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1.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114541, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228690

RESUMO

Semiconductor-based solar-driven CO2 to fuels has been widely reckoned as an ingenious approach to tackle energy crisis and climate change simultaneously. However, the high carrier recombination rate of the photocatalyst severely dampens their photocatalytic uses. Herein, an inorganic-organic heterojunction was constructed by in-situ growing a dioxin-linked covalent organic framework (COF) on the surface of rod-shaped ß-Ga2O3 for solar-driven CO2 to fuel. This novel heterojunction is featured with an ultra-narrow bandgap COF-318 (absorption edge = 760 nm), which is beneficial for fully utilizing the visible light spectrum, and a wide bandgap ß-Ga2O3 (absorption edge = 280 nm) to directional conduct electrons from COF to reduce CO2 without electron-hole recombination occurred. Results showed that the solar to fuels performance over ß-Ga2O3/COF was much superb than that of COF. The optimized Ga2O3/COF achieved an outstanding CO evolution rate of 85.8 µmol h-1·g-1 without the need of any sacrificial agent or cocatalyst, which was 15.6 times more efficient than COF. Moreover, the analyses of photoluminescence electrochemical characterizations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the fascinate construction of ß-Ga2O3/COF heterojunction significantly favored charge separation and the directional transfer of photogenerated electrons from COF to ß-Ga2O3 followed by CO2. This study paves the way for developing effective COF-based semiconductor photocatalysts for solar-to-fuel conversion.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Catálise , Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Semicondutores
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327233

RESUMO

The displacement damage dose (DDD) is a common index used to predict the life of semiconductor devices employed in space-based environments where they will be exposed to radiation. The DDD is commonly estimated from the non-ionizing energy loss based on the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model, although a new definition for a so-called effective DDD considers the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation with the amorphization in semiconductors. The present work developed a new model for calculating the conventional and effective DDD values for silicon carbide (SiC), indium arsenide (InAs), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors. This model was obtained by extending the displacement per atom tally implemented in the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS). This new approach suggests that the effective DDD is higher than the conventional DDD for arsenic-based compounds due to the amorphization resulting from direct impacts, while this relationship is reversed for SiC because of recombination defects. In the case of SiC and GaN exposed to protons, the effective DDD/conventional DDD ratio decreases with proton energy. In contrast, for InAs and GaAs, this ratio increases to greater than 1 at proton energies up to 100 MeV and plateaus because the defect production efficiency, which is the ratio of the number of stable displacements at the end of collision cascade simulated by MD simulations to the number of defects calculated by NRT model, does not increase at damage energy values above 20 keV. The practical application of this model was demonstrated by calculating the effective DDD values for semiconductors sandwiched between a thin glass cover and an aluminum plate in a low-Earth orbit. The results indicated that the effective DDD could be dramatically reduced by increasing the glass cover thickness to 200 µm, thus confirming the importance of shielding semiconductor devices used in space. This improved PHITS technique is expected to assist in the design of semiconductors by allowing the effective DDD values for various semiconductors having complex geometries to be predicted in cosmic ray environments.


Assuntos
Prótons , Semicondutores
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7163, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418862

RESUMO

Polymer semiconductors are promising candidates for wearable and skin-like X-ray detectors due to their scalable manufacturing, adjustable molecular structures and intrinsic flexibility. Herein, we fabricated an intrinsically stretchable n-type polymer semiconductor through spatial nanoconfinement effect for ultrasensitive X-ray detectors. The design of high-orientation nanofiber structures and dense interpenetrating polymer networks enhanced the electron-transporting efficiency and stability of the polymer semiconductors. The resultant polymer semiconductors exhibited an ultrahigh sensitivity of 1.52 × 104 µC Gyair-1 cm-2, an ultralow detection limit of 37.7 nGyair s-1 (comparable to the record-low value of perovskite single crystals), and polymer film X-ray imaging was achieved at a low dose rate of 3.65 µGyair s-1 (about 1/12 dose rate of the commercial medical chest X-ray diagnosis). Meanwhile, the hybrid semiconductor films could sustain 100% biaxial stretching strain with minimal degeneracy in photoelectrical performances. These results provide insights into future high-performance, low-cost e-skin photoelectronic detectors and imaging.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Semicondutores , Raios X , Polímeros/química , Radiografia , Pele
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(46): e2204346119, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343237

RESUMO

A grand challenge in materials science is to identify the impact of molecular composition and structure across a range of length scales on macroscopic properties. We demonstrate a unified experimental-theoretical framework that coordinates experimental measurements of mesoscale structure with molecular-level physical modeling to bridge multiple scales of physical behavior. Here we apply this framework to understand charge transport in a semiconducting polymer. Spatially-resolved nanodiffraction in a transmission electron microscope is combined with a self-consistent framework of the polymer chain statistics to yield a detailed picture of the polymer microstructure ranging from the molecular to device relevant scale. Using these data as inputs for charge transport calculations, the combined multiscale approach highlights the underrepresented role of defects in existing transport models. Short-range transport is shown to be more chaotic than is often pictured, with the drift velocity accounting for a small portion of overall charge motion. Local transport is sensitive to the alignment and geometry of polymer chains. At longer length scales, large domains and gradual grain boundaries funnel charges preferentially to certain regions, creating inhomogeneous charge distributions. While alignment generally improves mobility, these funneling effects negatively impact mobility. The microstructure is modified in silico to explore possible design rules, showing chain stiffness and alignment to be beneficial while local homogeneity has no positive effect. This combined approach creates a flexible and extensible pipeline for analyzing multiscale functional properties and a general strategy for extending the accesible length scales of experimental and theoretical probes by harnessing their combined strengths.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Semicondutores , Polímeros/química , Microscopia , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Moleculares
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6984, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379947

RESUMO

Plasmonic hot carriers have the advantage of focusing, amplifying, and manipulating optical signals via electron oscillations which offers a feasible pathway to influence catalytic reactions. However, the contribution of nonmetallic hot carriers and thermal effects on the overall reactions are still unclear, and developing methods to enhance the efficiency of the catalysis is critical. Herein, we proposed a new strategy for flexibly modulating the hot electrons using a nonmetallic plasmonic heterostructure (named W18O49-nanowires/reduced-graphene-oxides) for isopropanol dehydration where the reaction rate was 180-fold greater than the corresponding thermocatalytic pathway. The key detail to this strategy lies in the synergetic utilization of ultraviolet light and visible-near-infrared light to enhance the hot electron generation and promote electron transfer for C-O bond cleavage during isopropanol dehydration reaction. This, in turn, results in a reduced reaction activation barrier down to 0.37 eV (compared to 1.0 eV of thermocatalysis) and a significantly improved conversion efficiency of 100% propylene from isopropanol. This work provides an additional strategy to modulate hot carrier of plasmonic semiconductors and helps guide the design of better catalytic materials and chemistries.


Assuntos
2-Propanol , Desidratação , Humanos , Luz , Catálise , Semicondutores
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362036

RESUMO

Nitride film played an essential role as an excellent diffusion barrier in the semiconductor field for several decades. In addition, interest in next-generation memories induced researchers' attention to nitride film as a new storage medium. A Pt/AlN/TaN device was investigated for resistive random-access memory (RRAM) application in this work. Resistive switching properties were examined in the AlN thin film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The unique switching feature conducted under the positive voltage was investigated, while the typical bipolar switching was conducted under the application of negative voltage. Good retention and DC, and pulse endurances were achieved in both conditions and compared to the memory performances. Finally, the electronic behaviors based on the unique switching feature were analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the current-voltage (I-V) linear fitting model.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Armazenamento em Computador , Semicondutores , Eletrônica , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica
7.
ACS Nano ; 16(11): 17778-17801, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355033

RESUMO

Microelectromechanical-system (MEMS)-based semiconductor gas sensors are considered one of the fastest-growing, interdisciplinary high technologies during the post-Moore era. Modern advancements within this arena include wearable electronics, Internet of Things, and artificial brain-inspired intelligence, among other modalities, thus bringing opportunities to drive MEMS-based gas sensors with higher performance, lower costs, and wider applicability. However, the high demand for miniature and micropower sensors with unified processes on a single chip imposes great challenges. This review focuses on recent developments and pitfalls in MEMS-based micro- and nanoscale gas sensors and details future trends. We also cover the background of the topic, seminal efforts, current applications and challenges, and opportunities for next-generation systems.


Assuntos
Sistemas Microeletromecânicos , Olfato , Eletrônica , Semicondutores
8.
ACS Nano ; 16(11): 19523-19532, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356301

RESUMO

Human retina- and brain-inspired optoelectronic synapses, which integrate light detection and signal memory functions for data processing, have significant interest because of their potential applications for artificial vision technology. In nature, many animals such as mantis shrimp use polarized light information as well as scalar information including wavelength and intensity; however, a spectropolarimetric organic optoelectronic synapse has been seldom investigated. Herein, we report an organic synaptic phototransistor, consisting of a charge trapping liquid-crystalline perylene bisimide J-aggregate and a charge transporting crystalline dichlorinated naphthalene diimide, that can detect both wavelength and polarization information. The device shows persistent positive and negative photocurrents under low and high voltage conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the aligned organic heterostructure in the thin-film enables linearly polarized light to be absorbed with a dichroic ratio of 1.4 and 3.7 under transverse polarized blue and red light illumination, respectively. These features allow polarized light sensitive postsynaptic functions in the device. Consequently, a simple polarization imaging sensor array is successfully demonstrated using photonic synapses, which suggests that a supramolecular material is an important candidate for the development of spectropolarimetric neuromorphic vision systems.


Assuntos
Semicondutores , Sinapses , Animais , Humanos , Sinapses/química , Visão Ocular , Luz , Óptica e Fotônica
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433371

RESUMO

Femtosecond filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy (FIBS) is an efficient approach in remote and in situ detection of a variety of trace elements, but it was recently discovered that the FIBS of water is strongly dependent on the large-bandgap semiconductor property of water, making the FIBS signals sensitive to laser ionization mechanisms. Here, we show that the sensitivity of the FIBS technique in monitoring metal elements in water can be efficiently improved by using chirped femtosecond laser pulses, but an asymmetric enhancement of the FIBS intensity is observed for the negatively and positively chirped pulses. We attribute the asymmetric enhancement to their different ionization rates of water, in which the energy of the photons participating in the ionization process in the front part of the negatively chirped pulse is higher than that in the positively chirped pulse. By optimizing the pulse chirp, we show that the limit of detection of the FIBS technique for metal elements in water, e.g., aluminum, can reach to the sub-ppm level, which is about one order of magnitude better than that by the transform-limited pulse. We further examine the FIBS spectra of several representative water samples including commercial mineral water, tap water, and lake water taken from two different environmental zones, i.e., a national park and a downtown business district (Changchun, China), from which remarkably different concentrations of Ca, Na, and K elements of these samples are obtained. Our results provide a possibility of using FIBS for direct and fast metal elemental analysis of water in different field environments.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Água , Lasers , Análise Espectral , Semicondutores
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433555

RESUMO

Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors have many advantages, but the main obstacle to their widespread use is the cross-sensitivity observed when using this type of detector to analyze gas mixtures. Thermal modulation of the heater integrated with a MOS gas sensor reduced this problem and is a promising solution for applications requiring the selective detection of volatile compounds. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the sensor output signals, which take the form of complex, unique patterns, is difficult and requires advanced signal processing techniques. The study focuses on the development of a methodology to measure and process the output signal of a thermally modulated MOS gas sensor based on a B-spline curve and artificial neural networks (ANNs), which enable the quantitative analysis of volatile components (ethanol and acetone) coexisting in mixtures. B-spline approximation applied in the first stage allowed for the extraction of relevant information from the gas sensor output voltage and reduced the size of the measurement dataset while maintaining the most vital features contained in it. Then, the determined parameters of the curve were used as the input vector for the ANN model based on the multilayer perceptron structure. The results show great usefulness of the combination of B-spline and ANN modeling techniques to improve response selectivity of a thermally modulated MOS gas sensor.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Semicondutores , Algoritmos , Óxidos/química , Gases/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of the semiconductor industry over the past 60 years, various occupational diseases have been reported to coincide with rapid industrial growth. Among these occupational diseases, the association between semiconductor work and cancers, including leukemia, remains controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the associations between semiconductor work, leukemia, and cancer risk. METHODS: The core research databases, including PubMed, were screened for studies published until 31 July 2022. All eligible studies assessed cancer risk among workers in the semiconductor industry. RESULTS: Nine studies were selected after a literature review. The employment period of semiconductor workers in each study was between 1965 and 2009. Semiconductor work was not significantly associated with the risk of leukemia (Relative Risk [RR], 1.02; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.74-1.41) or cancer (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07). CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis, semiconductor work was not significantly associated with leukemia or cancer risk. Internal comparisons, such as non-fab workers, quality of the study, employment period, and healthy worker effect, should be considered for interpretation. Furthermore, a prospective cohort study based on overall semiconductor workers in the industry could be useful to assess occupational disease risk as a mandatory component of health assessment.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Neoplasias , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Risco , Estudos Prospectivos , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Semicondutores , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
12.
Nano Lett ; 22(22): 9054-9061, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321634

RESUMO

In high-performance flexible and stretchable electronic devices, conventional inorganic semiconductors made of rigid and brittle materials typically need to be configured into geometrically deformable formats and integrated with elastomeric substrates, which leads to challenges in scaling down device dimensions and complexities in device fabrication and integration. Here we report the extraordinary mechanical properties of the newly discovered inorganic double helical semiconductor tin indium phosphate. This spiral-shape double helical crystal shows the lowest Young's modulus (13.6 GPa) among all known stable inorganic materials. The large elastic (>27%) and plastic (>60%) bending strains are also observed and attributed to the easy slippage between neighboring double helices that are coupled through van der Waals interactions, leading to the high flexibility and deformability among known semiconducting materials. The results advance the fundamental understanding of the unique polymer-like mechanical properties and lay the foundation for their potential applications in flexible electronics and nanomechanics disciplines.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Semicondutores , Polímeros/química , Eletrônica , Módulo de Elasticidade , Elasticidade
13.
Nano Lett ; 22(22): 9100-9106, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326598

RESUMO

Both solar cells and photosynthetic systems employ a two-step process of light absorption and energy conversion. In photosynthesis, they are performed by distinct proteins. However, conventional solar cells use the same semiconductor for optical absorption and electron-hole separation, leading to inefficiencies. Here, we show that an all-semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWCNTs) device provides an artificial system that models photosynthesis in a tandem geometry. We use distinct chirality s-SWCNTs to separate the site and direction of light absorption from those of power generation. Using different bandgap s-SWCNTs, we implement an energy funnel in dual-gated p-n diodes. The device captures photons from multiple regions of the solar spectrum and funnels photogenerated excitons to the smallest bandgap s-SWCNT layer, where they become free carriers. We demonstrate an increase in the photoresponse by adding more s-SWCNT layers of different bandgaps without a corresponding deleterious increase in the dark leakage current.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Luz Solar , Semicondutores , Fótons
14.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364421

RESUMO

This paper reports an AlGaN-based ultraviolet-B light-emitting diode (UVB-LED) with a peak wavelength at 293 nm that was almost free of efficiency droop in the temperature range from 298 to 358 K. Its maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs), which were measured at a current density of 88.6 A cm-2, when operated at 298, 318, and 338 K were 2.93, 2.84, and 2.76%, respectively; notably, however, the current droop (J-droop) in each of these cases was less than 1%. When the temperature was 358 K, the maximum EQE of 2.61% occurred at a current density of 63.3 A cm-2, and the J-droop was 1.52%. We believe that the main mechanism responsible for overcoming the J-droop was the uniform distribution of the concentrations of injected electrons and holes within the multiple quantum wells. Through the subtle design of the p-type AlGaN layer, with the optimization of the composition and doping level, the hole injection efficiency was enhanced, and the Auger recombination mechanism was inhibited in an experimental setting.


Assuntos
Gálio , Semicondutores , Compostos de Alumínio
15.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432052

RESUMO

Metal-oxide semiconducting materials are promising for building high-performance field-effect transistor (FET) based biochemical sensors. The existence of well-established top-down scalable manufacturing processes enables the reliable production of cost-effective yet high-performance sensors, two key considerations toward the translation of such devices in real-life applications. Metal-oxide semiconductor FET biochemical sensors are especially well-suited to the development of Point-of-Care testing (PoCT) devices, as illustrated by the rapidly growing body of reports in the field. Yet, metal-oxide semiconductor FET sensors remain confined to date, mainly in academia. Toward accelerating the real-life translation of this exciting technology, we review the current literature and discuss the critical features underpinning the successful development of metal-oxide semiconductor FET-based PoCT devices that meet the stringent performance, manufacturing, and regulatory requirements of PoCT.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Transistores Eletrônicos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Óxidos , Semicondutores
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6518, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316354

RESUMO

Physically transient forms of electronics enable unique classes of technologies, ranging from biomedical implants that disappear through processes of bioresorption after serving a clinical need to internet-of-things devices that harmlessly dissolve into the environment following a relevant period of use. Here, we develop a sustainable manufacturing pathway, based on ultrafast pulsed laser ablation, that can support high-volume, cost-effective manipulation of a diverse collection of organic and inorganic materials, each designed to degrade by hydrolysis or enzymatic activity, into patterned, multi-layered architectures with high resolution and accurate overlay registration. The technology can operate in patterning, thinning and/or cutting modes with (ultra)thin eco/bioresorbable materials of different types of semiconductors, dielectrics, and conductors on flexible substrates. Component-level demonstrations span passive and active devices, including diodes and field-effect transistors. Patterning these devices into interconnected layouts yields functional systems, as illustrated in examples that range from wireless implants as monitors of neural and cardiac activity, to thermal probes of microvascular flow, and multi-electrode arrays for biopotential sensing. These advances create important processing options for eco/bioresorbable materials and associated electronic systems, with immediate applicability across nearly all types of bioelectronic studies.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Eletrônica , Semicondutores , Eletrodos , Lasers
17.
Science ; 378(6616): 186-192, 2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227977

RESUMO

Studies of the proteome would benefit greatly from methods to directly sequence and digitally quantify proteins and detect posttranslational modifications with single-molecule sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate single-molecule protein sequencing using a dynamic approach in which single peptides are probed in real time by a mixture of dye-labeled N-terminal amino acid recognizers and simultaneously cleaved by aminopeptidases. We annotate amino acids and identify the peptide sequence by measuring fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and binding kinetics on an integrated semiconductor chip. Our results demonstrate the kinetic principles that allow recognizers to identify multiple amino acids in an information-rich manner that enables discrimination of single amino acid substitutions and posttranslational modifications. With further development, we anticipate that this approach will offer a sensitive, scalable, and accessible platform for single-molecule proteomic studies and applications.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Proteômica , Aminoácidos/química , Aminopeptidases , Peptídeos/química , Proteômica/métodos , Semicondutores , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/métodos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232499

RESUMO

Using structural relaxation calculations and first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD), we performed numerical simulations to explore the interaction of a 2D MoS2 surface and a platinum atom, calculating the optical properties of the resulting material. We explored three initial positions for the interaction of the Pt atom and the pristine MoS2 surface, plus another position between Pt and the MoS2 surface with a sulfur vacancy VS. The surface absorbed the Pt atom in all cases considered, with absorption energies ranging from -2.77 eV to -5.83 eV. We calculated the optical properties and band structure of the two cases with the largest absorption energies (-3.45 eV and -5.83 eV). The pristine MoS2 is a semiconductor with a gap of around 1.80 eV. With the adsorption of the Pt atom (the -3.45 eV case), the material reduces its band gap to 0.95 eV. Additionally, the optical absorption in the visible range is greatly increased. The energy band structure of the 2D MoS2 with a sulfur vacancy VS shows a band gap of 0.74 eV, with consequent changes in its optical properties. After the adsorption of Pt atoms in the VS vacancy, the material has a band gap of 1.06 eV. In this case, the optical absorption in the visible range increases by about eight times. The reflectivity in the infrared range gets roughly doubled for both situations of the Pt-absorbed atom considered. Finally, we performed two FPMD runs at 300 K to test the stability of the cases with the lowest and highest absorption energies observed, confirming the qualitative results obtained with the structural relaxations.


Assuntos
Molibdênio , Platina , Semicondutores , Enxofre
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233229

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) can be used as optical energy conversion materials to catalyze the water splitting reaction. A good catalytical performance requires: (i) well-matched semiconductor bandgaps and water redox potential for fluent energy transfer; and (ii) optimal orientation of the water molecules at the interface for kinetically fast chemical reactions. Interactions at the solid-liquid interface can have an important impact on these two factors; most theoretical studies have employed semiconductor-in-vacuum models. In this work, we explored the interface formed by liquid water and different types of TMDCs monolayers (MoS2, WSe2, and their lateral heterojunctions), using a combined molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) approach. The strong interactions between water and these semiconductors confined the adsorbed water layer presenting structural patterns, with the water molecules well connected to the bulk water through the hydrogen bonding network. Structural fluctuations in the metal chalcogenide bonds during the MD simulations resulted in a 0.2 eV reduction of the band gap of the TMDCs. The results suggest that when designing new TMDC semiconductors, both the surface hydrophobicity and the variation of the bandgaps originating from the water-semiconductor interface, need to be considered.


Assuntos
Molibdênio , Elementos de Transição , Eletrônica , Semicondutores , Elementos de Transição/química , Água
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