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1.
Technol Cult ; 65(1): 343-357, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661806

RESUMO

This essay explores how film, feature and documentary, can offer a new perspective on modernist architecture, industrial design, and urban planning. Through the lens of two young directors, Kogonada and Davide Maffei, it traces the histories of two twentieth-century company towns: Ivrea, Italy, headquarters of Italian business machine giant Olivetti, and Columbus, Indiana, U.S.A., home to Cummins Inc., a global leader in diesel engine design and manufacturing. Adriano Olivetti and J. Irwin Miller shared the conviction that modernist architecture and design had a decisive role to play not just in the economic health of their respective firms but in the civic health of their surrounding communities. These companies have long abandoned the corporate idealism of their founding patrons. In film, Ivrea and Columbus have become architectural time capsules that raise important questions about the transformative power of architecture and design in the face of an increasingly competitive global economy.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Humanos , Arquitetura/história , Planejamento de Cidades/história , História do Século XX , Itália , Filmes Cinematográficos/história , Indiana
2.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 47(1): e1059, 07-02-2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231764

RESUMO

Fundamento. El lugar donde paren las madres condiciona su proceso de parto y nivel de satisfacción. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar las experiencias y percepciones acerca de los elementos de diseño del entorno del parto hasta el alta hospitalaria, que influyen en la experiencia de las madres a largo plazo. Metodología. Investigación fenomenológica de tipo método biográfico, a través del análisis temático inductivo de veinticinco testimonios de parto en el hospital, escritos por madres arquitectas, ingenieras, paisajistas o diseñadoras de interiores. Resultados. Los resultados se organizaron en cuatro temas y siete subtemas. El primer tema es la “Impresión a primera vista y largo plazo” que se subdivide en los subtemas “Itinerario despersonalizado en accesos y pasillos” y “Búsqueda instintiva de conexión con la naturaleza”. El segundo tema trata sobre el “Acompañamiento y arropamiento durante el proceso de parto” y se subdivide en “Como en un hotel: espacio para el movimiento y adaptación personalizada” y “Desamparo, frío e incertidumbre: espacios donde estar contra su voluntad”. El tercer tema son los “Daños (en espacios) colaterales”, que engloba “La integración de los aseos en el proceso de parto”, los “Quirófanos inmutables ante el parto por cesárea” y las “Salas de neonatos que no integran a las familias”. El cuarto tema incluye “Propuestas de mejora para nuevos diseños”. Conclusiones. Esta investigación permite profundizar en aspectos de diseño identificados en literatura reciente y mostrar que son necesarios más estudios que incorporen la experiencia de la mujer en el proceso del parto para promocionar políticas de diseño basadas en evidencias. (AU)


Background. The birthplace has a crucial role in shaping the childbirth experience and mothers’ satisfaction levels. This study aimed to identify the experiences and perceptions that may have an impact in the long-term on mothers’ birthing experience, considering hospital design features in the birthing environment until discharge. Methods. Inductive thematic analysis of twenty-five hospital labor testimonies employing a phenomenological research approach and utilizing a biographical method. Participants were women with a professional background in architecture, landscape architecture, engineering, or interior design. Results. The results are organized into four themes and seven subthemes. The first theme is “First sight and long term impression” which is subdivided into the subthemes “Depersonalized itinerary in entrances and corridors” and “Instinctive search for connection with nature”. The second theme deals with “Accompaniment and tucking in during the birthing process”, subdivided into “Hotel-like: space for movement and personalized adaptation” and “Helplessness, cold and uncertainty: spaces to be against one’s will”. The third theme is “Damage in collateral rooms”, which includes “The integration of toilets in the birthing process”, “Operating rooms unchangeable in the face of cesarean delivery” and “Neonatal units that do not integrate families”. Finally, the fourth theme includes “Improvement proposals for new designs”. Conclusions. This study contributes to the existing literature by deepening the understanding of the design features identified in hospitals in recent studies. Further research incorporating the experiences of women in the birthing process is needed to facilitate evidence-based design policies. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Arquitetura , Planejamento Ambiental , Arquitetura Hospitalar , Parto Humanizado , Entorno do Parto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
J Visc Surg ; 161(2S): 54-62, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272758

RESUMO

Following a reminder on the quantities of carbon emitted in the healthcare sector, and casting a spotlight on those directly related to architecture, the authors of this article will develop three large-scale themes, the objective being to render hospital construction sustainable. 1. Energy consumption and how to reduce it. 2. "Low-carbon" construction and how building designers can limit emissions by the choice of construction materials. 3. The "resilience" of some constructions, their capacity to stave off obsolescence. As a conclusion, the authors present one of the most recent projects of the Brunet Saunier & Associates architecture agency: the Saint-Ouen university hospital, Grand Paris Nord. This project is illustrative of these preoccupations and demonstrates the possibility of meeting the challenges of sustainable development by means of simple and durable architecture.


Assuntos
Arquitetura Hospitalar , Humanos , Arquitetura , Materiais de Construção , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
5.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291719, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37733755

RESUMO

The pile with ram-compacted bearing sphere (PRBS)is a kind of special-shaped pile, the calculation formula of single pile bearing capacity stipulated in Chinese Standards JGJ/T 135-2018 is relatively simple, and the factors considered are not comprehensive enough. This article uses the finite element simulation software ABAQUS to simulate and calculate the compressive bearing characteristics of PRBS, and studies the changes in the vertical bearing characteristics of PRBS under different factors and working conditions (different pile lengths, pile diameters, and the diameters of ram-compacted bearing sphere (RBS)). The calculation results indicate that the PRBS still has a large axial force near the enlarged end of the pile bottom, and the RBS bears a large load. The vertical bearing capacity of the PRBS is mainly provided by the RBS, but the pile side friction still has a certain degree of influence on its bearing capacity. The maximum ratio of pile side frictional resistance to applied load can reach 18.41%. Compared with the ordinary pile, the bearing capacity of the PRBS is significantly improved. The ultimate bearing capacity of the PRBS with the RBS diameter of 1m is more than 5 times that of the ordinary pile under the same condition. Pile diameter has little influence on the bearing capacity of PRBS, while the change of RBS diameter has great influence on the bearing capacity of single pile. However, when the RBS diameter is too large, it is easy to cause the uplift of surrounding soil in the construction process and affect surrounding piles. Therefore, it is suggested that the optimal RBS diameter should be 800mm~1200mm. This study provides reference suggestions for the study of piles with ram-compacted bearing sphere.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Indústria da Construção , Materiais de Construção , Simulação por Computador , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Suporte de Carga , Arquitetura/métodos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37681766

RESUMO

Japan has the world's largest old population ratio; thus, aging is an urgent societal issue. As global trends seem to be following Japan's social changes, there is an emphasis on municipalities becoming more age-friendly. Hence, we examine the age-friendliness of 135 Japanese municipalities, selecting 240 resident architectural designers and constructors to assess their municipalities using the Age-Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire (AFCCQ). The findings indicate that Japan lacks "outdoor spaces and buildings". Additionally, the evaluation of "housing", "community support and health services", and "transportation" in populated municipalities in the past five years was found to be significantly higher than that in depopulated ones. Age-friendliness is significantly affected by the AFCCQ total score (hereafter, Score) based on "housing", "social participation", "community support and health services", "transportation", and "financial situation" evaluations. High specificity (0.939) was found when the score was treated as a marker of depopulation; an age-friendly approach is a necessary condition for preventing depopulation. Furthermore, a lack of "communication and information" was observed in municipalities with a higher rate of single-person households aged 65 years and older. Therefore, resident architectural designers' and constructors' assessments, combined with the AFCCQ, will be a powerful tool for evaluating the age-friendliness of municipalities.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Arquitetura , Planejamento de Cidades , Apoio Comunitário , População do Leste Asiático , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Cidades , Comunicação , Meios de Transporte , Japão , Crescimento Demográfico
7.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Abr. 2023. 16 p. ilus.(Caja de Herramientas de Transformación Digital. Sinopsis de Políticas, 8).
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1434163

RESUMO

Uno de los ocho principios rectores para la transformación digital del sector de la salud promovidos por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) es la arquitectura de salud pública. Este documento de política presenta conceptos clave, líneas de acción recomendadas e indicadores para su monitoreo con el objetivo de avanzar en la arquitectura de salud pública. De acuerdo con la definición de la OPS, este principio rector se propone diseñar la arquitectura de salud pública en la era de la interdependencia digital. "La arquitectura de salud pública, en la era de la interdependencia digital, debe enmarcarse en la agenda digital del gobierno. Debe ser transversal, para articular las distintas vertientes de gobernanza y optimizar la planificación estratégica y la gestión de los recursos. Debe basarse en el aprovechamiento de normas y procedimientos a favor de múltiples áreas, no solo de la esfera de la salud; este es el caso de la conectividad y el ancho de banda, que influyen indistintamente en salud, en educación y en todos los sectores". La mayoría de los avances en salud digital se dan como aplicaciones y sistemas de información individuales que funcionan independientemente. Esto genera islas de información, con grandes desafíos para alcanzar la eficiencia y mejorar los resultados de salud. La propuesta es lograr una arquitectura de salud como plataforma que sirva de base para que los diversos sistemas de información interoperen y trabajen juntos de manera integrada. Existen diferentes formas de alcanzar este intercambio de datos, y todos ellos implican establecer la gobernanza, un marco de confianza (dado por normativas y su cumplimiento) y de arquitectura tecnológica de interoperabilidad


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Sistemas de Informação , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina , Disseminação de Informação , Política Nacional de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação , Interoperabilidade da Informação em Saúde , Acesso à Internet
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36901388

RESUMO

Fujian Tulous in China are important international architectural heritage sites that reflect precious human cultural heritage. Currently, only a small number of Tulou buildings have been listed as world cultural heritage sites, resulting in a lack of attention and financial support for most Tulou buildings. Thus, it is difficult to effectively renovate and repair Tulou buildings to adapt to modern life, and therefore they are facing the severe challenge of abandonment and desolation. Due to the special conditions of Tulou buildings, there are significant limitations in renovation and repair work, with a number of problems such as the lack of innovative renovations. Therefore, through a problem model analysis of a design system for Tulou renovations, in this study, we adopt the methods of divergent tree, conjugate pair, correlative net, implied system, and split-merge chain analyses in extenics to carry out extension transformation and solve the problem and we verify its feasibility using the example of the Tulou renovation projects in Lantian Village, Longyan City. We explore an innovative methodology for scientific renovation of Tulou buildings, and we establish a design system for Tulou building renovations that enriches and supplements original renovation methods; thus, we provide a basis for the repair and reuse of Tulou buildings, to extend their service life and to realize the sustainable development of Tulou buildings. The research results show that extenics can be implemented in innovative renovations of Tulou buildings, and it is concluded that the essence of achieving sustainable renewal in Tulou building renovations is to solve contradictory problems, including contradictions in conditions, objectives, and design. This study verifies the possibility of applying extenics in the design of Tulou building renovations, makes corresponding contributions to the application of extension methods in the renovation and renewal of Tulou buildings, and also contributes to the renovation, renewal, and protection of other types of architectural heritage sites.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Cultura , Humanos , China
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36981670

RESUMO

(1) Background: Housing has long been recognized as an essential determinant of health. Our sense of home goes beyond physical shelter and is associated with personal or collective connections with spaces and places. However, modern architecture has gradually lost its connections between people and places; (2) Methods: We examined traditional Indigenous architecture and how it can be utilized in contemporary settings to restore connections to promote the environment, health, and well-being. (3) Results: We found that traditional Indigenous building structures may be the best manifestation of the Indigenous interconnected and holistic worldviews in North America, containing thousands of years of knowledge and wisdom about the land and the connection between humans and the environment, which is the foundation of reciprocal well-being; (4) Conclusions: Learning from the traditional structures, we proposed that modern architects should consider the past, present, and future in every endeavor and design and to utilize traditional knowledge as a crucial source of inspiration in creating works that are beneficial for both current and future generations by taking collectivism, health and well-being, and the environment into consideration in designs.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Ambiente Construído , Promoção da Saúde , Povos Indígenas , Humanos , América do Norte , Habitação , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768106

RESUMO

Virtual architecture has been increasingly relied on to evaluate the health impacts of physical architecture. In this health research, exposure to virtual architecture has been used as a proxy for exposure to physical architecture. Despite the growing body of research on the health implications of physical architecture, there is a paucity of research examining the long-term health impacts of prolonged exposure to virtual architecture. In response, this paper considers: what can proxy studies, which use virtual architecture to assess the physiological response to physical architecture, tell us about the impact of extended exposure to virtual architecture on human health? The paper goes on to suggest that the applicability of these findings to virtual architecture may be limited by certain confounding variables when virtual architecture is experienced for a prolonged period of time. This paper explores the potential impact of two of these confounding variables: multisensory integration and gravitational perception. This paper advises that these confounding variables are unique to extended virtual architecture exposure and may not be captured by proxy studies that aim to capture the impact of physical architecture on human health through acute exposure to virtual architecture. While proxy studies may be suitable for measuring some aspects of the impact of both physical and virtual architecture on human health, this paper argues that they may be insufficient to fully capture the unintended consequences of extended exposure to virtual architecture on human health. Therefore, in the face of the increasing use of virtual architectural environments, the author calls for the establishment of a subfield of neuroarchitectural health research that empirically examines the physiological impacts of extended exposure to virtual architecture in its own right.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Gravitação , Ambiente Construído
11.
Cult. cuid ; 27(65): 79-92, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-218960

RESUMO

El hallazgo sobre 32 hospitales históricos rurales en Álava (España) de 10 con una cruzesculpida en sus accesos sugiere un potencial significado de hospitalidad que no seevidencia en la bibliografía. A fin de determinar esta posible asociación, se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de cruces enaccesos de arquitectura doméstica de la provincia hallando 53 que cumplían los criterios deinclusión y exclusión. Distribuidas por toda la geografía provincial, 48 son de facturaprofesional y 5 son incisiones elaboradas. 36 son cruces únicas por localidad, cuestionando interpretaciones mágico-religiosas dominantes en la antropología y etnografía. Treinta y siete (69’8%)se encuentran en localidades que tuvieron hospital, si bien solo en 10 casos hay correspondenciacruz-hospital documentada y en 3 probablemente. El Camino a Santiago, fundamental en el desarrollo hospitalario, queda mejor representado desde el análisis de las cruces que desde los hospitales. Aunque no hay dos cruces iguales, 50 son latinas de calvario y al menos 14 presentan susbrazos remarcados (Trinidad), pudiéndose hacer lecturas bíblicas de estas características relacionándolas con la hospitalidad. Aunque queda establecida la asociación entre cruces y hospitalidad, diversas limitaciones en la búsqueda y el análisis no permiten ser concluyentes, requiriéndose de estudios comparados en otras regiones.(AU)


The finding on 32 rural historic hospitals in Álava (Spain) of 10 with a sculpted crosson their entrances suggests a potential meaning of hospitality that is not evident in the literature. In order to determine this possible association, an exhaustive search for crosses on the entrances of domestic architecture in the province was carried out, finding 53 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Distributed throughout the province, 48 are professionally madeand 5 are elaborate incisions. 36 are unique crosses per locality, questioning dominant magicalreligious interpretations in anthropology and ethnography. Thirty-seven (69.8%) are found inlocalities that had a hospital, although in only 10 cases is there a documented cross-hospitalcorrespondence, and in 3 probably. The Road to Santiago, fundamental in the development ofhospitals, is better represented from the analysis of the crosses than from the hospitals. Although no two crosses are the same, 50 are Latin Calvary crosses and at least 14 have their armsmarked (Trinity), making it possible to make biblical readings of these characteristics relatingthem to hospitality. Although the association between crosses and hospitality is established,several limitations in the search and analysis do not allow us to be conclusive, requiring comparative studies in other regions.(AU)


A descoberta em 32 hospitais históricos rurais em Álava (Espanha) de 10 com uma cruzesculpida nas suas entradas sugere um significado potencial de hospitalidade que não é evidentena literatura. A fim de determinar esta possível associação, foi realizada uma busca exaustiva decruzes nas entradas da arquitectura doméstica na província, encontrando 53 que preenchiam oscritérios de inclusão e exclusão. Distribuídas por toda a província, 48 são feitas profissionalmentee 5 são incisões elaboradas. 36 são cruzes únicas por localidade, questionando as interpretaçõesmágico-religiosas dominantes em antropologia e etnografia. Trinta e sete (69,8%) encontramseem localidades que tiveram um hospital, embora em apenas 10 casos exista uma correspondênciainterhospitalar documentada, e em 3 provavelmente. O Caminho de Santiago, fundamental nodesenvolvimento dos hospitais, é melhor representado a partir da análise das cruzes do que apartir dos hospitais. Embora não haja duas cruzes iguais, 50 são cruzes do Calvário Latino e pelomenos 14 têm os braços marcados (Trindade), o que permite fazer leituras bíblicas destas características relacionandoas com a hospitalidade. Embora a associação entre cruzes e hospitalidadeseja estabelecida, várias limitações na pesquisa e análise não nos permitem ser conclusivos, exigindo estudos comparativos noutras regiões.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hospitais Rurais , Arquitetura , Simbolismo , Hospitais/história , Espanha
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e256598, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529209

RESUMO

Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre arte e vida segundo Vigotski. Para isso, foi realizada uma análise conceitual dos capítulos 1, 7, 9, 10 e 11 da Psicologia da Arte, do capítulo 13 da Psicologia Pedagógica e do texto O significado histórico da crise da Psicologia: Uma investigação metodológica. A pesquisa conceitual consiste na análise semântica dos principais conceitos de uma teoria com o intuito de elucidar seus sentidos ocultos ou confusos e desvendar possíveis contradições e ambiguidades no quadro teórico. Podemos observar que a arte é um fenômeno dialético tanto em sua criação como em seus efeitos. A influência da vida, isto é, da realidade sócio-histórica, na criação artística é indireta, pois ela é sempre mediada pelo psiquismo particular do artista. Já o efeito da arte sobre a vida possibilita que o ser humano se conscientize de sua realidade social e se engaje para mudá-la. A arte é, portanto, transformadora, pois reorganiza o psiquismo e possibilita uma mudança nas condições materiais dos seres humanos.(AU)


This study aims to analyze the relationship between art and life according to Vygotsky. Therefore, a conceptual analysis of chapters 1, 7, 9, 10, and 11 of Psychology of Art, chapter 13 of Educational Psychology and the text The Historical meaning of the Crisis of Psychology: A Methodological Investigation was carried out. Conceptual research consists of the semantic analysis of the main concepts of a theory to elucidate its hidden or confused meanings and to reveal possible contradictions and ambiguities in the theoretical framework. Results show that art is a dialectical phenomenon both in its creation and its effects. The influence of life, that is, of socio-historical reality, on artistic creation is indirect since it is always mediated by the artist's particular psyche. The effect of art on life, on the other hand, allows human beings to become aware of their social reality and engage to change it. Art is, therefore, transformative, as it reorganizes the psyche and enables a change in the material conditions of human beings.(AU)


Este proyecto tuve como objetivo analizar la relación entre el arte y la vida, según Vigotski. Para esto, fue realizado un análisis de los capítulos 1, 7, 9, 10 y 11 de Psicología del arte, del capítulo 13 de Psicología Pedagógica y del texto Él significado histórico de la crisis de la Psicología: una investigación metodológica. La pesquisa conceptual consiste en la analice semántica de los conceptos de una teoría, para aclarar sus significados ocultos o confusos y desvendar contradicciones y ambigüedades em el cuadro teórico. Pudimos observar que, el arte es un fenómeno dialéctico en su creación tanto como en sus efectos. La influencia de la vida, esto es, de la realidad socio-histórica, en la creación artística es indirecta, pues es mediada por el psiquismo particular de lo artista. Así, el efecto del arte sobre la vida habilita que lo ser humano adquiera conciencia de su realidad social y que se comprometa a cambiarla. El arte, consiguientemente, transformadora, pues reorganiza lo psiquismo y habilita un cambio en las condiciones materiales de los seres humanos.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Arte , Psicologia , Vida , Representação Social , Pintura , Percepção , Personalidade , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Filosofia , Arquitetura , Princípio do Prazer-Desprazer , Política , Psicologia Social , Agitação Psicomotora , Rejeição em Psicologia , Religião , Associação , Pesquisa , Papel (figurativo) , Sensação , Meio Social , Espiritualismo , Pensamento , Transferência Psicológica , Inconsciente Psicológico , Comportamento , Humanos , Simbolismo , Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude , Catarse , Comentário , Competência Mental , Cognição , Comunismo , Conflito Psicológico , Congressos como Assunto , Emoções Manifestas , Psicologia do Self , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Desenho , Criatividade , Sinais (Psicologia) , Cultura , Dança , Capitalismo , Características Humanas , Ab-Reação , Drama , Impulso (Psicologia) , Educação , Emoções , Estética , Existencialismo , Competência Cultural , Resiliência Psicológica , Poesia , Prazer , Normas Sociais , Ciência nas Artes , Liberdade , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Egocentrismo , Processos Grupais , História , Individualidade , Inteligência , Relações Interpessoais , Literatura , Métodos , Antropologia , Modelos Teóricos , Moral , Filmes Cinematográficos , Motivação , Música
13.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3549769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36133158

RESUMO

With the rapid development of urbanization, urban land has been expropriated and developed on a large scale. Moreover, people's awareness of the protection of historical buildings is relatively weak, so some historical buildings have been demolished or rebuilt. Historical buildings have played an important role in the spread of national culture, so how to use some methods to protect historical buildings from being destroyed has become an urgent problem to be solved. The protection of historical buildings includes a series of complicated and rigorous procedures, such as on-site drawing and mapping, survey and design, and scheme discussion and construction. The surveying and mapping of traditional historical buildings require people to do it by themselves, so it is inevitably time-consuming and labor-intensive. This paper first discussed and analyzed the significance of historical building protection, and then used digital technology to make up for the shortcomings of traditional manual surveying and mapping and historical building protection methods. Modern technologies such as three-dimensional laser scanning technology and virtual reality technology are used to restore the style and appearance of historical buildings. Among them, in terms of the color of historical buildings, the restoration degree of buildings based on digital protection technology has reached 56.1%; at the same time, the efficiency of information collection and processing, and virtual model construction has also been improved. Thus, the ultimate goal of historical building protection is achieved, and it provides a reference for the digital protection of historical buildings.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Arquitetura , Computadores
14.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261607, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990488

RESUMO

Online virtual museum tours combine museum authority and an academic approach with the diversity and interactivity of online resources; such tours have become an essential resource for online scientific research and education. Many important museums around the world are developing this type of online service. Comprehensive evaluation of such tours is, however, urgently needed to ensure effectiveness. This paper establishes a heuristic evaluation scale based on the literature. Taking the online virtual tour of the Exhibition of Architecture of the Forbidden City as a case study, confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out to improve the scale. Interviews were conducted to discuss and analyze the research results. The developed evaluation scale has four dimensions: authenticity, interaction, navigation, and learning. The results from the case study showed, first, that the exhibition had visual authenticity, but the behavioral authenticity was insufficient; second, the exhibition was generally interactive, but this aspect could be improved by enriching the links; third, the lack of effective navigation design for the exhibit was the main factor affecting experience quality. Fourth, the exhibition was informative and supported learning, but needs further improvement to the quantity and quality of information provided. Finally, the interviews revealed that the online exhibition did not entirely support people of different ages and abilities, so it needs further improvement to be wholly inclusive.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/normas , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Museus/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Exposições como Assunto , Humanos
15.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1507(1): 133-145, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480374

RESUMO

Hedonic evaluation of sensory objects varies from person to person. While this variability has been linked to differences in experience, little is known about why stimuli lead to different evaluations in different people. We used linear mixed-effects models to determine the extent to which the openness, contour, and ceiling height of interior spaces influenced the beauty and pleasantness ratings of 18 participants. Then, by analyzing structural brain images acquired for the same group of participants, we asked if any regional gray matter volume (rGMV) covaried with these differences in the extent to which the three features influence beauty and pleasantness ratings. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed that the influence of openness on pleasantness ratings correlated with rGMV in the anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area (BA)-10), and the influence of openness on beauty ratings correlated with rGMV in the temporal pole (BA38) and cluster, including the posterior cingulate cortex (BA31) and paracentral lobule (BA5/6). There were no significant correlations involving contour or ceiling height. Our results suggest that regional variance in gray matter volume may play a role in the computation of hedonic valuation and account for differences in the way people weigh certain attributes of interior architectural spaces.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/métodos , Beleza , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Julgamento , Prazer , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Humanos , Individualidade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962958

RESUMO

Three-dimensional landscape patterns are an effective means to study the relationship between landscape pattern evolution and eco-environmental effects. This paper selects six districts in Xi'an as the study area to examine the spatial distribution characteristics of the three-dimensional architectural landscape in the city's main urban area using three-dimensional information on the buildings in 2020 with the support of GIS. In this study, two new architectural landscape indices-landscape height variable coefficient and building rugosity index-were employed in landscape pattern analysis, whilst a system of rigorous and comprehensive three-dimensional architectural landscape metrics was established using principal component analysis. A mathematical model of weighted change of landscape metrics based on the objective weighting method was applied to carry out scale analysis of the landscape patterns. Spatial statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis were conducted to comprehensively study the differentiation of three-dimensional architectural landscape spatial patterns. The results show that the characteristic scale of the three-dimensional landscape pattern in Xi'an's main urban area is around 8 km. Moreover, the three-dimensional landscape of the buildings in this area is spatially positively correlated, exhibiting a high degree of spatial autocorrelation whilst only showing small spatial differences. The layout of the architectural landscape pattern is disorderly and chaotic within the second ring, whilst the clustering of patch types occurs near the third ring. Moreover, the building density in the Beilin, Lianhu, and Xincheng districts is large, the building height types are rich, and the roughness of the underlying surface is high, such that these are key areas to be improved through urban renewal. The height, volume, density, morphological heterogeneity, and vertical roughness of the architectural landscape vary amongst functional areas within the study area. This paper is the first to apply the study of spatial heterogeneity of three-dimensional landscape patterns to Xi'an. It does so in order to provide a quantitative basis for urban landscape ecological design for urban renewal and the rational planning of built-up areas, which will promote the sustainable development of the city's urban environment.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Planejamento de Cidades , Ecologia , China , Cidades , Clima , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Geografia , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Componente Principal , Software , Análise Espacial , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Reforma Urbana
17.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(11): 1487-1501, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697423

RESUMO

City plans symbolizing cosmologies have long been recognized as a defining element of Mesoamerican civilizations. The origins of formal spatial configurations are thus the key to understanding early civilizations in the region. Assessment of this issue, however, has been hindered by the lack of systematic studies of site plans over broad areas. Here, we report the identification of 478 formal rectangular and square complexes, probably dating from 1,050 to 400 BC, through a lidar (laser imaging, detection and ranging) survey across the Olmec region and the western Maya lowlands. Our analysis of lidar data also revealed that the earlier Olmec centre of San Lorenzo had a central rectangular space, which possibly provided the spatial template for later sites. This format was probably formalized and spread after the decline of San Lorenzo through intensive interaction across various regions. These observations highlight the legacy of San Lorenzo and the critical role of inter-regional interaction.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Arquitetura/história , América Central , História Antiga , Humanos , Imagens de Satélites
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555046

RESUMO

The purposes are to analyze the mechanism of digitized landscape architecture design and stablize the garden landscape image display in constructing garden landscape digitization platform. According to previous research and mobile edge computing, a scheme of digitized landscape architecture design is proposed based on edge computing. This scheme uses discrete elevation calculation to preserve the landscape design image's frame. It adopts the Roberts edge detection and Laplacian operator for high-level stable preservation of landscape images. Simultaneously, the displayed image is stablized using edge computing algorithms. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme of digitized landscape architecture design based on mobile edge computing. Results demonstrate that the discrete elevation calculation algorithm can avoid low visual rendering in the 3D image generation process, optimize the seed point matching of edge correlation, and ensure image clarity and stability. The edge computing algorithm can fundamentally avoid the problem of image shaking. The impact of different algorithm models on the classification and accuracy of landscape images is analyzed through parameter optimization. Compared with some latest models, the proposed landscape design scheme based on edge computing has better accuracy. The average accuracy can reach more than 90%, and the Kappa coefficient remains at 86.93%. The designed garden landscape digitization platform can stably display 3D garden landscape images while avoiding the shaking of 3D images, which can provide a theoretical basis and practical value for designing and planning landscape architecture.


Assuntos
Jardins , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Arquitetura , Computação em Nuvem , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191454, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378757

RESUMO

The beginning of the concept of architectural monument in Colombia is in the laws from the late XIX century and early XX century. We recompose the international context through the technic of aero photography, used by the Military Geographical Institute during the Second World War and the consequent tensions between U.S. and the powerful nations of the axis in relation to Colombia and Brazil in Latin America. The Liberal Party emerges like an ideology that tried to reorganise the country through the establishment of education and control the soil. This party negotiated a pact to stop the Colombian-Peruvian war 1932-1933, and signed the Roerich Pact in 1935 to protect the monuments. Therefore, the 1942 plan is the end of a process of mapping the national territory and the generation of criteria about cultural heritage in the first half of XX century, and the base to study how it affected the protection of architectural monuments up to date.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Brasil , Colômbia , Humanos , América Latina
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