregnancy, with potential implications for subsequent maternal and child health outcomes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez
13.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 3): 135190, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660055

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that phthalate exposure results in a deteriorated effect on human health, while very few studies directly investigate the relationship of phthalate metabolites with mortality among people with hypertension. We aimed to explore whether exposure to phthalates is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among people with hypertension. This study included 4012 people with hypertension from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2014. Death information was obtained from the National Death Index until 2015. A total of 577 deaths including 196 deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 119 deaths due to cancer were documented. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After adjustment for potential covariates, participants exposed to mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) had a higher risk of cancer mortality (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.07-3.95). Participants exposed to mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) had higher risks of all-cause (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.28-2.60), CVD (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.21-3.95), and cancer (HR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.07-5.17) mortality. Participants exposed to mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) had higher risks of all-cause (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.58-3.05) and CVD (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.35-4.13) mortality. Participants exposed to di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19-2.39). Our findings suggested that higher levels of specific phthalates were significantly associated with increased risks of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality among people with hypertension. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hipertensão , Ácidos Ftálicos , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo
14.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115320, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642811

RESUMO

The lack of treatment systems for pollutants in family-livestock and poultry sites results in large amounts of untreated manure and urine being directly discharged to environment. The risks from veterinary antibiotic (VA) and heavy metal (HM) exposure in the rural environment require further research. In this investigation, 221 samples (feed, manure, surface soil, soil profiles, water, and plant) were collected from 41 livestock and poultry farms (swine, chichen, and cattle). Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), oxytetracycline (OTC), and enrofloxacin (ENR) were frequently detected in the samples. Metals and VAs in sandy loam soils were more inclined to migrate to deep layers than those in loam soils. Copper and Zn in the polluted soils mainly existed in available forms, which facilitated their migration to deep soil layers. In this study, OTC was also observed to migrate more easily to deeper soil layers than ENR due to its relatively high pKa value. Eighteen antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and 5 metal resistance genes (MRGs) along with one mobile genetic element (MGE) occurred in the soils at 80 cm depth. Luteimonas, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and Rhodanobacter were dominant genera detected in the soil samples from different sites, which might increase migration of ARGs or degradation of VAs. An ecological risk assessment suggested that VAs posed threats to the growth of Triticum aestivum L, Cucumis sativus L, and Brassiaca chinensis L. Remediation techniques including biochar/modified biochar, anaerobic digestion, and manure composting should be developed urgently for joint HM and VA pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fazendas , Solo , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Gado , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Aves Domésticas , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Suínos
15.
Hypertension ; 79(8): 1876-1886, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous synthetic chemicals that may disrupt blood pressure controls; however, human evidence to support this hypothesis is scant. We examined the association between serum concentrations of PFAS and risks of developing hypertension. METHODS: This study included 1058 midlife women initially free of hypertension from the multiracial and multiethnic SWAN (Study of Women's Health Across the Nation) with annual follow-up visits between 1999 and 2017. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic or receiving antihypertensive treatment. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to calculate hazard ratios and 95% CIs. Quantile g-computation was implemented to evaluate the joint effect of PFAS mixtures. RESULTS: During 11 722 person-years of follow-up, 470 participants developed incident hypertension (40.1 cases per 1000 person-years). Compared with the lowest tertile, women in the highest tertile of baseline serum concentrations had adjusted hazard ratios of 1.42 (95% CI, 1.19-1.68) for perfluorooctane sulfonate (P trend=0.01), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.24-1.75) for linear perfluorooctanoate (P trend=0.01), and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.19-1.70) for 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (P trend=0.01). No significant associations were observed for perfluorononanoate and perfluorohexane sulfonate. In the mixture analysis, women in the highest tertile of overall PFAS concentrations had a hazard ratio of 1.71 (95% CI, 1.15-2.54; P trend=0.008), compared with those in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Several PFAS showed positive associations with incident hypertension. These findings suggest that PFAS might be an underappreciated contributing factor to women's cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
16.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 93: 103886, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598754

RESUMO

Exposure to pollution is a worldwide societal challenge participating in the etiology and progression of different diseases. However, the scarce information hinders our understanding of the actual level of human exposure and its specific effects. Inadequate and excessive immune responses underlie diverse chronic diseases. Yet, it is unclear which and how toxicant exposures affect the immune system functions. There is a multiplicity of immunological outcomes and biomarkers being studied in human trials related to exposure to different toxicants but still without clear evidence of their value as biomarkers of exposure or effect. The main aim of this study was to collect scientific evidence and identify relevant immunological biomarkers used at the clinical level for toxicant exposures. We used the platform clinical trials.gov as a database tool. First, we performed a search combining research items related to toxicants and immunological parameters. The resulting117 clinical trials were examined for immune-related outcomes and specific biomarkers evaluated in subjects exposed to occupational and environmental toxicants. After categorization, relevant immunological outcomes and biomarkers were identified related to systemic and airway inflammation, modulation of immune cells, allergy and autoimmunity. In general, the immune markers related to inflammation are more frequently investigated for exposure to pollutants, namely IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO). Nevertheless, the data also indicated that prospective biomarkers of effect are gaining ground and a guiding representation of the established and novel biomarkers is suggested for upcoming trials. Finally, potential protective strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of specific toxicants are underlined for future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Exposição Ocupacional , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
17.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt A): 113143, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364044

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can disrupt the thyroid hormone system in humans. We assessed the associations of several POPs with serum thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone, and investigated the modulating effects of sex, menopausal status, and age on these associations, in a subgroup of the adult population (n = 1250) from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey. PCB105 and PCB118 were negatively associated with total T4 in premenopausal females and males aged <50, whereas the associations were insignificant in other groups. PCB180, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT showed positive associations with total T3 in postmenopausal females; however, among males aged ≥50, PCB118, PCB138, and p,p'-DDE showed negative associations with total T3. The effects of exposure to multiple POPs were examined in multi-factor analyses. Factor 2 comprised PCB52, hexachlorobenzene, and BDE-47 was associated with an increase in free T4 in premenopausal females (ß = 0.015, p = 0.024), while Factor 1, which contained most POPs, was associated with a change in total T3 in postmenopausal females (ß = 0.032, p = 0.040) and males aged ≥50 (ß = -0.039, p = 0.023). Changes in total T4 or total T3 could be explained by differences in thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and peripheral deiodinase activity (GD). Negative associations of TBG with PCB105 in premenopausal females and PCB153 in males aged <50 may mediate the effect of decreasing total T4. PCB180, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and Factor 1 were positively associated with GD, which is consistent with an increased total T3 in postmenopausal females. PCB118 was negatively associated with GD and total T3 in males aged ≥50. BDE-47 and ß-hexachlorocyclohexane were associated with thyroid autoantibodies in premenopausal females and males aged <50. Our observations suggest that the thyroid-disrupting effects of POPs may differ by sex, sex hormonal status, and age, and may be mediated by TBG and GD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Iodeto Peroxidase , Hormônios Tireóideos , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , DDT/efeitos adversos , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/análise
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 855348, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400049

RESUMO

Background: A large body of emerging evidence suggests that per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) affect birth outcomes in various pathways, but the evidence is inconsistent. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological evidence on PFAS exposure and birth outcomes. Methods: Three electronic databases were searched for epidemiological studies through February 13, 2021. We used random-effects meta-analysis for eight birth outcome indicators to calculate summary effect estimates for various exposure types. The risk of bias and the overall quality and level of evidence for each exposure-outcome pair were assessed. Results: The initial search identified 58 potentially eligible studies, of which 46 were ultimately included. Many PFAS were found to have previously unrecognized statistically significant associations with birth outcomes. Specifically, birth weight (BW) was associated with PFAS, with effect sizes ranging from -181.209 g (95% confidence interval (CI) = -360.620 to -1.798) per 1 ng/ml increase in perfluoroheptanesulfonate (PFHpS) to -24.252 g (95% CI = -38.574 to -9.930) per 1 ln (ng/ml) increase in perfluorodecaoic acid (PFDA). Similar patterns were observed between other PFAS and birth outcomes: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with birth length (BL) and ponderal index (PI), PFOS and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) with head circumference (HC), PFHpS with gestational age (GA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and PFHpS with preterm birth (PTB). Additionally, PFDA showed a statistically significant association with small for gestational age (SGA). The level of the combined evidence for each exposure-outcome pair was considered to be "moderate". Conclusion: This study showed that PFAS exposure was significantly associated with increased risks of various adverse birth outcomes and that different birth outcome indicators had different degrees of sensitivity to PFAS. Further studies are needed to confirm our results by expanding the sample size, clarifying the effects of different types or doses of PFAS and the time of blood collection on birth outcomes, and fully considering the possible confounders.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Nascimento Prematuro , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
19.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt A): 113157, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a large family of persistent industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties. OBJECTIVES: To examine biomarkers of reproductive function in young adult males according to current environmental exposure to single and combined PFAS. METHODS: The study population consisted of young men (n = 1041, age 18-21) from the Fetal Programming of Semen Quality (FEPOS) cohort. These men were recruited from pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) between 1996 and 2002. From 2017 to 2019, participants answered an online questionnaire, completed a clinical examination and provided a blood and a semen sample. Exposure to 15 PFAS was measured in plasma. Six compounds were quantified above the limit of detection in at least 80% of the participants. We applied negative binomial regression and weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression models to assess associations between single and combined exposure to PFAS and measures of semen quality, testicular volume and reproductive hormones among the young men. RESULTS: We found no consistent associations between plasma concentrations of PFAS, semen quality and testicular volume. Higher levels of single and combined PFAS were associated with slightly higher levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (WQS 4% difference, 95% confidence interval: 0, 9). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the main contributor to this finding with positive signals also from perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). DISCUSSION: We examined exposure to a range of common PFAS in relation to biomarkers of male reproductive function and found an association with higher levels of FSH among young men from the general population in Denmark. Further studies on especially combined exposure to PFAS are needed to expand our understanding of potential endocrine disruption from both legacy and emerging compounds in relation to male reproductive function.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Genitália Masculina , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Int ; 163: 107175, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes affects millions of people worldwide with a continued increase in incidence occurring within the pediatric population. The potential contribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to diabetes in youth remains poorly known, especially regarding type 1 diabetes (T1D), generally the most prevalent form of diabetes in youth. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between POPs and T1D in youth and studied the impacts of POPs on pancreatic ß-cell function and viability in vitro. METHODS: We used data and plasma samples from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Case Control Study (SEARCH-CC). Participants were categorized as Controls, T1D with normal insulin sensitivity (T1D/IS), and T1D with insulin resistance (T1D/IR). We assessed plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides and estimated the odds of T1D through multivariable logistic regression. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments with the INS-1E pancreatic ß-cells. Cells were treated with PCB-153 or p,p'-DDE at environmentally relevant doses. We measured insulin production and secretion and assessed the mRNA expression of key regulators involved in insulin synthesis (Ins1, Ins2, Pdx1, Mafa, Pcsk1/3, and Pcsk2), glucose sensing (Slc2a2 and Gck), and insulin secretion (Abcc8, Kcnj11, Cacna1d, Cacna1b, Stx1a, Snap25, and Sytl4). Finally, we assessed the effects of PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE on ß-cell viability. RESULTS: Among 442 youths, 112 were controls, 182 were classified with T1D/IS and 148 with T1D/IR. The odds ratios (OR) of T1D/IS versus controls were statistically significant for p,p'-DDE (OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 3.8 and 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 5.0 for 2nd and 3rd tertiles, respectively), trans-nonachlor (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3, 5.0 and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1, 5.1 for 2nd and 3rd tertiles, respectively), and PCB-153 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1, 4.6 for 3rd tertile). However, these associations were not observed in participants with T1D/IR. At an experimental level, treatment with p,p'-DDE or PCB-153, at concentrations ranging from 1 × 10-15 M to 5 × 10-6 M, impaired the ability of pancreatic ß-cells to produce and secrete insulin in response to glucose. These failures were paralleled by impaired Ins1 and Ins2 mRNA expression. In addition, among different targeted genes, PCB-153 significantly reduced Slc2a2 and Gck mRNA expression whereas p,p'-DDE mainly affected Abcc8 and Kcnj11. While treatment with PCB-153 or p,p'-DDE for 2 days did not affect ß-cell viability, longer treatment progressively killed the ß-cells. CONCLUSION: These results support a potential role of POPs in T1D etiology and demonstrate a high sensitivity of pancreatic ß-cells to POPs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Resistência à Insulina , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Glucose , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Insulina , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , RNA Mensageiro
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