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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(1): e0195123, 2024 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131671

RESUMO

The platform chemical 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is used to derive products, such as 1,3-butadiene and methyl ethyl ketone, for the chemical and fuel production industries. Efficient microbial 2,3-BDO production at industrial scales has not been achieved yet for various reasons, including product inhibition to host organisms, mixed stereospecificity in product formation, and dependence on expensive substrates (i.e., glucose). In this study, we explore engineering of a 2,3-BDO pathway in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, an extremely thermophilic (optimal growth temperature = 78°C) and anaerobic bacterium that can break down crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. In addition, C. bescii grows on unpretreated plant biomass, such as switchgrass. Biosynthesis of 2,3-BDO involves three steps: two molecules of pyruvate are condensed into acetolactate; acetolactate is decarboxylated to acetoin, and finally, acetoin is reduced to 2,3-BDO. C. bescii natively produces acetoin; therefore, in order to complete the 2,3-BDO biosynthetic pathway, C. bescii was engineered to produce a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (sADH) to catalyze the final step. Two previously characterized, thermostable sADH enzymes with high affinity for acetoin, one from a bacterium and one from an archaeon, were tested independently. When either sADH was present in C. bescii, the recombinant strains were able to produce up to 2.5-mM 2,3-BDO from crystalline cellulose and xylan and 0.2-mM 2,3-BDO directly from unpretreated switchgrass. This serves as the basis for higher yields and productivities, and to this end, limiting factors and potential genetic targets for further optimization were assessed using the genome-scale metabolic model of C. bescii.IMPORTANCELignocellulosic plant biomass as the substrate for microbial synthesis of 2,3-butanediol is one of the major keys toward cost-effective bio-based production of this chemical at an industrial scale. However, deconstruction of biomass to release the sugars for microbial growth currently requires expensive thermochemical and enzymatic pretreatments. In this study, the thermo-cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii was successfully engineered to produce 2,3-butanediol from cellulose, xylan, and directly from unpretreated switchgrass. Genome-scale metabolic modeling of C. bescii was applied to adjust carbon and redox fluxes to maximize productivity of 2,3-butanediol, thereby revealing bottlenecks that require genetic modifications.


Assuntos
Butileno Glicóis , Caldicellulosiruptor , Lactatos , Engenharia Metabólica , Xilanos , Biomassa , Acetoína , Composição de Bases , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Celulose/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares
2.
Extremophiles ; 27(1): 6, 2023 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36802247

RESUMO

Caldicellulosiruptor species are proficient at solubilizing carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass through surface (S)-layer bound and secretomic glycoside hydrolases. Tapirins, surface-associated, non-catalytic binding proteins in Caldicellulosiruptor species, bind tightly to microcrystalline cellulose, and likely play a key role in natural environments for scavenging scarce carbohydrates in hot springs. However, the question arises: If tapirin concentration on Caldicellulosiruptor cell walls increased above native levels, would this offer any benefit to lignocellulose carbohydrate hydrolysis and, hence, biomass solubilization? This question was addressed by engineering the genes for tight-binding, non-native tapirins into C. bescii. The engineered C. bescii strains bound more tightly to microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and biomass compared to the parent. However, tapirin overexpression did not significantly improve solubilization or conversion for wheat straw or sugarcane bagasse. When incubated with poplar, the tapirin-engineered strains increased solubilization by 10% compared to the parent, and corresponding acetate production, a measure of carbohydrate fermentation intensity, was 28% higher for the Calkr_0826 expression strain and 18.5% higher for the Calhy_0908 expression strain. These results show that enhanced binding to the substrate, beyond the native capability, did not improve C. bescii solubilization of plant biomass, but in some cases may improve conversion of released lignocellulose carbohydrates to fermentation products.


Assuntos
Celulose , Saccharum , Celulose/metabolismo , Biomassa , Saccharum/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Plantas , Archaea/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279562, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580476

RESUMO

Caldicellulosiruptor is a genus of thermophilic to hyper-thermophilic microorganisms that express and secrete an arsenal of enzymes degrading lignocellulosic biomasses into fermentable sugars. Because of this distinguished feature, strains of Caldicellulosiruptor have been considered as promising candidates for consolidated bioprocessing. Although a few Caldicellulosiruptor strains with industrially relevant characteristics have been isolated to date, it is apparent that further improvement of the strains is essential for industrial application. The earlier identification of the HaeIII-like restriction-modification system in C. bescii strain DSM 6725 has formed the basis for genetic methods with the aim to improve the strain's lignocellulolytic activity and ethanol production. In this study, a novel SfaNI-like restriction-modification system was identified in Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain BluCon085, consisting of an endonuclease and two methyltransferases that recognize the reverse-complement sequences 5'-GATGC-3' and 5'-GCATC-3'. Methylation of the adenine in both sequences leads to an asymmetric methylation pattern in the genomic DNA of strain BluCon085. Proteins with high percentage of identity to the endonuclease and two methyltransferases were identified in the genomes of C. saccharolyticus strain DSM 8903, C. naganoensis strain DSM 8991, C. changbaiensis strain DSM 26941 and Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain F32, suggesting that a similar restriction-modification system may be active also in these strains and respective species. We show that methylation of plasmid and linear DNA by the identified methyltransferases, obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, is sufficient for successful transformation of Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain DIB 104C. The genetic engineering toolbox developed in this study forms the basis for rational strain improvement of strain BluCon085, a derivative from strain DIB 104C with exceptionally high L-lactic acid production. The toolbox may also work for other species of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor that have so far not been genetically tractable.


Assuntos
Caldicellulosiruptor , Enzimas de Restrição-Modificação do DNA , Engenharia Genética , Metiltransferases
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3978, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273293

RESUMO

In the process of yielding biofuels from cellulose degradation, traditional enzymatic hydrolysis, such as ß-glucosidase catalyzing cellobiose, can barely resolve the contradiction between cellulose degradation and bioenergy conservation. However, it has been shown that cellobiose phosphorylase provides energetic advantages for cellobiose degradation through a phosphorolytic pathway, which has attracted wide attention. Here, the cellobiose phosphorylase gene from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (CbCBP) was cloned, expressed, and purified. Analysis of the enzymatic properties and kinetic mechanisms indicated that CbCBP catalyzed reversible phosphorolysis and had good thermal stability and broad substrate selectivity. In addition, the phosphorolytic reaction of cellobiose by CbCBP proceeded via an ordered Bi Bi mechanism, while the synthetic reaction proceeded via a ping pong Bi Bi mechanism. The present study lays the foundation for optimizing the degradation of cellulose and the synthesis of functional oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Celobiose , Glucosiltransferases , Caldicellulosiruptor , Celobiose/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 348: 126780, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093526

RESUMO

A variety of chemical and biological processes have been proposed for conversion of sustainable low-cost feedstocks into industrial products. Here, a biorefinery concept is formulated, modeled, and analyzed in which a naturally (hemi)cellulolytic and extremely thermophilic bacterium, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, is metabolically engineered to convert the carbohydrate content of lignocellulosic biomasses (i.e., soybean hulls, transgenic poplar) into green hydrogen and acetone. Experimental validation of C. bescii fermentative performance demonstrated 82% carbohydrate solubilization of soybean hulls and 55% for transgenic poplar. A detailed technical design, including equipment specifications, provides the basis for an economic analysis that establishes metabolic engineering targets. This robust industrial process leveraging metabolically engineered C. bescii yields 206 kg acetone and 25 kg H2 per metric ton of soybean hull, or 174 kg acetone and 21 kg H2 per metric ton transgenic poplar. Beyond this specific case, the model demonstrates industrial feasibility and economic advantages of thermophilic fermentation.


Assuntos
Acetona , Lignina , Biomassa , Caldicellulosiruptor , Fermentação , Hidrogênio , Lignina/química
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 85-94, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilactose, a potential prebiotics, was derived from lactose through enzymatic catalysis. However, production and purification of epilactose are currently difficult due to powerless enzymes and inefficient downstream processing steps. RESULTS: The encoding gene of cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) from Caldicellulosiruptor sp. Rt8.B8 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The enzyme was purified and it was suitable for industrial production of epilactose from lactose without by-products, because of high kcat (197.6 s-1 ) and preferable thermostability. The Rt8-CE gene was further expressed in the Bacillus subtilis strain. We successfully produced epilactose from 700 g L-1 lactose in 30.4% yield by using the recombinant Bacillus subtilis whole cells. By screening of a ß-galactosidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BsGal), a process for separating epilactose and lactose was established, which showed a purity of over 95% in a total yield of 69.2%. In addition, a mixed rare sugar syrup composed of epilactose and d-tagatose was successfully produced from lactose through the co-expression of l-arabinose isomerase and ß-galactosidase. CONCLUSION: Our study shed light on the efficient production of epilactose using a food-grade host expressing a novel CE enzyme. Moreover, an efficient and low-cost process was attempted to obtain high purity epilactose. In order to improve the utilization of raw materials, the production process of mixed syrup containing epilactose and d-tagatose with prebiotic properties produced from lactose was also established for the first time. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Caldicellulosiruptor/enzimologia , Celobiose/metabolismo , Dissacarídeos/biossíntese , Racemases e Epimerases/química , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Expressão Gênica , Temperatura Alta , Lactose/metabolismo , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 192: 250-257, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627844

RESUMO

The bioconversion of chitin into N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) using chitinolytic enzymes is one of the important avenues for chitin valorization. However, industrial applications of chitinolytic enzymes have been limited by their poor thermostability. Therefore, it is necessary to discover thermostable chitinolytic enzymes for GlcNAc production from chitin. In this study, two chitinolytic enzyme-encoding genes CaChiT and CaHex from Caldicellulosiruptor acetigenus were identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant CaChiT and CaHex showed optimal activities at 70 °C and 90 °C respectively, and exhibited good thermostability over a range of temperature below 70 °C and broad pH stability at pH range of 3.0-8.0. CaChiT and CaHex were active on colloidal chitin, pNP-(GlcNAc)2, pNP-(GlcNAc)3, and pNP-GlcNAc, pNP-(GlcNAc)2, pNP-(GlcNAc)3, pNP-Glc respectively. Besides, the chitin oligosaccharides and colloidal chitin hydrolysis profiles revealed that CaChiT degraded chitin chains through exo-mode of action. Furthermore, CaChiT and CaHex exhibited a synergistic effect in the degradation of colloidal chitin, reaching 0.60 mg/mL of GlcNAc production after 1 h incubation. These results suggested that a combination of CaChiT and CaHex have great potential for industrial applications in the enzymatic production of GlcNAc from chitin-containing biowastes.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/genética , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/genética , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/enzimologia , Estabilidade Enzimática , Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Cinética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542397

RESUMO

A novel nitrogen-fixing fermentative bacterium, designated as YA01T, was isolated from Nakabusa hot springs in Japan. The short-rod cells of strain YA01T were Gram-positive and non-sporulating. Phylogenetic trees of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and concatenated sequences of 40 single-copy ribosomal genes revealed that strain YA01T belonged to the genus Caldicellulosiruptor and was closely related to Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis 108T, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725T and Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis 2002T. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain YA01T shares less than 98.1 % identity to the known Caldicellulosiruptor species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.8 mol%. Strain YA01T shares low genome-wide average nucleotide identity (90.31-91.10 %), average amino acid identity (91.45-92.10 %) and <70 % digital DNA-DNA hybridization value (41.8-44.2 %) with the three related species of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Strain YA01T grew at 50-78 °C (optimum, 70 °C) and at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 6.5). Strain YA01T mainly produced acetate by consuming d(+)-glucose as a carbon source. The main cellular fatty acids were iso-C17 : 0 (35.7 %), C16 : 0 (33.3 %), DMA16 : 0 (6.6 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (5.9 %). Based on its distinct phylogenetic position, biochemical and physiological characteristics, and the major cellular fatty acids, strain YA01T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor for which the name Caldicellulosiruptor diazotrophicus sp. nov. is proposed (type strain YA01T=DSM 112098T=JCM 34253T).


Assuntos
Fontes Termais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Caldicellulosiruptor , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Japão , Nitrogênio , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424833

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to re-clarify the taxonomic relationship of Caldicellulosiruptor acetigenus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus and Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii. The 16S rRNA sequence similarities between these species of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor were above the threshold values (98.65%) for bacterial species delineation. Similarly, the digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide and amino acid identity values were greater than the thresholds for bacterial species delineation. In phylogenetic (based on 16S rRNA gene sequences) and phylogenomic trees Caldicellulosiruptor acetigenus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus and Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii clade together. The results of our analysis indicated that these three taxa are conspecific. Therefore, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus Mladenovska et al. 1997 and Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii Bredholt et al. 1999 should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of Caldicellulosiruptor acetigenus (Nielsen et al. 1994) Onyenwoke et al. 2006.


Assuntos
Caldicellulosiruptor , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Caldicellulosiruptor/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Biochemistry ; 60(27): 2206-2220, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180241

RESUMO

The hyperthermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kristjansonii encodes an unusual enzyme, CkXyn10C-GE15A, which incorporates two catalytic domains, a xylanase and a glucuronoyl esterase, and five carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from families 9 and 22. The xylanase and glucuronoyl esterase catalytic domains were recently biochemically characterized, as was the ability of the individual CBMs to bind insoluble polysaccharides. Here, we further probed the abilities of the different CBMs from CkXyn10C-GE15A to bind to soluble poly- and oligosaccharides using affinity gel electrophoresis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and differential scanning fluorimetry. The results revealed additional binding properties of the proteins compared to the former studies on insoluble polysaccharides. Collectively, the results show that all five CBMs have their own distinct binding preferences and appear to complement each other and the catalytic domains in targeting complex cell wall polysaccharides. Additionally, through renewed efforts, we have achieved partial structural characterization of this complex multidomain protein. We have determined the structures of the third CBM9 domain (CBM9.3) and the glucuronoyl esterase (GE15A) by X-ray crystallography. CBM9.3 is the second CBM9 structure determined to date and was shown to bind oligosaccharide ligands at the same site but in a different binding mode compared to that of the previously determined CBM9 structure from Thermotoga maritima. GE15A represents a unique intermediate between reported fungal and bacterial glucuronoyl esterase structures as it lacks two inserted loop regions typical of bacterial enzymes and a third loop has an atypical structure. We also report small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the N-terminal CBM22.1-CBM22.2-Xyn10C construct, indicating a compact arrangement at room temperature.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Caldicellulosiruptor/enzimologia , Esterases/química , Xilosidases/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Caldicellulosiruptor/química , Caldicellulosiruptor/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estabilidade Enzimática , Esterases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Temperatura , Xilosidases/metabolismo
11.
Microbes Environ ; 36(2)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108360

RESUMO

Fermentative nitrogen-fixing bacteria have not yet been examined in detail in thermal environments. In the present study, we isolated the thermophilic fermentative bacterium, strain YA01 from a hot spring. This strain grew at temperatures up to 78°C. A phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YA01 belonged to the genus Caldicellulosiruptor, which are fermentative bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes, with 97.7-98.0% sequence identity to its closest relatives. Strain YA01 clearly exhibited N2-dependent growth at 70°C. We also confirmed N2-dependent growth in the relatives of strain YA01, Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis 108 and Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis 2002. The nitrogenase activities of these three strains were examined using the acetylene reduction assay. Similar activities were detected for all tested strains, and were slightly suppressed by the addition of ammonium. A genome analysis revealed that strain YA01, as well as other Caldicellulosiruptor, possessed a gene set for nitrogen fixation, but lacked the nifN gene, which encodes a nitrogenase iron-molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein that is commonly detected in nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The amino acid sequences of nitrogenase encoded by nifH, nifD, and nifK shared 92-98% similarity in Caldicellulosiruptor. A phylogenetic tree of concatenated NifHDK sequences showed that NifHDK of Caldicellulosiruptor was in the deepest clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the nitrogen-fixing ability of fermentative bacteria at 70°C. Caldicellulosiruptor may have retained an ancient nitrogen-fixing enzyme system.


Assuntos
Caldicellulosiruptor/isolamento & purificação , Caldicellulosiruptor/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/classificação , Caldicellulosiruptor/genética , Fermentação , Genoma Bacteriano , Fontes Termais/química , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogenase/química , Nitrogenase/genética , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Filogenia
12.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 48(5-6)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956122

RESUMO

Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is the most thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium known and has the native ability to utilize unpretreated plant biomass. Cellulase A (CelA) is the most abundant enzyme in the exoproteome of C. bescii and is primarily responsible for its cellulolytic ability. CelA contains a family 9 glycoside hydrolase and a family 48 glycoside hydrolase connected by linker regions and three carbohydrate-binding domains. A truncated version of the enzyme (TM1) containing only the endoglucanase domain is thermostable and actively degrades crystalline cellulose. A catalytically active TM1 was successfully produced via the attachment of the PelB signal peptide (P-TM1), which mediates post-translational secretion via the SecB-dependent translocation pathway. We sought to enhance the extracellular secretion of TM1 using an alternative pathway, the signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent translocation pathway. The co-translational extracellular secretion of TM1 via the SRP pathway (D-TM1) resulted in a specific activity that was 4.9 times higher than that associated with P-TM1 overexpression. In batch fermentations, the recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing D-TM1 produced 1.86 ± 0.06 U/ml of TM1 in the culture medium, showing a specific activity of 1.25 ± 0.05 U/mg cell, 2.7- and 3.7-fold higher than the corresponding values of the strain overexpressing P-TM1. We suggest that the TM1 secretion system developed in this study can be applied to enhance the capacity of E. coli as a microbial cell factory for the extracellular secretion of this as well as a variety proteins important for commercial production.


Assuntos
Celulase/biossíntese , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Via Secretória , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/enzimologia , Caldicellulosiruptor/genética , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Celulase/genética , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Microbiologia Industrial , Mutação , Peptidoglicano/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(14): e0052421, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990300

RESUMO

Caldicellulosiruptor species are hyperthermophilic, Gram-positive anaerobes and the most thermophilic cellulolytic bacteria so far described. They have been engineered to convert switchgrass to ethanol without pretreatment and represent a promising platform for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plant biomass. Xylooligomers, such as xylobiose and xylotriose, that result from the breakdown of plant biomass more strongly inhibit cellulase activity than do glucose or cellobiose. High concentrations of xylobiose and xylotriose are present in C. bescii fermentations after 90 h of incubation, and removal or breakdown of these types of xylooligomers is crucial to achieving high conversion of plant biomass to product. In previous studies, the addition of exogenous ß-d-xylosidase substantially improved the performance of glucanases and xylanases in vitro. ß-d-Xylosidases are, in fact, essential enzymes in commercial preparations for efficient deconstruction of plant biomass. In addition, the combination of xylanase and ß-d-xylosidase is known to exhibit synergistic action on xylan degradation. In spite of its ability to grow efficiently on xylan substrates, no extracellular ß-d-xylosidase was identified in the C. bescii genome. Here, we report that the coexpression of a thermal stable ß-d-xylosidase from Thermotoga maritima and a xylanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in a C. bescii strain containing the A. cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase significantly increased the activity of the exoproteome as well as growth on xylan substrates. The combination of these enzymes also resulted in increased growth on crystalline cellulose in the presence of exogenous xylan. IMPORTANCECaldicellulosiruptor species are bacteria that grow at extremely high temperature, more than 75°C, and are the most thermophilic bacteria so far described that are capable of growth on plant biomass. This native ability allows the use of unpretreated biomass as a growth substrate, eliminating the prohibitive cost of preprocessing/pretreatment of the biomass. They only grow under strictly anaerobic conditions, and the combination of high temperature and the lack of oxygen reduces the cost of fermentation and contamination by other microbes. They have been genetically engineered to convert switchgrass to ethanol without pretreatment and represent a promising platform for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plant biomass. In this study, we introduced genes from other cellulolytic bacteria and identified a combination of enzymes that improves growth on plant biomass. An important feature of this study is that it measures growth, validating predictions made from adding enzyme mixtures to biomass.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/enzimologia , Caldicellulosiruptor/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Thermotoga maritima/enzimologia , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/genética , Celobiose/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Thermotoga maritima/genética , Xilosidases/genética
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(6): 1907-1915, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541071

RESUMO

Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) offers a promising enzymatic approach to produce lactulose. However, its application is limited by the unsatisfactory isomerization activity and thermostability. Our study attempted to optimize the catalytic performances of CEs by flexible loop exchange, for which four mutants were constructed using CsCE (CE from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus) as a template. As a result, all mutants maintained the same catalytic directions as the templates. Mutant RmC displayed a 2.2- and 1.34-fold increase in the isomerization activity and catalytic efficiency, respectively. According to the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, it was revealed that the loop exchange in RmC enlarged the entrance of the active site for substrate binding and benefited proton transfer involved in the isomerization process. Besides, the t1/2 of mutant StC at 70 °C was increased from 29.07 to 38.29 h, owing to the abundance of rigid residues (proline) within the flexible loop of StC. Our work demonstrated that the isomerization activity and thermostability of CEs were closely related to the flexible loop surrounding the active site, which provides a new perspective to engineer CEs for higher lactulose production.


Assuntos
Caldicellulosiruptor , Celobiose , Estabilidade Enzimática , Isomerismo , Lactulose , Racemases e Epimerases/genética
15.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 76(Pt 11): 1104-1113, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135681

RESUMO

Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) is commonly recognized as an epimerase as most CEs mainly exhibit an epimerization activity towards disaccharides. In recent years, several CEs have been found to possess bifunctional epimerization and isomerization activities. They can convert lactose into lactulose, a high-value disaccharide that is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the factors that determine the catalytic direction in CEs are still not clear. In this study, the crystal structures of three newly discovered CEs, CsCE (a bifunctional CE from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus), StCE (a bifunctional CE from Spirochaeta thermophila DSM 6578) and BtCE (a monofunctional CE from Bacillus thermoamylovorans B4166), were determined at 1.54, 2.05 and 1.80 Šresolution, respectively, in order to search for structural clues to their monofunctional/bifunctional properties. A comparative analysis of the hydrogen-bond networks in the active pockets of diverse CEs, YihS and mannose isomerase suggested that the histidine corresponding to His188 in CsCE is uniquely required to catalyse isomerization. By alignment of the apo and ligand-bound structures of diverse CEs, it was found that bifunctional CEs tend to have more flexible loops and a larger entrance around the active site, and that the flexible loop 148-181 in CsCE displays obvious conformational changes during ligand binding. It was speculated that the reconstructed molecular interactions of the flexible loop during ligand binding helped to motivate the ligands to stretch in a manner beneficial for isomerization. Further site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the flexible loop in CsCE indicated that the residue composition of the flexible loop did not greatly impact epimerization but affects isomerization. In particular, V177D and I178D mutants showed a 50% and 80% increase in isomerization activity over the wild type. This study provides new information about the structural characteristics involved in the catalytic properties of CEs, which can be used to guide future molecular modifications.


Assuntos
Bacillus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Caldicellulosiruptor/enzimologia , Carboidratos Epimerases/química , Spirochaeta/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biocatálise , Carboidratos Epimerases/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Isomerismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Especificidade por Substrato
16.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 47(8): 585-597, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783103

RESUMO

Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is the most thermophilic cellulolytic organism yet identified (Topt 78 °C). It grows on untreated plant biomass and has an established genetic system thereby making it a promising microbial platform for lignocellulose conversion to bio-products. Here, we investigated the ability of engineered C. bescii to generate alcohols from carboxylic acids. Expression of aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (aor from Pyrococcus furiosus) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA from Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514) enabled C. bescii to generate ethanol from crystalline cellulose and from biomass by reducing the acetate produced by fermentation. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase in a strain expressing the AOR-Adh pathway increased ethanol production. Engineered strains also converted exogenously supplied organic acids (isobutyrate and n-caproate) to the corresponding alcohol (isobutanol and hexanol) using both crystalline cellulose and switchgrass as sources of reductant for alcohol production. This is the first instance of an acid to alcohol conversion pathway in a cellulolytic microbe.


Assuntos
Caldicellulosiruptor/genética , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Panicum/metabolismo , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/análise , Biomassa , Fermentação , Oxirredução , Panicum/microbiologia , Pyrococcus furiosus/enzimologia , Thermoanaerobacter/enzimologia
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769195

RESUMO

Caldicellulosiruptor bescii secretes a large number of complementary multifunctional enzymes with unique activities for biomass deconstruction. The most abundant enzymes in the C. bescii secretome are found in a unique gene cluster containing a glycosyl transferase (GT39) and a putative peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Deletion of the glycosyl transferase in this cluster resulted in loss of detectable protein glycosylation in C. bescii, and its activity has been shown to be responsible for the glycosylation of the proline-threonine rich linkers found in many of the multifunctional cellulases. The presence of a putative peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase within this gene cluster suggested that it might also play a role in cellulase modification. Here, we identify this gene as a putative prsA prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Deletion of prsA2 leads to the inability of C. bescii to grow on insoluble substrates such as Avicel, the model cellulose substrate, while exhibiting no differences in phenotype with the wild-type strain on soluble substrates. Finally, we provide evidence that the prsA2 gene is likely needed to increase solubility of multifunctional cellulases and that this unique gene cluster was likely acquired by members of the Caldicellulosiruptor genus with a group of genes to optimize the production and activity of multifunctional cellulases.IMPORTANCECaldicellulosiruptor has the ability to digest complex plant biomass without pretreatment and have been engineered to convert biomass, a sustainable, carbon neutral substrate, to fuels. Their strategy for deconstructing plant cell walls relies on an interesting class of cellulases consisting of multiple catalytic modules connected by linker regions and carbohydrate binding modules. The best studied of these enzymes, CelA, has a unique deconstruction mechanism. CelA is located in a cluster of genes that likely allows for optimal expression, secretion, and activity. One of the genes in this cluster is a putative isomerase that modifies the CelA protein. In higher eukaryotes, these isomerases are essential for the proper folding of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, but little is known about the role of isomerization in cellulase activity. We show that the stability and activity of CelA is dependent on the activity of this isomerase.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Caldicellulosiruptor/genética , Celulose/metabolismo , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Glicosilação , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 117(12): 3799-3808, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770740

RESUMO

The production of volatile industrial chemicals utilizing metabolically engineered extreme thermophiles offers the potential for processes with simultaneous fermentation and product separation. An excellent target chemical for such a process is acetone (Tb = 56°C), ideally produced from lignocellulosic biomass. Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (Topt 78°C), an extremely thermophilic fermentative bacterium naturally capable of deconstructing and fermenting lignocellulose, was metabolically engineered to produce acetone. When the acetone pathway construct was integrated into a parent strain containing the bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermocellum, acetone was produced at 9.1 mM (0.53 g/L), in addition to minimal ethanol 3.3 mM (0.15 g/L), along with net acetate consumption. This demonstrates that C. bescii can be engineered with balanced pathways in which renewable carbohydrate sources are converted to useful metabolites, primarily acetone and H2 , without net production of its native fermentation products, acetate and lactate.


Assuntos
Acetona/metabolismo , Biomassa , Caldicellulosiruptor/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Caldicellulosiruptor/genética
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(16)2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532871

RESUMO

Pectin deconstruction is the initial step in breaking the recalcitrance of plant biomass by using selected microorganisms that encode pectinolytic enzymes. Pectate lyases that cleave the α-1,4-galacturonosidic linkage of pectin are widely used in industries such as papermaking and fruit softening. However, there are few reports on pectate lyases with good thermostability. Here, two pectate lyases (CbPL3 and CbPL9) from a hyperthermophilic bacterium, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, belonging to family 3 and family 9 polysaccharide lyases, respectively, were investigated. The biochemical properties of the two CbPLs were shown to be similar under optimized conditions of 80°C to 85°C and pH 8 to 9. However, the degradation products from pectin and polygalacturonic acids (pGAs) were different. A family 66 carbohydrate-binding module (CbCBM66) located in the N terminus of the two CbPLs shares 100% amino acid identity. A CbCBM66-truncated mutant of CbPL9 showed lower activities than the wild type, whereas CbPL3 with a CbCBM66 knockout portion was reported to have enhanced activities, thereby revealing the different effect of CbCBM66. Prediction by the I-TASSER server revealed that CbCBM66 is structurally close to BsCBM66 from Bacillus subtilis; however, the COFACTOR and COACH programs indicated that the substrate-binding sites between CbCBM66 and BsCBM66 are different. Furthermore, a substrate-binding assay indicated that the catalytic domains in the two CbPLs had strong affinities for pectate-related substrates, but CbCBM66 showed a weak interaction with a number of lignocellulosic carbohydrates. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and a total reducing sugar assay showed that the two enzymes could improve the saccharification of switchgrass. The two CbPLs are impressive sources for the degradation of plant biomass.IMPORTANCE Thermophilic proteins could be implemented in diverse industrial applications. We sought to characterize two pectate lyases, CbPL3 and CbPL9, from a thermophilic bacterium, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii The two enzymes share a high optimum temperature, a low optimum pH, and good thermostability at the evaluated temperature. A family 66 carbohydrate-binding module (CbCBM66) was identified in the two CbPLs, sharing 100% amino acid identity. The deletion of CbCBM66 dramatically decreased the activity of CbPL9 but increased the activity and thermostability of CbPL3, suggesting different roles of CbCBM66 in the two enzymes. Moreover, the degradation products of the two CbPLs were different. These results revealed that these enzymes could represent potential pectate lyases for applications in the paper and textile industries.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Firmicutes/genética , Pectinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeo-Liases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Caldicellulosiruptor , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Firmicutes/enzimologia , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/enzimologia , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Polissacarídeo-Liases/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1871934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351984

RESUMO

Glucose isomerase (GI) that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose to D-fructose is one of the most important industrial enzymes for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). In this study, a novel GI (CbGI) was cloned from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant CbGI (rCbGI) showed neutral and thermophilic properties. It had optimal activities at pH 7.0 and 80°C and retained stability at 85°C. In comparison with other reported GIs, rCbGI exhibited higher substrate affinity (Km = 42.61 mM) and greater conversion efficiency (up to 57.3% with 3M D-glucose as the substrate). The high catalytic efficiency and affinity of this CbGI is much valuable for the cost-effective production of HFCS.


Assuntos
Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Caldicellulosiruptor/enzimologia , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/química , Zea mays/química
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