Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 525
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269236, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731720

RESUMO

Adolescence is a complicated, full of challenges and explorations period in life on the way to adulthood. The behaviour of adolescents is considerably re-configuring under the pressure of biological, psychological, and social transformations, and the internalization of community rules and values, as well as the adoption of desirable behaviours, is not always easy or successful. During adolescence, anomie can easily become an attractive status quo, but it can also evolve, however, relatively easy, to delinquency. This exploratory study, part of the Planet Youth project, is based on an analysis of 17 items from a questionnaire applied to a sample of 2,694 young people in Bucharest, Romania, in 2018, high schoolers in grades 9-11. The main objective of this approach was to assess the impact of some socio-cultural factors regarding school, family, peer group, and neighbourhood on the adoption of deviant and delinquent behaviours among Bucharest teenagers. For data analysis, two dependent variables were built by aggregating items in the questionnaire: the level of anomie (composed of 8 items) and deviant behaviour (composed of 17 items). As independent variables, 17 predictors composed from 67 questions from the questionnaire were used. The main results reflect a high level of anomie among the adolescents of Bucharest and a low level of deviance, and a weak link between these two variables. On the other hand, adolescent anomie and deviance are favoured by anger management, perceived peer attitudes to substance use and digital leisure, together with low parental surveillance.


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anomia (Social) , Atitude , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(7-8): NP4439-NP4466, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954955

RESUMO

The article examines the recent individual level extensions to Institutional Anomie Theory. It explores if a marketized mentality is important to the development of a violent street code that encourages violence as a method of self-enhancement, as well as a factor directly leading to violence. Further, it investigates if the impact of the marketized mentality on violence is moderated by risk-taking and violent peers. It controls for other important factors associated with violence including physical abuse, homelessness, violent victimization, and social bonds. The research utilizes self-report data from interviews with 400 Canadian homeless youth aged 16-24. Results from the OLS regressions indicated that a marketized mentality, along with risk-taking, violent peers, violent victimization, and social bonds predicted levels of support for the street code. The marketized mentality had a direct effect on violence, as well as an indirect effect through the street code. The effect of marketized mentality on violence was also stronger at higher levels of risk-taking and violent peer association. Physical abuse, violent victimization, risk-taking, and violent peers also had direct effects on violence. The findings suggest that a marketized mentality can be adopted even in economically marginal populations leading to the development of violent strategies to fulfill goals. Avenues for future research are offered.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Jovens em Situação de Rua , Adolescente , Adulto , Anomia (Social) , Canadá , Humanos , Violência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Psychoanal ; 81(2): 137-154, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953317

RESUMO

Escaping Nazi annexation of Austria, Sigmund Freud and his family left there in 1938 to live the rest of their lives in exile in the house now known as the Freud Museum in London. This paper is based upon the author's Holocaust Day Memorial Lecture delivered virtually at this museum on January 27, 2021, which marked the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi death camp. Besides remembering those who were lost during World War II, the content of this paper includes a description of different types of massive traumas, with a focus on disasters at the hand of the Other, and their impact on individuals and large groups. Sigmund Freud's ideas about relationships between communities and countries with adjoining territories, as well as large-group psychology, are updated, and individuals' and large groups' needs to grasp onto large-group identities is explained and illustrated with case reports.


Assuntos
Trauma Histórico , Holocausto , Preconceito , Psicanálise , Identificação Social , Anomia (Social) , COVID-19/psicologia , Trauma Histórico/etnologia , Trauma Histórico/história , Trauma Histórico/psicologia , História do Século XX , Holocausto/prevenção & controle , Holocausto/psicologia , Humanos , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Preconceito/psicologia , Psicanálise/ética , Psicanálise/história , Psicologia Social
5.
Soc Sci Res ; 96: 102545, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867015

RESUMO

Women are playing an increasing role in violent crime, both as offenders and victims. Yet, little research has examined how neighborhood structural characteristics might explain this involvement, or who women victimize relative to men. Drawing upon theories of social disorganization, strain, and a subculture of violence, we examine macro-level variation in the type and frequency of within and across group violence between men and women. Analyses are based on aggravated assaults and robberies reported to the Los Angeles Police Department between 2001 and 2007. Neighborhood disadvantage has a greater impact on women perpetrating violence against other women relative to any other sex dyad. Family structural variables are particularly important for understanding rates of within group robberies among women, and highlight that multiple measures of family structure are important for understanding gendered differences in rates of violent crime across dyads.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Crime , Agressão , Anomia (Social) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Violência
6.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 19(1): 251-270, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251885

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) Este artículo propone el concepto de Generación ₿ (o blockchain) como paradigma para analizar los movimientos juveniles en la era de la web semántica. Partiendo de conceptualizaciones anteriores sobre la Generación @ (o arroba) y sobre la Generación # (o hashtag), se presentan el significante, el significado y los rasgos de la Generación ₿, que se ilustran con el análisis de las protestas de 2019, en el contexto del ciclo de movilizaciones de la última década. El concepto de blockchain o cadena de bloques sirve para reflexionar sobre el tipo de movimientos juveniles surgidos a la salida de la crisis de 2008, que se encadenan en bloques como táctica de resistencia frente a los poderes estatales y corporativos y como forma colaborativa de producir valor frente a la anomia social imperante. Palabras clave: Juventud, generación, sociedad de la información, movimientos juveniles, medios sociales.


Abstract (analytical) This article proposes the concept of Generation ₿ or Blockchain to analyze youth movements in the era of semantic web. Starting from previous conceptualizations about Generation @ or At sign and about Generation # or Hashtag, the signifier, meaning and traits of the Generation ₿ are presented, which are illustrated with the analysis of the 2019 protests, in the context of the mobilizations of the last decade. The concept of Blockchain or chain of blocks serves to reflect on the type of youth movements that emerged after the 2008 crisis, that are chained in blocks as a tactic of resistance against state and corporate powers and as a collaborative way of producing value in the face of the prevailing social anomie. Keywords: Youth, generations, information society, youth movements, social media.


Resumo (analítico) Este artigo propõe o conceito de Geração ₿ ou Blockchain para analisar os movimentos juvenis na era da web semântica. A partir de conceituações anteriores sobre Geração @ ou Arroba e sobre Geração # ou Hashtag, são apresentados o significante, significado e traços da Geração ₿, que são ilustrados com a análise dos protestos de 2019, no contesto das mobilizações da última década. O conceito de Blockchain ou cadeia de blocos serve para refletir sobre o tipo de movimentos juvenis surgidos após a crise de 2008, que se acorrentam em blocos como tática de resistência contra poderes estatais e corporativos e como forma colaborativa de produção de valor em face da anomia social prevalecente. Palavras-chave: Juventude, geração, sociedade da informação, movimentos juvenis, meios sociais.


Assuntos
Web Semântica , Blockchain , Movimento , Anomia (Social)
7.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(7): 491-496, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600121

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 epidemic has both physical and psychosocial consequences for the general population. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social dysfunction during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. This cross-sectional web-based study was conducted on 1000 Rafsanjani citizens in southeastern Iran. Data were collected by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the General Health Questionnaire from March 15 to March 30, 2020. The prevalence of GAD was 27.8%. The mean score of social functioning was 9.71 ± 2.66, and all participants had social dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression test showed a significant correlation between anxiety and social functioning (confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.30; p < 0.001), sex (CI, 1.49-3.04; p < 0.001), and concern about COVID-19 (CI, 1.38-2.73; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 epidemic had negative psychosocial consequences in the general population in Iran.


Assuntos
Anomia (Social) , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etnologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(17-18): 8409-8434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130053

RESUMO

We test microgeographic (i.e., street segment) effects reflective of routine activities/lifestyle theories (e.g., the locations of sex offenders, gang members, drug houses, bars) and neighborhood-level (i.e., block group) effects consistent with social disorganization theory (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, residential mobility, racial heterogeneity) on the locations of sexual offenses within one rural and one suburban city. We employ multilevel modeling to examine neighborhood (N = 41) and microgeographic (N = 1,382) effects on sex offenses. Neighborhood context was associated with the locations of sex offenses in which disadvantage, concentrated poverty, racial heterogeneity, violent crime rates, and suburban (vs. rural) areas were positively associated with sex offense rates, whereas residential mobility had a negative effect on sex offense rates. Microgeographic context also explained variation in sex offense rates in which gang members, sex offenders, drug houses, and high population housing communities had positive effects on sexual assault rates, while controlling for spatially lagged effects. Finally, the effect of high-density housing communities was moderated by the level of disadvantage and racial heterogeneity. Neighborhood context and variables linked to exposure to crime operate differently in nonurban areas. Beyond considering community-based characteristics, contextual characteristics related to potential victims' exposure to motivated offenders should focus on small spatial places.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Anomia (Social) , Crime , Humanos , Características de Residência
9.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 65(4): 409-433, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153346

RESUMO

Although the recent crime drop in Western societies has rejuvenated crime trend studies, little is known about the crime trends and the corresponding explanations in the East. This study aims to fill the gaps by examining different types of offenses in Hong Kong between 1976 and 2017. Specifically, this study tests and evaluates major macro-level theoretical approaches explaining crime trends, including institutional anomie theory, routine activities theory, and deterrence theory. Using Error Correction Models, our analyses reveal that the strengths of different social institutions are negatively associated with crime rates, showing strong support to institutional anomie theory. The results also partially support routine activities theory by demonstrating that levels of economic development are negatively associated with both violent and property crime rates, and the number of mobile cellular subscriptions is negatively related to homicide rates. Deterrence explanations are mainly supported for property crime. These findings provide theoretical insights on the etiology of crime and also yield important policy suggestions on how to sustain the observed decline in crime rates in modern societies.


Assuntos
Anomia (Social) , Crime , Homicídio , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos
10.
Br J Sociol ; 71(5): 1031-1043, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918283

RESUMO

This article follows recent calls to turn social theory away from its fixations on intellectual history and toward the mechanics and craft of creating social theories in the research process. The subject of this article is a dilemma common to theorizing in social science: dysnomia, or the phenomenon in which some object is poorly named. Specifically, this article focuses on how social scientists distinguish original concepts from their equivalents in everyday speech. Three tactics for dealing with dysnomia are named-academic arcana, classification and sociologism-and considered in order to ascertain the strengths and weaknesses of each.


Assuntos
Teoria Social , Terminologia como Assunto , Anomia (Social) , Classificação , Humanos , Idioma
11.
Fam Process ; 59(4): 1801-1817, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073152

RESUMO

Although the influence of neighborhood disadvantage on youth development of delinquent behavior is well established, findings from this research have yet to inform the development of family-centered prevention programming to protect youth from these erosive effects. The current paper examines the role of family integration in buffering the impact of social disadvantage in a sample of N = 298 families randomly assigned either to a control condition or to a family-based prevention program previously shown to enhance marriage and parenting. We first confirmed that neighborhood concentrated disadvantage predicted change in delinquent behaviors across the course of the study. Additionally, replicating prior work, parents participating in the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, relative to those randomly assigned to the control group, significantly improved their use of effective communication strategies with each other and reduced ineffective conflict in front of youth. This resulted in a significant indirect effect of ProSAAF on change in youth delinquent behaviors. Furthermore, using mediated moderation analysis, the study tested the buffering effect of greater family integration, showing that experimentally produced change in interparental communication skills and the resulting reduction in youth exposure to parental conflict buffered the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on change in youth delinquent behaviors, supporting a mediated moderation model in which family environments buffer neighborhood effects.


Aunque la influencia de los barrios desfavorecidos en el desarrollo de conductas delictivas en los jóvenes está firmemente consolidada, los hallazgos de esta investigación contribuirán al desarrollo de un programa de prevención centrado en la familia para proteger a los jóvenes de estos efectos erosivos. El presente artículo analiza el papel de la integración familiar en la moderación del efecto de las desventajas sociales en una muestra de N = 298 familias asignadas aleatoriamente a una condición de control o a un programa de prevención basado en la familia que anteriormente ha demostrado mejorar el matrimonio y la crianza. Primero confirmamos que la desventaja concentrada de los barrios predijo el cambio de conductas delictivas a lo largo del transcurso del estudio. Además, replicando trabajos anteriores, los padres que participaron en el programa "Protección de Familias Afroamericanas Fuertes" (Protecting Strong African American Families, ProSAAF), en comparación con aquellos asignados aleatoriamente al grupo de control, mejoraron considerablemente su uso de estrategias de comunicación eficaz entre ellos y redujeron el conflicto ineficaz en frente de los jóvenes. Esto resultó en un efecto indirecto considerable del ProSAAF en el cambio de las conductas delictivas en los jóvenes. Además, mediante el uso del análisis de moderación mediada, el estudio evaluó el efecto moderador de una mayor integración familiar, lo cual demostró que el cambio producido experimentalmente en las habilidades de comunicación interparental y la reducción resultante de la exposición de los jóvenes al conflicto parental moderaron el efecto de la desventaja del barrio en el cambio de las conductas delictivas de los jóvenes. Todo esto respaldó un modelo de moderación mediada en el cual los entornos familiares moderan los efectos del barrio.


Assuntos
Anomia (Social) , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Delinquência Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Meio Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Criança , Comunicação , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Teoria Psicológica , Características de Residência , Resiliência Psicológica
12.
J Soc Psychol ; 160(5): 624-643, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041515

RESUMO

This study contributes to the understanding of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and extending the application of institutional anomie theory (IAT). Employing a multilevel moderation framework, this paper explored the influence of employees' perceived institutional importance to their demonstration of OCB and the moderating impacts of organizational norms on this relationship. Utilizing data of 243 employees from 34 banks in the Philippines, results of the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis revealed the positive influence of the importance of the economy, family, polity, and religion on employees' citizenship acts. Furthermore, goal emphasis and socio-emotional support have significant interacting effects on the association between perceived institutional importance and OCB.


Assuntos
Anomia (Social) , Atitude , Objetivos Organizacionais , Política Organizacional , Participação Social , Conta Bancária , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Filipinas , Apoio Social
13.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(15-16): 2780-2799, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294727

RESUMO

The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.


Assuntos
Anomia (Social) , Emprego , Homicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras
14.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(17-18): 3530-3553, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294769

RESUMO

Most studies of social disorganization theory focus on urban communities. In addition, these studies largely ignore more intimate crimes, such as intimate partner violence. Yet, results from extant studies are often generalized to explain all types of crime in all types of communities, thus potentially ignoring the dynamics surrounding intimate crimes and rurality. The current study expands on previous research in two ways. First, this study examines whether characteristics of social disorganization can predict assault across various victim-offender relationships. Second, this study applies social disorganization predictors to both metropolitan (or urban) and nonmetropolitan (or rural) counties. The sample consisted of 690 counties located across 13 different states. Results from the Poisson regression models indicate higher levels of ethnic heterogeneity and concentrated disadvantage were associated with increased rates of assault across various victim-offender relationships. Furthermore, the measures of social disorganization functioned in the expected direction in both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. These results highlight the importance of controlling for community structures when examining rates of violence, including intimate partner violence. Programs and policies designed to reduce intimate partner violence should include neighborhood components as these affect rates of violence within a community.


Assuntos
Anomia (Social) , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Violência , Humanos , Características de Residência , População Rural , População Urbana
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 246: 112755, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884238

RESUMO

Anomie and imitation have been prominent mechanisms explaining the Werther effect, i.e., the effect of celebrity suicides on a general population's suicide rate. This study presents a new approach to empirically disentangle both mechanisms. Imitation theory suggests that celebrities act as role models, and that the Werther effect is triggered by the status of the celebrity in question. Anomie theory, on the other hand, suggests that the Werther effect is triggered by the unexpectedness of the event. To this end, we empirically compare the effects of celebrity suicides with the effects of celebrities who died unexpectedly from causes other than suicide (accidents, illnesses, alcohol abuse). Based on language and page-link data from 3855 Wikipedia pages of the 495 celebrities who died from suicide between 1960 and 2014, we measure the status a celebrity has in a particular country and calculate the potential country-specific imitation effect of their suicide. In the same manner, we measure the status of celebrities who died unexpectedly from accidents, illnesses, or alcohol abuse to reflect anomie-related effects. We use these measures in an ecological study based on a time-series cross-sectional dataset for 34 OECD countries to assess their effects on a country's overall annual suicide rate. Fixed-effects analyses reveal that the country-specific status of celebrity suicides is associated with significant increases in overall suicide rates, while anomie-related, unexpected celebrity deaths are not associated with the overall suicide rates. The findings remain robust across a number of alternative specifications, such as controlling for further anomic factors at the macro level (divorce or unemployment rate, for instance). We conclude that the results support the imitation mechanism as an essential social explanation for the Werther effect.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo , Suicídio , Anomia (Social) , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico
16.
Violence Against Women ; 26(11): 1423-1444, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379258

RESUMO

Gender violence in India exists as a state of exception for the ways in which it occupies a nonlegal, liminal space of existence as "bare life" or "life itself." The rape and murder of Jyoti Singh Pandey unprecedentedly brought this to the surface. This article aims to highlight the ways in which the movement that emerged out of this case engaged with gender violence as a state of exception while the use of new digital technologies by "digital subjects"/"digital parasites" has constituted "sites of exception," leading to new forms of organizing and creating an emerging politics of gender justice in India.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Digital , Feminismo , Violência de Gênero/legislação & jurisprudência , Ativismo Político , Anomia (Social) , Características da Família , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/ética , Governo , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Política , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estupro/legislação & jurisprudência , Justiça Social
17.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190813, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101214

RESUMO

Estudo qualitativo, teoricamente sustentado no conceito de vulnerabilidade social conforme Castel e, metodologicamente, na perspectiva construtivista da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. O objetivo foi compreender, sob a óptica da Bioecologia do Desenvolvimento Humano, os fenômenos sociais vivenciados por adolescentes atendidos em um Centro de Referência em Assistência Social (CRAS). As estratégias utilizadas para coleta de dados foram a observação e entrevistas na técnica de grupo focal. A amostragem teórica consistiu em dez encontros, entre agosto e dezembro de 2015, com vinte adolescentes. Os dados analisados demonstram a existência de um complexo multifatorial nas dinâmicas familiar e comunitária, que submete o adolescente à opressão ou à superação das suas limitações, explicitado no fenômeno central: "sobrevivendo". Conclui-se que a compreensão das contradições inerentes à realidade dos adolescentes poderá subsidiar estratégias promotoras dos direitos dessas pessoas, o que favorece um desenvolvimento saudável.(AU)


Estudio cualitativo, teóricamente sostenido en el concepto de "Vulnerabilidad Social", conforme Castel, y metodológicamente en la perspectiva constructivista de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. El objetivo fue comprender, bajo la óptica de la Bioecología del Desarrollo Humano, los fenómenos sociales vividos por adolescentes atendidos en un Centro de Referencia en Asistencia Social. Las estrategias utilizadas para la colecta de datos fueron la observación y entrevistas en la técnica de grupo focal. El muestreo teórico consistió en 10 encuentros, entre agosto y diciembre de 2015, con vente adolescentes. Los datos analizados demuestran la existencia de un complejo multifactorial en las dinámicas familiar y comunitaria que somete al adolescente a la opresión o a la superación de sus limitaciones, explicitado en el fenómeno central: "sobreviviendo". Se concluye que la comprensión de las contradicciones inherentes a la realidad de los adolescentes podrá subsidiar estrategias promotoras de los derechos de esas personas, lo que favorece un desarrollo saludable.(AU)


Qualitative study, theoretically based on Castel's "Social Vulnerability" concept and, methodologically grounded on the constructivist perspective of the Grounded Theory. The objective was to understand, from the perspective of the bioecological model of human development, social phenomena experienced by adolescents who were assisted at a reference social assistance center. The strategies used for data collection were observation and interviews in focus groups. The theoretical sampling consisted of ten meetings, which were held between August and December 2015, with twenty adolescents. The analyzed data show the existence of a multifactorial complex in the family and community dynamics, which subjects the adolescents to oppression or to overcoming their limitations, explained in the central phenomenon "surviving". In conclusion, the understanding of contradictions inherent to these adolescents' reality may provide strategies to promote their rights to healthy development.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Serviço Social , Violência , Adolescente , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Áreas de Pobreza , Teoria Fundamentada , Anomia (Social)
18.
Psychol Sci ; 30(11): 1625-1637, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566081

RESUMO

Societal inequality has been found to harm the mental and physical health of its members and undermine overall social cohesion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that economic inequality is associated with a wish for a strong leader in a study involving 28 countries from five continents (Study 1, N = 6,112), a study involving an Australian community sample (Study 2, N = 515), and two experiments (Study 3a, N = 96; Study 3b, N = 296). We found correlational (Studies 1 and 2) and experimental (Studies 3a and 3b) evidence for our prediction that higher inequality enhances the wish for a strong leader. We also found that this relationship is mediated by perceptions of anomie, except in the case of objective inequality in Study 1. This suggests that societal inequality enhances the perception that society is breaking down (anomie) and that a strong leader is needed to restore order (even when that leader is willing to challenge democratic values).


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Sistemas Políticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anomia (Social) , Austrália , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Aggress Behav ; 45(6): 691-703, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452219

RESUMO

Psychological research suggests that violent extremism (e.g., terrorism) stems partly from existential motives, such as individuals' need to achieve significance in life after experiencing failure, ostracism, or humiliation (Significance Quest Theory; SQT). Parallel investigations from sociology and criminology established similar findings by linking anomia-a syndrome including feelings of meaninglessness, powerlessness, isolation, self-estrangement, and normlessness-with violent behavior. In line with SQT, this contribution tested if anomia could mediate Loss of Significance effects on violent extremism. Accordingly, three studies conducted in France highlight indirect effects of exposure to discrimination on legitimation of political violence (Study 1, cross-sectional, minority population sample, N = 110), violent behavioral intentions (Study 2, experimental, undergraduate sample, N = 249), and support for ISIS fighters (Study 3, experimental, undergraduate sample, N = 221) through anomia. A subsequent study shows this indirect effect to be robust when controlled for Social Dominance Orientation and Political Extremism (Study 4, cross-sectional, undergraduate sample, N = 279). A final investigation re-analyzing data collected in Turkey highlights a reverse effect when the independent variable tapped into social inclusion (rather than exclusion; Study 5, cross-sectional, undergraduate sample, N = 321). This indirect effect was also robust to Political Extremism and Intolerance as control variables. These results support the usefulness of considering anomia as a proximal predictor of violent extremism in a SQT perspective.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Anomia (Social) , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Distância Psicológica , Autoimagem , Turquia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...