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2.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 10(1): 20-30, Enero 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214141

RESUMO

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a very common disorder in childhood and adolescence. Many studies have examined various types of CognitiveBehavioral Therapy (CBT), meaning there is a need for a study exploring the efficacy of CBT. The objectives of this study are to determine whattreatments and factors can improve treatment outcomes for SAD. We performed an umbrella review of the effectiveness of psychological interventions in treating SAD in children and adolescents. Nine databases were searched using a combination of keywords. Risk of bias was assessed usingAMSTAR-2. Six systematic reviews and meta-analysis were selected and reported. All of those studies assessed the efficacy of CBT in children andadolescents with SAD, demonstrating its short- and long-term effectiveness. The components that seem to be most effective are exposure in anymodality and social skills training. Other considerations to take into account are addressed in the discussion. (AU)


El Trastorno de Ansiedad Social (TAS) es un trastorno muy común en la infancia y adolescencia. Muchos estudios han analizado los diferentes tipos de TerapiaCognitivo-Conductual (TCC) para dicho trastorno, pero ello hace necesario estudiar la eficacia de TCC. El objetivo de esta revisión de revisioneses determinar que tratamientos y que factores son más eficaces para el TAS en población infanto-juvenil. Se realizó una revisión de revisiones sobrela efectividad de las intervenciones psicológicas para tratar el TAS en niños y adolescentes. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda en nueve bases dedatos utilizando una combinación de palabras clave. El riesgo de sesgo se evaluó mediante la herramienta AMSTAR-2. Se seleccionaron y analizaronseis revisiones sistemáticas y meta-análisis. Todos los estudios seleccionados evaluaron la eficacia de la TCC en niños y adolescentes con SAD,demostrando su efectividad a corto y largo plazo. Los componentes que parecen ser más efectivos son la exposición en cualquier modalidad y elentrenamiento en habilidades sociales. Otras consideraciones a tener en cuenta se abordan en la discusión. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fobia Social/psicologia , Fobia Social/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapêutica , Criança , Psicologia do Adolescente
3.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 35(1): 66-76, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-215064

RESUMO

Background: Experiencing psychological problems during childhood and adolescence is common. However, the detection of behaviors as symptoms of psychopathologies requiring clinical diagnosis and treatment remains low. In order to advance understanding of psychological phenomena and particularly their behavioral manifestations, new theoretical and methodological perspectives such as network analysis are applied. Method: In the present study, we explore the dynamics of the symptoms of different internalizing, externalizing, and personal-contextual problems using network analysis. We estimate networks of regularized partial correlations, including measures of standard centrality, and the global and structural impact of symptoms on each network. Results: The results show that the syndromes we studied are activated through dynamics of symptoms that are strongly related to each other and act as intermediaries of potential psychopathological problems in children and adolescents (e.g., “feels sad,” “worries,” “won’t talk,” “nausea,” “threatens others,” “steals outside”). Centrality measures and impact coefficient ranges were strength (−2.39, 2.05), betweenness (−1.43, 3.38), closeness (−2.60, 2.23), and expected influence (−2.87, 2.13). Conclusions: The results suggest the need to explore attribute dynamics as well as symptomatic comorbidity between them.(AU)


Antecedentes: La experiencia de problemas psicológicos durante la infancia y la adolescencia es común. Sin embargo, la detección de conductas como síntomas de Psicopatologías que requieren diagnóstico y tratamiento clínico sigue siendo infravalorada. Por ello, para evolucionar en la comprensión de los fenómenos psicológicos considerando sus manifestaciones conductuales particulares, se aplican nuevas perspectivas teóricas y metodológicas como el análisis de redes. Método: En el presente estudio exploramos la dinámica de los síntomas de diferentes problemas internalizados y externalizados y personales-contextuales aplicando el análisis de redes. Se estimaron redes de correlaciones parciales regularizadas que incluye medidas de centralidad estándar e impacto global y estructural de los síntomas de distintos síndromes. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que los síndromes se activan a través de dinámicas de síntomas fuertemente relacionados con los demás y que actúan como intermediarios de potenciales problemas psicopatológicos en niños y adolescentes (por ejemplo, “sentirse triste”, “preocuparse”, “negarse a hablar”, “tener náuseas”, “amenazar a los demás”, “robar fuera”). Las medidas de centralidad y coeficientes de impacto oscilaron entre: fuerza (−2.39, 2.05), intermediación (−1.43, 3.38), cercanía (−2.60, 2.23) e influencia esperada (−2.87, 2.13). Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de explorar la dinámica multiconstructo, así como la comorbilidad sintomática entre ellas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Transtornos Mentais , Sintomas Comportamentais , Sintomas Afetivos , Síndromes Compartimentais , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança
5.
Apuntes psicol ; 40(3): 171-184, 13 nov. 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212680

RESUMO

La Psicología Clínica de la Infancia y la Adolescencia es reconocida internacionalmente como una especialidad profesional de la psicología. Ese reconocimiento de la especialidad conlleva la identificación precisa de sus competencias específicas y distintivas. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los modelos competenciales específicos propuestos en el ámbito de la Psicología Clínica de la Infancia y la Adolescencia. Se han identificado 16 publicaciones en bases de datos científicas ajustadas a los criterios de búsqueda. Para el análisis y sistematización de las competencias se ha tomado como referencia la clasificación del Modelo de Cubo de Rodolfa et al. En conjunto, se mencionan 22 grupos de competencias específicas del desempeño profesional de la Psicología Clínica de la Infancia y la Adolescencia, de los cuales 15 concitan un amplio consenso. Se concluye examinando las implicaciones de este trabajo para el desarrollo futuro de la profesión. (AU)


Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology is internationally recognized as a professional specialty of psychology. This recognition of the specialty entails the precise identification of its specific and distinctive competencies. The aim of this paper is to review the specific competency models proposed in the field of Clinical Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence. Sixteen publications were identified in scientific databases that matched the search criteria. For the analysis and systematization of competencies, the classification of the Rodolfa et al. Cube Model has been used as ref-erence. Overall, 22 groups of competencies specific to the professional performance of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology are mentioned, of which 15 are widely agreed upon. It concludes by examining the implications of this work for the future development of the profession. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia da Criança , Psicologia do Adolescente , Competência Clínica
7.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(5): 847-864, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207097

RESUMO

Adolescent Medicine addresses the health care of adolescents, young adults, and their families. Adolescent psychology constitutes an important part. The COVID-19 pandemic has given insight into adolescent needs, bringing the focus on prevention rather than mere correction. One needs to factor in the unique aspects of adolescence, their need to impress peers and gain acceptance, and their unique information processing, not calculating trade-offs between risk and reward the way adults might, in a linear, rational, logical, and verbal manner. The article focuses on the need for collaborative training among the various stakeholders in Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Assuntos
Medicina do Adolescente , COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adulto Jovem
8.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 469-477, Oct-Dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208819

RESUMO

Caplan's (2010) revised cognitive-behavioral model of Problem-atic Internet Use (PIU) has become one of the most promising theoretical frameworks on such behavior in the last decade. The Generalized Prob-lematic Internet Use Scale (GPIUS2) (Caplan, 2010) has been adapted and validated for use with Spanish adolescents, but gender invariance has not been tested yet in this country. The present study focuses on three objec-tives: to confirm the factorial structure of GPIUS2, to analyze gender in-variance, and to test Caplan’s theoretical model, in a sample of Spanish ad-olescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample was com-posed of 909 participants from Spain, agedbetween 12 and 18 years (Mean age= 14.2, SD= 1.6). The results indicated a good fit of the GPIUS2 fac-tor structure and gender factorial invariance. Moreover, the cognitive-behavioral model fit the data. GPIUS2 has a very good structure and pre-sents gender factorial invariance, which favors its application in Spanish adolescent population. This study supports the cognitive-behavioral model of PIU.(AU)


El modelo cognitivo-conductual revisado de Caplan (2010) so-bre el Uso Problemático de Internet (UPI) es uno de los marcos teóricos más prometedores sobre dicho comportamiento en la última década. La Escala Uso Problemático de Internet Generalizado(GPIUS2) (Caplan, 2010) ha sido adaptada y validada para su uso con adolescentes españoles, pero aún no se ha comprobado su invarianza de género en España. El pre-sente estudio se centra en tres objetivos: confirmar la estructura factorial de la escala GPIUS2, analizar la invarianza de género de dicha escala y poner a prueba el modelo teórico de Caplan en una muestra de adolescentes espa-ñoles. Se realizó un estudio transversal. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 909 participantes de España, con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (Edad media= 14.2, DT= 1.6). Los resultados indicaron un buen ajuste de la estructura factorial del GPIUS2 e invarianza factorial en fun-ción del género. Además, el modelo cognitivo-conductual mostró un buen ajuste de los datos. La GPIUS2 tiene una muy buena estructura y presenta invarianza factorial para el género, lo que favorece su aplicación en la po-blación adolescente española. Este estudio apoya el modelo cognitivo-conductual en el UPI.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Síndrome de Caplan , Internet , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Psicologia do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Espanha , Estudos Transversais , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078283

RESUMO

Existing research suggests that parent-adolescent conflict is associated with increased risk for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, adolescent NSSI reactions to parent-adolescent conflicts exhibit large individual differences. This study sought to explore whether depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and adolescent NSSI, and whether this mediating process is moderated by the COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism. A total of 673 adolescents (364 males, 309 females) in the age range of 12 to 15 years (Meanage = 12.81 years, SD = 0.48) completed questionnaires regarding parent-adolescent conflict, depressive symptoms, and NSSI. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva and buccal cells from each participant. Bootstrapping techniques displayed statistically significant moderated mediation. The results showed that the positive association between parent-adolescent conflict and adolescent NSSI was in fact mediated by depressive symptoms. Moreover, this indirect link was moderated by the COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism. Specifically, the risk effect of parent-adolescent conflict on adolescent NSSI via depressive symptoms was stronger for adolescents with Val/Val genotype than for those with Met/Met or Val/Met genotype. These findings underscore the importance of examining the interaction between genes and the environment to understand how and when parent-adolescent conflict impacts adolescent NSSI.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase , Depressão , Conflito Familiar , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Criança , China , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal , Pais/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética
10.
Pap. psicol ; 43(3): 173-184, Sept. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212851

RESUMO

La conducta suicida es un problema socio-sanitario de primer orden. El objetivo general de este trabajo es realizaruna revisión narrativa de la conducta suicida en adolescentes. Básicamente, se trata de introducir este tópico a losprofesionales de la Psicología y a la sociedad en su conjunto de cara a su formación, información, sensibilizacióny concienciación. Con este fin, en primer lugar, se realiza una delimitación conceptual de la conducta suicida. Acontinuación, se abordan cuestiones epidemiológicas. En tercer lugar, se introducen los modelos psicológicos másrelevantes. En cuarto lugar, se abordan los factores de riesgo y protección de la conducta suicida en adolescentes.Seguidamente, se explican algunas de las herramientas de evaluación disponibles en español para este sectorde la población. Posteriormente, se comentan los principales modelos de prevención focalizando el discurso enla importancia de los entornos educativos. También se introducen los tratamientos psicológicos empíricamenteapoyados para el abordaje de la conducta suicida en adolescentes. Finalmente, se comentan líneas de investigaciónfuturas y se realiza una breve recapitulación a modo de conclusión.(AU)


Suicide is a serious public health problem. The main goal of this paper is to carry out a narrative review of suicidalbehavior in adolescents. Basically, the aim is twofold: to provide updated information and to introduce mental healthprofessionals and society to this topic for their training and knowledge. To this end, first, a conceptual delimitationof suicidal behavior is produced. Second, epidemiological issues are addressed. Third, psychological models ofsuicidal behavior are presented, along with the possible explanations underlying this phenomenon. Fourth, the riskand protective factors for suicidal behavior are mentioned. Next, assessment tools for this sector of the populationare introduced. Subsequently, prevention strategies are discussed, focusing on the importance of educationalenvironments. Empirically supported psychological treatments for dealing with suicidal behavior are also proposed.Finally, future lines of research are discussed, and a brief summary is made.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Tentativa de Suicídio , Suicídio , Psicologia do Adolescente , Problemas Sociais , Modelos Psicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social
11.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 8(3): 426-441, Sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207911

RESUMO

La autoestima es un constructo de gran importancia en la adolescencia que favorece la salud y el bienestar psicológico de los escolares. En este trabajo se analiza la bidimensionalidad de la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (EAR) mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio, así como las relaciones existentes entre la práctica de actividad física, Autoestima Global y las dimensión positiva y negativa de la autoestima. Se llevó a cabo en una muestra de 429 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y Bachillerato de la ciudad de Sevilla (Andalucía). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron Cuestionario de Actividad Física en adolescentes (PaqA de Martínez-Gómez et al., 2009) y Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (EAR, 1965) versión de Atienza et al. (2000). Los resultados obtenidos permiten aceptar la bidimensionalidad de la escala, así mismo se constató buenos niveles de autoestima global y una tendencia a una mejor autoestima en los adolescentes activos. La práctica de actividad física se asocia con la dimensión Autoestima Positiva, pero no con la Autoestima Negativa y la Autoestima Global. (AU)


Self-esteem is a construct of great importance in adolescence that favors the health and psychological well-being of schoolchildren. In this paper, the two-dimensionality of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RAS) is analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the relationships between the practice of physical activity (PA), Global self-esteem, and the positive and negative dimensions of self-esteem. It was carried out in a sample of 429 students in the high school of the city of Seville (Andalusia). The instruments used were the Physical Activity Questionnaire in adolescents (PaqA, Martínez-Gómez et al., 2009) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (EAR, 1965) version of Atienza et al. (2000). The results obtained allow us to accept the two-dimensionality of the scale, as well as good levels of global self-esteem and a tendency to better self-esteem in active adolescents. The practice of PA is associated with the Positive Self-esteem dimension, but not with Negative Self-esteem or Global Self-esteem. (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Autoimagem , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos e Questionários , Bullying , Psicologia do Adolescente
12.
Psicothema ; 34(3): 383-391, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The delimitation of the clinical high risk of psychosis (CHRp) is characterized by the wide variety of symptoms assessed from different approaches from the onset of psychosis. This study aimed to create a systematic procedure for an effective and accurate earlydetection of CHRp in educational settings. METHOD: A representative sample of 1,824 adolescents (average age, 15.79; 53.8%, women) was used to develop an online assessment system and a new 3-track, 3-level algorithm that combines symptoms of the main risk approaches: ultra-high risk (UHR), basic symptoms (BS), and anomalies in the subjective self-experience (ASE) with functional deficit. RESULTS: The acceptability and feasibility of the online screening system were confirmed by the data. Of the total participants, 68 (3.7%) were identified as high-risk and 417 (22.9%) were identified as moderate, which also supports the functionality of the proposed algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: The system indicates a dynamic model of progression of the different symptoms in the early stages of psychosis, and it may constitute a first line of identification for severe mental disorders in young people in the earliest stages, allowing application of initial preventive measures.


Assuntos
Psicologia do Adolescente , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nature ; 607(7919): 512-520, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794485

RESUMO

Social-evaluative stressors-experiences in which people feel they could be judged negatively-pose a major threat to adolescent mental health1-3 and can cause young people to disengage from stressful pursuits, resulting in missed opportunities to acquire valuable skills. Here we show that replicable benefits for the stress responses of adolescents can be achieved with a short (around 30-min), scalable 'synergistic mindsets' intervention. This intervention, which is a self-administered online training module, synergistically targets both growth mindsets4 (the idea that intelligence can be developed) and stress-can-be-enhancing mindsets5 (the idea that one's physiological stress response can fuel optimal performance). In six double-blind, randomized, controlled experiments that were conducted with secondary and post-secondary students in the United States, the synergistic mindsets intervention improved stress-related cognitions (study 1, n = 2,717; study 2, n = 755), cardiovascular reactivity (study 3, n = 160; study 4, n = 200), daily cortisol levels (study 5, n = 118 students, n = 1,213 observations), psychological well-being (studies 4 and 5), academic success (study 5) and anxiety symptoms during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdowns (study 6, n = 341). Heterogeneity analyses (studies 3, 5 and 6) and a four-cell experiment (study 4) showed that the benefits of the intervention depended on addressing both mindsets-growth and stress-synergistically. Confidence in these conclusions comes from a conservative, Bayesian machine-learning statistical method for detecting heterogeneous effects6. Thus, our research has identified a treatment for adolescent stress that could, in principle, be scaled nationally at low cost.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estresse Psicológico , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19 , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Cognição , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia , Autoadministração , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
14.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 51(3): 261-263, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671232

RESUMO

The premise of experimental therapeutics is that one can (a) target a process, or mechanism, underlying psychopathology and (b) that change in said mechanism can cause clinical improvement. Targeting specific mechanisms may permit more effective and personalized medicine. The experimental therapeutics approach holds promise for improving the potency and efficiency of treatments for childhood psychopathology, and for advancing our understanding of the factors that both cause and sustain psychopathology. This special issue presents new research utilizing this framework and offers guidelines for the application of the experimental therapeutics framework.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Criança , Família , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicologia da Criança , Psicopatologia
15.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 47: 101356, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687917

RESUMO

Antisocial behavior in adolescents is generally seen as a neurodevelopmental problem; however, in spite of increasing knowledge on the neurobiology of persistent antisocial behavior, conduct disorders, and psychopathic traits, this knowledge is hardly used in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current research on the neurobiology of antisocial behavior in adolescents and to discuss how this knowledge can be translated to youth forensic clinical practice. First, an overview of recent literature on genetics, neuroimaging, neuropsychology, neurophysiology/neuroendocrinology, and antisocial behavior in adolescents is given. Second, implications for diagnostics, risk taxation, and treatment are discussed. Finally, an integrated biopsychosocial approach for future research regarding translational forensic child and adolescent psychology and psychiatry is advocated.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Psicologia do Adolescente
16.
J Adolesc ; 94(5): 728-747, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695089

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The United States struggles with racial/ethnic disparities in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) degrees and occupations. According to situated expectancy-value theory, the experience and knowledge parents gain through STEM degrees and occupations shape the STEM support they provide and relatedly their adolescents' STEM motivational beliefs. METHODS: We analyzed data from the High School Longitudinal Study (N = 14,000; 50% female; Mage = 14 years old at 9th grade), which is a recent U.S. data set that surveyed a nationally representative sample of adolescents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that parent STEM support in 9th grade and adolescent STEM motivational beliefs in 11th grade were lower in families where parents did not have a STEM degree/occupation than in families where at least one parent had a STEM degree/occupation. Our within-group analyses suggested that parents' STEM support was generally positively related to adolescents' STEM motivational beliefs among families where parents did not have a STEM degree/occupation for all racial/ethnic groups except Black adolescents. However, these relations were not significant among adolescents who had a parent STEM degree/occupation. Furthermore, although Asian and White adolescents' parents were more likely to hold a STEM degree/occupation than Latina/o and Black adolescents' parents, the associations between parent STEM support and adolescents' STEM motivational beliefs emerged for Asian, Latina/o, and White adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Motivação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ocupações , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estados Unidos
17.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 15(2): 72-79, Jun. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-209906

RESUMO

Objective:To determine the association between suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning and attempt) and sedentary behavior in adolescents.Method:Systematic searches were performed in eight databases (MEDLINE/PubMed; Web of Science; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; LILACS; SciELO; PsycINFO;CINAHL). The effect measures used for meta-analysis were odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, directly collected from included studies.Results:Eleven studies were included in the systematic review and six articles were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed thatadolescents who used video games/computers for ≥3 hours/day were more likely of having suicidal ideation. Adolescents who used television or videogame/computer for ≥3 hours/day were more likely of having suicide attempt. Boys who spent ≥3 hours/day in combined sedentary behavior were lesslikely of having suicidal attempt.Conclusions:There is an increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors, in special suicide ideation and attempt in adolescents who used videogames/computers and watched television for ≥3 hours/day.(AU)


Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre comportamientos suicidas (ideación, planificación e intento) y sedentarismo en adolescentes.Método: Se realizaron búsquedas sistemáticas en ocho bases de datos (MEDLINE/PubMed; Web of Science; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; LILACS; SciELO;PsycINFO; CINAHL). Las medidas de efecto fueron los odds ratios y intervalos de confianza del 95%, recopilados directamente de los estudios.Resultados: Se incluyeron once estudios en la revisión sistemática y seis estudios en el metanálisis. El metanálisis mostró que los adolescentes que usabanvideojuegos/computadoras durante ≥3 horas/día tenían más probabilidades de tener ideación suicida. Los adolescentes que usaban televisión yvideojuego/computadora durante ≥3 horas/día tenían más probabilidades de tener un intento de suicidio. Los niños que pasaron ≥3 horas/día incomportamientos sedentarios combinados tenían más probabilidades de tener intento de suicidio.Conclusiones: Existe una mayor probabilidad de conductas suicidas, en ideación e intento de suicidio en adolescentes que usaronvideojuegos/computadoras y vieron televisión durante ≥3 horas/día.(AU)


Objetivo: Determinar a associação entre comportamentos suicidas (ideação, planejamento e tentativa) e comportamento sedentário em adolescentes.Método: Pesquisas sistemáticas foram realizadas em oito bancos de dados (MEDLINE/PubMed; Web of Science; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; LILACS; SciELO;PsycINFO; CINAHL). As medidas de efeito utilizadas para a metanálise foram odds ratio e intervalos de confiança de 95%, coletados diretamente dosestudos.Resultados: Onze estudos foram incluídos na revisão sistemática e cinco artigos foram incluídos na meta-análise. A meta-análise mostrou que osadolescentes que usavam videogame/computador por ≥3 horas/dia tinham maiores chances de ter ideação suicida. Os adolescentes que usavamtelevisão ou videogame/computador por ≥3 horas/dia apresentaram maiores chances de tentativa de suicídio. Os meninos com ≥3 horas/dia emcomportamentos sedentários combinados apresentaram menores chances de reportar tentativas de suicídio.Conclusões: Existe maiores chances de comportamentos suicidas, em especial ideação e tentativa de suicídio em adolescentes que usavamvideogame/computador e assistiam televisão por ≥3 horas/dia.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/tendências , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário , Comportamento do Adolescente , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Medicina Esportiva , Psicologia do Adolescente , Jogos de Vídeo
18.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 34(4): 489-497, Jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-211773

RESUMO

Background: Interpretation bias (IB) and safety behaviors (SB) are maintenance mechanisms of social anxiety (SA). However, few studies have examined the role of IB and SB together in explaining SA. The objective of this study was to determine whether SB explains the association between IB and SA. To evaluate these variables, the Adolescents’ Interpretation and Beliefs Questionnaire (AIBQ 2.0) and the Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale (SPSBS) needed to be adapted for Spanish adolescents and young people. Method: 826 Spanish vocational training students (60% males, 14–28 years old) completed a measure of SA and the AIBQ 2.0 and SPSBS. Results: Path analysis showed that IB in offline scenarios was associated with SA through SB. IB in offline situations, but not in online situations, was directly associated with SA. As expected, the AIBQ 2.0 showed a two-dimensional structure and good internal consistency. The SPSBS demonstrated a unidimensional structure and good internal consistency. Conclusions: In the absence of longitudinal studies, the data are compatible with the possible mediating role of SB in the association between IB and SA. Both instruments (AIBQ 2.0 and SPSBS) exhibited good psychometric properties for Spanish students.(AU)


Aun considerándose los sesgos de interpretación (IB) y las conductas de seguridad (SB) mecanismos mantenedores de la ansiedad social (SA), son escasos los estudios que examinan estas variables en conjunto. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar si las SB explican la asociación entre IB y la SA. Para evaluar estas variables se requirió adaptar el Adolescents’ Interpretation and the Beliefs Questionnaire (AIBQ 2.0) y el Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale (SPSBS) en adolescentes y jóvenes españoles. Método: 826 estudiantes españoles de formación profesional (60% hombres, 14-28 años) completaron una medida de SA y el AIBQ 2.0 y SPSBS. Resultados: El path analysis mostró que las IB en escenarios offline se asociaron con SA a través de SB. Las IB en situaciones offline, pero no online, se asociaron directamente con SA. El AIBQ 2.0 mostró una estructura de dos dimensiones y consistencia interna aceptable. El SPSBS mostró una estructura unidimensional y buena consistencia interna. Conclusiones: A falta de estudios longitudinales, los datos son compatibles con el posible rol mediador de las SB respecto a la relación entre IB y SA. Ambos instrumentos (AIBQ 2.0 y SPSBS) disponen de buenas propiedades psicométricas en estudiantes españoles.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudantes , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicometria , Espanha , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social
19.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 34(4): 544-552, Jun. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-211779

RESUMO

Background: Antisocial and criminal behaviors are frequently associated with illegal behaviors committed by adolescents between 12 and 19. This study aims to examine antisocial and criminal behavior in adolescence and establish guidelines that contribute to educational prevention. Specifically, we sought to evaluate self-reports of antisocial and criminal behaviors in adolescents, verifying differences in the variables sex and age. Method: A total of 396 adolescents participated in the study. They were aged 12 to 19 years old (M = 15.8, SD = 1.6), were of both sexes (63.9% girls or women and 36.1% boys or men) and were attending primary and secondary schools in Brazil. The Antisocial-Criminal Behaviors Questionnaire (A-D) was administered online. Descriptive and comparative analyses by sex and age were performed. Results: Boys presented more transgressive behaviors than girls, not overall, but in specific behaviors included in the two scales of the questionnaire used. In terms of age, self-reported antisocial and criminal behaviors increased with student age. Conclusions: From a systemic perspective, educational proposals are made to identify and neutralize risk factors and improve protective factors for adolescents.(AU)


Antecedentes: Las conductas antisociales y delictivas se asocian frecuentemente a conductas ilegales y son cometidas por adolescentes de 12 a19 años. Este trabajo tiene como objetivos profundizar en este tipo de conductas en la adolescencia y establecer pautas que contribuyan a su prevención educativa. Concretamente, se evalúan los autoinformes de conductas antisociales y delictivas en adolescentes, y se verifican diferencias respecto al sexo y la edad. Método: La muestra estuvo conformada por 396 adolescentes, de 12 a 19 años (M = 15.8, DT = 1.6), de ambos sexos (63.9%% mujeres y 36.1% varones), estudiantes de primaria y secundaria de escuelas brasileñas. El Cuestionario de Conductas Antisociales-Delictivas (A-D) fue administrado en línea. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y comparativos por sexo y edad. Resultados: En cuanto al sexo, los chicos presentaron comportamientos más transgresores que las chicas, pero no de modo global, sino en conductas específicas incluidas en las dos escalas del cuestionario utilizado. Respecto a la edad, se incrementan las conductas antisociales y delictivas autoinformadas a medida que aumenta la edad de los estudiantes. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos permiten organizar propuestas educativas consistentes para identificar y neutralizar los factores de riesgo y mejorar los factores protectores para los adolescentes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Psicologia do Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Criminoso , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social
20.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 9(2): 16-25, Mayo 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-204766

RESUMO

This study evaluates the relationship between gender, personality, psychopathology and suicidal behaviour among adolescents. For this purpose, across-sectional study with adolescent inpatients (N = 92) displaying suicidal behaviour was designed. Sociodemographic characteristics and datarelated to suicidal behaviour were collected. In addition, personality and clinical severity were assessed by administering the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Results revealed that the most prevalent personality dimensions for both genders were Introversive, Self-demeaning, Doleful,Oppositional, Borderline tendency and Inhibited. However, men scored higher in Inhibited (p = 0.02, Cohen’s d = 0.45) and women in Egotistic(p = 0.03, Cohen’s d = 0.40). Concerning clinical severity of syndromes, women scored higher in Delinquent Predisposition (p = 0.04, Cohen’sd = 0.45) and men in Anxious Feelings (p = 0.02, Cohen’s d = 0.51), Depressive Affect (p = 0.04, Cohen’s d = 0.41) and Suicidal Tendency (p= 0.03, Cohen’s d = 0.37), with men reporting more frequently Childhood Abuse (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d= 0.70). Results highlight the importanceof universal interventions to promote a change in attitudes towards seeking psychological help, specially in men, and the need to designeffective tailored treatments to acquire emotional management skills for both genders. (AU)


Este estudio evalúa la relación entre el género, lapersonalidad, la psicopatología y la conducta suicida entre los adolescentes. Para ello, se diseñó un estudio transversal con adolescentes hospitalizados (N = 92) que presentaban conductas suicidas. Se recogieron características sociodemográficas y datos relacionados con la conductasuicida. Además, se evaluó la personalidad y la gravedad clínica mediante la administración del Inventario Clínico de Adolescentes de Millon (MACI).Los resultados revelaron que las dimensiones de personalidad más prevalentes para ambos géneros fueron Introversivo, Auto-punitivo, Pesimista,Oposicionista, Tendencia límite e Inhibido. Sin embargo, los hombres puntuaron más alto en Inhibido (p = 0,02, d de Cohen = 0,45) y las mujeresen Egocéntrica (p = 0,03, d de Cohen = 0,40). En cuanto a la gravedad clínica de los síndromes, las mujeres puntuaron más alto en PredisposiciónDelictiva (p = 0,04, d de Cohen = 0,45) y los hombres en Sentimientos Ansiosos (p = 0,02, d de Cohen = 0. 51), Afecto Depresivo (p = 0,04, dde Cohen = 0,41) y Tendencia Suicida (p = 0,03, d de Cohen = 0,37), y los hombres informaron con mayor frecuencia de Abuso en la Infancia(p < 0,001, d de Cohen = 0,70). Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de las intervenciones universales para promover un cambiode actitud hacia la búsqueda de ayuda psicológica, especialmente en los hombres, y la necesidad de diseñar tratamientos eficaces a medidapara adquirir habilidades de gestión emocional para ambos géneros. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Determinação da Personalidade , 57425 , Estudos Transversais/métodos
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