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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 300-310, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570661

RESUMO

This paper aims to review previous findings on the developmental trajectory of core executive functions - attentional control, inhibition, mental shifting, cognitive flexibility, and working memory - in adolescence with special attention to age-related stress-sensitivity in this period. More simple abilities, like attentional control and inhibition, go through a dramatic maturation process between the ages of 10 and 11. This is followed by a final progress, and as a result, after age 13-15 years acute stress deteriorates attentional control performance less, or it may even improve it. Working memory matures later, around 14-15 years, and it reaches the adult level at 17 years. Concerning mental shifting and cognitive flexibility, more maturation points could be identified: word fluency usually reaches full maturation at the age of 13, semantic fluency between the ages of 17 and 18, and general flexibility around 18-19 years. Based on the reviewed papers we could see that acute stress affects executive functions differently during adolescence, depending on how these functions mature. Those functions which develop later, are more sensitive to stress during the entire period of adolescence, and reviewed studies show that acute stress has a deteriorating effect on these functions. At the same time, early matured inhibition and attentional control are enhanced by acute stress in the half of the studies. Other theories and methodological issues are also discussed. Keywords: attentional control; inhibition; shifting; working memory.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Função Executiva , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 479-485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488776

RESUMO

Several studies highlight that many students feel negative feelings about mathematical learning and that the mathematics anxiety seems to play a central role in mathematical performance. More specifically students with higher level of maths anxiety are less efficient in mathematical tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific mathematics anxiety as assessed by AMAS, trait and state anxiety as assessed by STAI-Y, and mathematical skills assessed through the ABCA tests in a sample of 83 adolescent students (78.3% males) without diagnosis of dyscalculia and cognitive disorder attending their first year of secondary school. Results showed that 38% of the students referred high level of maths anxiety. Independent T-test revealed that female students referred a higher level of maths anxiety as well as of trait and state anxiety than male ones, while there were no differences in the mathematics performance. The simultaneous multivariate linear regression analysis showed that maths anxiety was influenced by trait anxiety and in its turn has an impact on the high level mathematics performances (i.e. arithmetic facts). Understanding the relationships between maths anxiety and maths learning and performance may have relevant implications in clinical, educational and didactic practice.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Matemática , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 109-124, mayo-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183641

RESUMO

El presente estudio es una revisión sistemática de las investigaciones realizadas sobre los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores relacionados con el ciberbullying entre adolescentes. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, Science Direct Journals, Scopus y Springer Journals. Luego de aplicar los criterios de inclusión a los 226 artículos encon-trados inicialmente, se tuvo como resultado un total de 39 artículos que conformaron la muestra final. El N total de las muestras fue 173.179 adolescentes. La investigación con la muestra más pequeña tuvo 90 participantes y la muestra más grande estuvo conforma-da por 72.327 personas. Los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores están relacionados con el uso de Internet y las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, aspectos familiares, sociales, psicológicos e individuales. La información consignada en esta re-visión sistemática deja ver la importancia de programas de intervención que prevengan y atiendan el ciberbullying, en los que se in-volucre a la familia, la escuela y la sociedad


The present study is a systematic review of the research on the risk and protective factors related to cyberbullying among adolescents. The research was carried out using the databases Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, Science Direct journals, Scopus and Springer journals. Applying the inclusion criteria to the 226 articles initially found, resulted in a total of 39 articles that made up the final sample. The total N of the samples was 173,179 adolescents. The research with the smallest sample had 90 participants and the largest sample was made up of 72,327 participants. The risk and protective factors are related to the use of the Internet and information and communication technologies, family, social, psychological and individual aspects. The information contained in this systematic review shows the importance of intervention programs that prevent and address cyberbullying, involving family, school and society


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Proteção , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Internet , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 57-65, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183646

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of the Building My Future program's implementation variables on attendance rate and on changes in personal, problem-solving, and community competencies. The program is run by local Social Services from Castile and Leon, Spain, and offers opportunities for adolescents to propose and carry out youth-led activities in their community. Data were accumulated from 356 participants, the majority experiencing negative psychosocial conditions, attending a total of 32 groups from 2013 to 2016. Using binary logistic regression and hierarchical linear regression analyses, results showed that having a facilitator with less professional experience, attending larger groups, having a high level of family involvement, and performing fewer modules and fewer extra activities predicted higher attendance rates and more positive task orientation, self-concept, social realization, and problem-solving competencies. Being younger, from an urban area, and having a facilitator with less professional experience predicted a higher score in community integration. These findings reveal that several program implementation components can contribute to the program's development and effectiveness and can also be considered across multiple programs in this field of practice


Este estudio examina la influencia de las variables de la aplicación del programa "Construyendo mi futuro" en el índice de asistencia y el cambio en competencias personales, de resolución de problemas y comunitarias. El programa se ofrece desde los Servicios Sociales de Castilla y León, España, brindando oportunidades para que adolescentes propongan y lleven a cabo actividades en su comunidad. Se recogieron datos de 356 participantes, la mayoría en situación de riesgo psicosocial, que asistieron a un total de 32 grupos desde el año 2013 hasta el año 2016. Mediante análisis de regresión logística binaria y regresión jerárquica lineal, los resultados indican que tener un facilitador con menos experiencia (más joven), asistir a grupos más grandes, disfrutar de un alto nivel de participación familiar y realizar menos módulos y menos actividades adicionales predecían un mayor índice de asistencia. Estas variables predijeron además una mayor orientación hacia la tarea y cambios positivos en autoconcepto, realización social y resolución de problemas. El hecho de ser joven, de zona urbana y tener un facilitador con menor experiencia profesional predecía una mayor puntuación en integración comunitaria. Estos resultados nos revelan cómo determinados componentes de la aplicación del programa pueden contribuir al desarrollo y a la eficacia del mismo, pudiendo igualmente ser considerados en otros muchos programas en este ámbito de intervención


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Carência Psicossocial , Grupos de Risco , Psicologia do Adolescente , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
5.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 340-348, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259640

RESUMO

Purpose: This study examined a developmental model that links affect-regulation difficulties in childhood with three dimensions of alexithymia in adolescence (difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and externally oriented thinking) and substance use and depression in adulthood, while accounting for cumulative contextual risk in childhood, and testing potential gender moderation. Methods: Multiple group path analyses were conducted using data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (N = 6963). Analyses used data collected during prenatal/birth, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood periods. Results: Our examination of early precursors for alexithymia indicated that the associations of affect-regulation problems in childhood with alexithymia were stronger for girls, potentially putting girls with affect-regulation difficulties in childhood at higher risk for developing alexithymia in adolescence. The associations of cumulative contextual risk in childhood with alexithymia, substance use disorder, and depression diagnosis in adulthood were significant for both girls and boys. Our findings in regard to substance use and depression disorders revealed that alexithymia in adolescence predicted depression diagnosis in adulthood, particularly due to a contribution from the alexithymia domain of 'difficulties identifying feelings.' However, none of the alexithymia domains was directly associated with substance use disorder in adulthood. Conclusions: Our study contributes to research that links alexithymia with difficulties in affect regulation and cumulative contextual risk in childhood, yielding findings that may be relevant for preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Psicologia do Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Emoções , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(23): e162, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying immigrants may have the potential to explore how cultural and environmental changes affect the internet game play patterns of individuals in the two countries. We planned to compare risk and preventive factors for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) between Korean adolescents in Korea and immigrant Koreans in the US. METHODS: Ninety-four Koreans and 133 immigrant Koreans were recruited. Independent factors consisted of five domains including demographic data, physical activity, academic, art, and music activities, psychological factors, and game and media play. The dependent variable in the current study was the high-risk group of IGD, which was assessed with Young's Internet Addiction Scale scores. To determine the protective and risk factors for IGD, we performed a multiple logistic regression analysis using the high-risk group as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Five domains affected the risk for IGD in Korean and immigrant Korean groups. Vigorous physical activity was the strongest protective factor for IGD in the Korean group, while media activity was the strongest protective factor for IGD in immigrant Koreans in the US. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that internet gaming problems might be affected by environmental factors and it is recommended that gaming activity is substituted with physical activity, extracurricular classes, books, and music.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(4): 316-322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044673

RESUMO

Voluntariness in Outpatient Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents Voluntariness is no selective construct in psychotherapy with children and adolescents. Generally psychotherapy is utilized under external pressure, at least partially. At any rate it is crucial to painstakingly analyze the motivation for change and possible obstacles to motivation. On that basis different strategies to foster motivation for change can be applied. Problems regarding the efficiency of voluntary or involuntary utilization of outpatient psychotherapy for children and adolescents should be subjects to further research.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Tratamento Psiquiátrico Involuntário/ética , Psicologia do Adolescente/ética , Psicologia do Adolescente/normas , Psicologia da Criança/ética , Psicologia da Criança/normas , Psicoterapia/ética , Psicoterapia/normas
8.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(4): 323-343, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044675

RESUMO

Selection, Use, and Interpretation of German Intelligence Tests for Children and Adolescents Based on CHC-theory: Update, Extension, and Critical Discussion In order to facilitate planning and interpretation of cognitive assessments for children and adolescents a CHC broad and narrow ability classification of nine widespread German tests of intelligence is presented. The Cattel-Horn-Carroll-theory of intelligence is an influential model in the field of intelligence testing. Its structure and basic premises are presented. On this basis, intelligence testing can be planned and interpreted systematically in a common theoretical framework. Practical implications and suggestions for diagnosticians (e. g. cross-battery-assessment) are pointed out. Finally, possibilities and limitations of CHC-theory in the field of intelligence testing are discussed.


Assuntos
Testes de Inteligência , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Inteligência , Psicometria
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 408, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early sexual intercourse (SI) may have long-lasting negative impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). So far, these impacts have been studied using age for defining early SI instead of feelings about its timing. The present study examined the association between feelings about the timing of first SI and current HRQoL. METHODS: Data came from the 2014 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in French-speaking Belgium. Among participants aged 16-20 years who already had SI, 1778 were included in analyses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed, including potential confounders. RESULTS: One quarter of adolescents (26.4%) had poor HRQoL, 19.8% expressed a negative feeling about the timing of first SI and 19.6% did not think about it. Compared with adolescents who thought first SI happened at the right time or wished it had happened sooner, adolescents who had a negative feeling about the timing and those who did not think about it were more likely to have a poor HRQoL (cOR = 1.67 (1.28-2.17) and cOR = 1.37 (1.05-1.80), respectively). After adjustment, associations were no more significant (aOR = 1.22 (0.91-1.63) and aOR = 1.22 (0.91-1.64)). Sex disparity in expressing a negative feeling mostly explained the difference between crude and adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to better understand such a complex relationship. The high proportion of adolescents having poor HRQoL and negative feeling about the timing of first SI shows how important it is to find out effective prevention for both domains.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Coito/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Bélgica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adulto Jovem
10.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(1): 49-55, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182611

RESUMO

This study explores the relationships of self-control with age and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 1,600 randomly selected Spanish adolescents and young adults, aged 12-34 years (M = 22.28, SD = 6.94). Measures of self-control, Internet addiction, and anxiety-depressive symptoms were administered. Control variables included age and sex. Results indicated that adolescents between 15 and 19 years old showed the lowest self-control scores, while older participants showed greater scores. Low scores in self-control were significantly associated with greater substance consumption, more anxiety-depression symptoms, and higher scores on the Internet addiction scale. Also, participants with high scores on the addiction scale scored lower on self-control. These results evidence associations between self-control and some emotional-behavioral problems, and suggest the importance of promoting self-control to prevent Internet addiction, substance consumption, and anxiety-depression in adolescents and young adults


Este estudio explora las tendencias evolutivas en el autocontrol y su relación con el desajuste psicológico en adolescentes y jóvenes adultos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 1,600 adolescentes y jóvenes adultos españoles de entre 12 y 34 años (M = 22.28, DT = 6.94) seleccionados aleatoriamente. Se administraron medidas de autocontrol, adicción a internet y síntomas de ansiedad-depresión. El sexo y la edad fueron utilizados como variables de control. Los resultados indicaron que los adolescentes con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y 19 años mostraron las puntuaciones más bajas en autocontrol, mientras que los participantes de más edad puntuaron más alto. Puntuaciones bajas en autocontrol estuvieron significativamente asociadas con mayor consumo de sustancias, más síntomas de ansiedad-depresión y puntuaciones más elevadas en la escala de adicción a internet. Además, los participantes con puntuaciones más altas en la escala de adicción puntuaron más bajo en autocontrol. Estos resultados evidencian las relaciones entre el autocontrol y algunos problemas emocionales y conductuales y sugieren la importancia de promover el autocontrol para prevenir la adicción a internet, el consumo de sustancias y los problemas de ansiedad-depresión en adolescentes y jóvenes adultos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Autocontrole/psicologia , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Percepção Social , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia
11.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 101: 129-142, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006540

RESUMO

Neurobiological models of adolescent decision-making emphasize developmental changes in brain regions involved in affect (e.g., ventral striatum) and cognitive control (e.g., lateral prefrontal cortex). Although social context plays an important role in adolescent decision-making, current models do not discuss brain regions implicated in processing social information (e.g., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex). We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis using the Multilevel peak Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) method to test the hypothesis that brain regions involved in affect, cognitive control, and social information processing support adolescent decision-making in social contexts (N = 21 functional neuroimaging studies; N = 1292 participants). Results indicated that dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus/insula and ventral striatum are consistently associated with adolescent decision-making in social contexts. Activity within these regions was modulated by the type of social context and social actors involved. Findings suggest including brain regions involved in social information processing into models of adolescent decision-making. We propose a 'constructionist' model, which describes psychological processes and corresponding neural networks related to affect, cognitive control, and social information processing.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Neurológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Infuência dos Pares , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Social , Meio Social
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(7): 1311-1326, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025156

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults in the United States are constantly exposed to substance-related media and advertising content. The current study seeks to explore, developmentally, how exposure to substance-related media content influences both normative beliefs about peer alcohol use and individual alcohol use. Youth (N = 4'840; 50.6% female) were followed for ten years from age 12 to 22. Auto-regressive latent trajectory with structured residual (ALT-SR) models were used to explore within-person reciprocal associations between substance-related media content, descriptive norms, and alcohol use. Results indicated that' across adolescence and young adulthood, exposure to substance-related media content was associated with increased alcohol use via perceived alcohol norms. The pathway from media exposure to alcohol use was mediated by increased perceived norms for adolescents only. With screen time increasing over the last decade, it is important to invest resources into real-time interventions that address substance-related social media content as it relates to misperceived norms and to begin these interventions in early adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Publicidade como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Normas Sociais , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Psicologia do Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(7): 1365-1378, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989473

RESUMO

There are substantial changes in executive functioning during adolescence that may correspond with the onset and progression of puberty. The current study examines associations between pubertal development (timing and tempo) and changes in specific executive functioning skills (i.e., attention and self-control) across the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9.5-15.5) using data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1099 youth; 52% female, 81% White, 83% above the poverty line). The findings indicated that early maturation was associated with faster increases in attention skills over adolescence for both boys and girls. Further, early maturation predicted worse self-control among girls but not boys. This study provides new insights on executive functioning during the transition to adolescence-a period of both vulnerability and opportunity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Puberdade/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Fatores Sexuais , Maturidade Sexual
14.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1218-1233, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903366

RESUMO

The role of older siblings in younger siblings' academic socialization becomes increasingly salient during adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the developmental mechanisms through which older siblings shape younger siblings' academic outcomes and whether older siblings' peer affiliations predict younger siblings' educational aspirations and attainment. Data consisted of responses from 395 target adolescents (Mage = 12.22 years, 48.9% female; 51.6% African American, 38.5% European American) and their older siblings (Mage = 14.65 years, 50.1% female) across nine years. The findings showed that older siblings' affiliation with academically disengaged peers at 7th grade predicted younger siblings' decreased affiliation with academically engaged peers and increased affiliation with disengaged peers at 9th grade. In addition, younger siblings' affiliation with academically engaged peers predicted greater educational aspirations at 11th grade, which in turn were related to higher postsecondary educational attainment. The identification of developmental processes through which older siblings were associated with younger siblings' academic success may aid in creating supportive social environments in which adolescents can thrive.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Relações entre Irmãos , Irmãos/psicologia , Socialização , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Psicologia do Adolescente , Meio Social
15.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 47(5): 388-398, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882278

RESUMO

Nonsuicidal self-injury in connection with the axes Structure and Relationship of the OPD-KJ-2 (Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence) Abstract. This study investigates nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSV) in relation to psychological structure as well as inter- and intrapersonal relationships. The Structure and Relationship axes of the OPD-CA-2 (Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis in Childhood and Adolescence) were used to record relationship dynamics and structural aspects; the MOUSI was applied for nonsuicidal self-injury. The sample included 40 adolescent psychiatric patients, most of whom were in inpatient care. A total of 20 adolescents with and 20 without NSSV were compared with regard to the Structure and Relationship axes. The two samples showed no differences on the Structure axis, whereas differences were found on the Relationship axis. Adolescents with NSSV, for example, were more likely to gently influence others and to react in interactive settings more openly toward their counterpart than adolescents without NSSV. In their relationship to themselves, the adolescents with NSSV were more often assessed as tormented and reproachful. Results indicate that the Relationship axis of the OPD-CA-2 can provide helpful information, so that this should be considered in psychotherapeutic measures for NSSV patients.


Assuntos
Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Terapia Psicanalítica , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(5): 864-875, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879164

RESUMO

Life course models of the impact of discrimination on health and mental health outcomes posit that the pernicious effects of discrimination may not be immediate, but instead may become apparent at later stages in development. This study tests whether peer discrimination changes at particular transition points (i.e., transition to middle and high school) predict subsequent internalizing symptoms in Mexican-origin youth. In a sample of 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female), this study used a latent change score framework to model changes in peer discrimination across time and to test whether changes in peer discrimination at 7th and 9th grades predicted greater depressive and anxiety symptoms in 12th grade controlling for 5th grade symptoms. Irrespective of longitudinal changes, greater peer discrimination in 5th grade predicted greater depressive and anxiety symptoms in 12th grade. Further, significant increases in peer discrimination from 7th to 8th grade and in 9th to 10th grade uniquely predicted greater anxiety symptoms in 12th grade. These findings suggest that longitudinal research on peer discrimination needs to take into account unique periods of risk. Future research implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 187, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to study the epidemiological and clinical profile of adolescents with suicidal thoughts, with or without suicide attempts, and to identify associated factors. RESULTS: A total of 155 (16.5%) of the 941 adolescents interviewed had suicidal thoughts. The average age of the respondents was 18 ± 2.1 years. The sex ratio (m/f) was 1.4. With regard to marital status, 70.2% were single and 29.8% were in a relationship with a cohabiting partner. Family history of suicide was reported in 40%. In their personal history, eight were infected with HIV, three were chronic ethylic and two were diabetics. Forty-six (29.7%) of the 155 adolescents who had suicidal ideation had ever had a suicide attempt. Teens affected by suicide lived in a boarding school in 25.8%, with one parent in 23.9% and 50.3% with both parents. Factors associated with suicide attempts were female sex (p = 0.0107), age over 18 years (p = 0.0177), living in a couple (p = 0.0316), underlying immunodepression (HIV infection, p = 0.0059, sickle cell disease, p = 0.0043) and having a family history of suicides (p = 0.0461).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Togo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1116-1130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830533

RESUMO

Research on the health benefits and consequences of close relationships has suggested the linkage in daily emotions (i.e., coregulation) between close partners is an important relationship dynamic. While the coupling of daily emotions among family members (parent-child and marital dyads) has been widely documented, research examining emotional coregulation among ethnic minority youth during adolescence, a period marked by heightened emotion and risk for psychopathology, remains an important area in need of exploration. This study examined correlates of emotional coregulation in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (Mage = 15.02, SD = .83) and their parents (Mage = 41.93, SD = 6.70). Dyads reported on daily levels of distress and happiness for 14 consecutive days across two waves of data collection a year apart (nwave1 = 428 dyads, nwave2 = 336 dyads). Dyads who reported getting along were more likely to coregulate their daily happiness. Importantly, coregulation of distress was only present in older adolescents who reported above average levels of internalizing symptoms. The results suggest coregulation of distress may shape or be shaped by poor mental health during the later years of adolescence, a time when youth may be establishing a degree of emotional autonomy from parents.


Assuntos
Emoções , Saúde Mental , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Adulto , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1146-1160, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835034

RESUMO

Parental absence, a consequence of parents' rural-to-urban migration, exerts negative influences on their left-behind adolescents in rural China. Existing studies are limited by their focus on the isolated developmental outcomes of left-behind adolescents and by a dearth of work focused on naturally occurring patterns of their developmental outcomes. The present study used a person-centered approach to identify adolescents' adaptation profiles based on internalizing indicators (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness, subjective happiness, life satisfaction), externalizing indicators (i.e., rule-breaking behavior, aggressive behavior, prosocial behavior) and academic achievement and to relate these profiles to left-behind status, characteristics of parent-adolescent separation and gender. The study included 2102 adolescents (Mage = 13.48 ± 1.10 years, 46.8% girls) in junior high schools in rural China. A latent profile analysis identified 3 profiles: an adequate adaptation profile, an internalizing problem profile and an externalizing problem profile. These profiles were linked to left-behind status, to characteristics of parent-adolescent separation (i.e., separation duration, interval of long-distance communication and face-to-face communication) and to gender. These findings provide significant implications for future research and the development of interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Separação da Família , Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , Saúde da População Rural , Migrantes , Adolescente , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1161-1174, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847637

RESUMO

It is unclear how autonomy-related parenting processes are associated with Latinx adolescent adjustment. This study uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify typologies of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent conflict and examines their association with Latinx youth's school performance and depressive symptoms. The sample included 248 Latinx 9th and 10th graders (50% female) who completed surveys during fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters of the school year. When compared to a high monitoring/low conflict parenting profile, a moderate monitoring/moderate conflict profile was associated with stronger declines in school performance; for boys, a high monitoring/moderately high conflict profile also was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms. For Latinx immigrant families, researchers should consider monitoring and conflict as co-occurring processes.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Ajustamento Social , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/etiologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Georgia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente
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