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1.
Nature ; 597(7875): 196-205, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497388

RESUMO

The Human Developmental Cell Atlas (HDCA) initiative, which is part of the Human Cell Atlas, aims to create a comprehensive reference map of cells during development. This will be critical to understanding normal organogenesis, the effect of mutations, environmental factors and infectious agents on human development, congenital and childhood disorders, and the cellular basis of ageing, cancer and regenerative medicine. Here we outline the HDCA initiative and the challenges of mapping and modelling human development using state-of-the-art technologies to create a reference atlas across gestation. Similar to the Human Genome Project, the HDCA will integrate the output from a growing community of scientists who are mapping human development into a unified atlas. We describe the early milestones that have been achieved and the use of human stem-cell-derived cultures, organoids and animal models to inform the HDCA, especially for prenatal tissues that are hard to acquire. Finally, we provide a roadmap towards a complete atlas of human development.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Rastreamento de Células , Células/citologia , Biologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Feto/citologia , Disseminação de Informação , Organogênese , Adulto , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Visualização de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Organogênese/genética , Organoides/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
2.
Nature ; 597(7874): 132-137, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408321

RESUMO

Protein quality control systems are crucial for cellular function and organismal health. At present, most known protein quality control systems are multicomponent machineries that operate via ATP-regulated interactions with non-native proteins to prevent aggregation and promote folding1, and few systems that can broadly enable protein folding by a different mechanism have been identified. Moreover, proteins that contain the extensively charged poly-Asp/Glu (polyD/E) region are common in eukaryotic proteomes2, but their biochemical activities remain undefined. Here we show that DAXX, a polyD/E protein that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes3-10, possesses several protein-folding activities. DAXX prevents aggregation, solubilizes pre-existing aggregates and unfolds misfolded species of model substrates and neurodegeneration-associated proteins. Notably, DAXX effectively prevents and reverses aggregation of its in vivo-validated client proteins, the tumour suppressor p53 and its principal antagonist MDM2. DAXX can also restore native conformation and function to tumour-associated, aggregation-prone p53 mutants, reducing their oncogenic properties. These DAXX activities are ATP-independent and instead rely on the polyD/E region. Other polyD/E proteins, including ANP32A and SET, can also function as stand-alone, ATP-independent molecular chaperones, disaggregases and unfoldases. Thus, polyD/E proteins probably constitute a multifunctional protein quality control system that operates via a distinctive mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Agregados Proteicos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/prevenção & controle , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Desdobramento de Proteína , Deficiências na Proteostase/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443297

RESUMO

The potential of nanomaterials use is huge, especially in fields such as medicine or industry. Due to widespread use of nanomaterials, their cytotoxicity and involvement in cellular pathways ought to be evaluated in detail. Nanomaterials can induce the production of a number of substances in cells, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), participating in physiological and pathological cellular processes. These highly reactive substances include: superoxide, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide. For overall assessment, there are a number of fluorescent probes in particular that are very specific and selective for given ROS. In addition, due to the involvement of ROS in a number of cellular signaling pathways, understanding the principle of ROS production induced by nanomaterials is very important. For defense, the cells have a number of reparative and especially antioxidant mechanisms. One of the most potent antioxidants is a tripeptide glutathione. Thus, the glutathione depletion can be a characteristic manifestation of harmful effects caused by the prooxidative-acting of nanomaterials in cells. For these reasons, here we would like to provide a review on the current knowledge of ROS-mediated cellular nanotoxicity manifesting as glutathione depletion, including an overview of approaches for the detection of ROS levels in cells.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443378

RESUMO

Ionic liquids have unique chemical properties that have fascinated scientists in many fields. The effects of adding ionic liquids to biocatalysts are many and varied. The uses of ionic liquids in biocatalysis include improved separations and phase behaviour, reduction in toxicity, and stabilization of protein structures. As the ionic liquid state of the art has progressed, concepts of what can be achieved in biocatalysis using ionic liquids have evolved and more beneficial effects have been discovered. In this review ionic liquids for whole-cell and isolated enzyme biocatalysis will be discussed with an emphasis on the latest developments, and a look to the future.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Células/metabolismo , Enzimas/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Solubilidade
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443459

RESUMO

Antioxidants remain interesting molecules of choice for suppression of the toxic effects of free radicals in foods and human systems. The current practice involves the use of mainly synthetic molecules as potent antioxidant agents. However, due to the potential negative impact on human health, there is an intensive effort within the research community to develop natural alternatives with similar antioxidant efficacy but without the negative side effects of synthetic molecules. Still, the successful development of new molecules depends on the use of reliable chemical or cell culture assays to screen antioxidant properties. Chemical antioxidant assays include the determination of scavenging ability against free radicals such as DPPH, superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide. Other antioxidant tests include the ability of compounds to bind and sequester prooxidant metal cations, reduce ferric iron, and attenuate the rate of lipid oxidation. Ex vivo tests utilize cell cultures to confirm entry of the molecules into cells and the ability to quench synthetic intracellular free radicals or to stimulate the increased biosynthesis of endogenous antioxidants. In order to assist researchers in their choice of antioxidant evaluation methods, this review presents background scientific information on some of the most commonly used antioxidant assays with a comparative discussion of the relevance of published literature data to food science and human nutrition applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioensaio/métodos , Células/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16539, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400683

RESUMO

In many phenomena of biological systems, not a majority, but a minority of cells act on the entire multicellular system causing drastic changes in the system properties. To understand the mechanisms underlying such phenomena, it is essential to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of a huge population of cells at sub-cellular resolution, which is difficult with conventional tools such as microscopy and flow cytometry. Here, we describe an imaging system named AMATERAS that enables optical imaging with an over-one-centimeter field-of-view and a-few-micrometer spatial resolution. This trans-scale-scope has a simple configuration, composed of a low-power lens for machine vision and a hundred-megapixel image sensor. We demonstrated its high cell-throughput, capable of simultaneously observing more than one million cells. We applied it to dynamic imaging of calcium ions in HeLa cells and cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum, and successfully detected less than 0.01% of rare cells and observed multicellular events induced by these cells.


Assuntos
Células/citologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Cálcio/análise , AMP Cíclico/análise , Dictyostelium/química , Dictyostelium/ultraestrutura , Cães , Entose , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Desenho de Equipamento , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Células HeLa/química , Células HeLa/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Interneurônios/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Luminescentes , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Semicondutores
7.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359899

RESUMO

The lack of an appropriate platform for a better understanding of the molecular basis of hepatitis viruses and the absence of reliable models to identify novel therapeutic agents for a targeted treatment are the two major obstacles for launching efficient clinical protocols in different types of viral hepatitis. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, and the development of model systems for efficient viral replication is necessary for basic and applied studies. Viral hepatitis is a major health issue and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite the extensive efforts that have been made on fundamental and translational research, traditional models are not effective in representing this viral infection in a laboratory. In this review, we discuss in vitro cell-based models and in vivo animal models, with their strengths and weaknesses. In addition, the most important findings that have been retrieved from each model are described.


Assuntos
Células/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia , Viroses/patologia , Animais , Hidrodinâmica , Fígado/patologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13950, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230532

RESUMO

Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) are used to image patients using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In recent years, there has been controversy around gadolinium retention after GBCA administration. We sought to evaluate the potential toxicity of gadolinium in the rat brain up to 1-year after repeated gadodiamide dosing and tissue retention kinetics after a single administration. Histopathological and ultrastructural transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed no findings in rats administered a cumulative dose of 12 mmol/kg. TEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) localization of gadolinium in the deep cerebellar nuclei showed ~ 100 nm electron-dense foci in the basal lamina of the vasculature. Laser ablation-ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) showed diffuse gadolinium throughout the brain but concentrated in perivascular foci of the DCN and globus pallidus with no observable tissue injury or ultrastructural changes. A single dose of gadodiamide (0.6 mmol/kg) resulted in rapid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood clearance. Twenty-weeks post administration gadolinium concentrations in brain regions was reduced by 16-72-fold and in the kidney (210-fold), testes (194-fold) skin (44-fold), liver (42-fold), femur (6-fold) and lung (64-fold). Our findings suggest that gadolinium does not lead to histopathological or ultrastructural changes in the brain and demonstrate in detail the kinetics of a human equivalent dose over time in a pre-clinical model.


Assuntos
Células/ultraestrutura , Gadolínio DTPA/administração & dosagem , Gadolínio DTPA/farmacologia , Gadolínio/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerebelo/ultraestrutura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gadolínio DTPA/sangue , Gadolínio DTPA/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206547

RESUMO

Gene 33 (also named Mig6, RALT, and ERRFI1) is an adapter/scaffold protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 50 kD. It contains multiple domains known to mediate protein-protein interaction, suggesting that it has the potential to interact with many cellular partners and have multiple cellular functions. The research over the last two decades has confirmed that it indeed regulates multiple cell signaling pathways and is involved in many pathophysiological processes. Gene 33 has long been viewed as an exclusively cytosolic protein. However, recent evidence suggests that it also has nuclear and chromatin-associated functions. These new findings highlight a significantly broader functional spectrum of this protein. In this review, we will discuss the function and regulation of Gene 33, as well as its association with human pathophysiological conditions in light of the recent research progress on this protein.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Células/metabolismo , Doença/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Movimento Celular/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Microsc Microanal ; 27(4): 815-827, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266508

RESUMO

Manual selection of targets in experimental or diagnostic samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), based on single overview and detail micrographs, has been time-consuming and susceptible to bias. Substantial information and throughput gain may now be achieved by the automated acquisition of virtually all structures in a given EM section. Resulting datasets allow the convenient pan-and-zoom examination of tissue ultrastructure with preserved microanatomical orientation. The technique is, however, critically sensitive to artifacts in sample preparation. We, therefore, established a methodology to prepare large-scale digitization samples (LDS) designed to acquire entire sections free of obscuring flaws. For evaluation, we highlight the supreme performance of scanning EM in transmission mode compared with other EM technology. The use of LDS will substantially facilitate access to EM data for a broad range of applications.


Assuntos
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Manejo de Espécimes , Células , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
11.
Nature ; 595(7865): 58-65, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194019

RESUMO

The natural world provides many examples of multiphase transport and reaction processes that have been optimized by evolution. These phenomena take place at multiple length and time scales and typically include gas-liquid-solid interfaces and capillary phenomena in porous media1,2. Many biological and living systems have evolved to optimize fluidic transport. However, living things are exceptionally complex and very difficult to replicate3-5, and human-made microfluidic devices (which are typically planar and enclosed) are highly limited for multiphase process engineering6-8. Here we introduce the concept of cellular fluidics: a platform of unit-cell-based, three-dimensional structures-enabled by emerging 3D printing methods9,10-for the deterministic control of multiphase flow, transport and reaction processes. We show that flow in these structures can be 'programmed' through architected design of cell type, size and relative density. We demonstrate gas-liquid transport processes such as transpiration and absorption, using evaporative cooling and CO2 capture as examples. We design and demonstrate preferential liquid and gas transport pathways in three-dimensional cellular fluidic devices with capillary-driven and actively pumped liquid flow, and present examples of selective metallization of pre-programmed patterns. Our results show that the design and fabrication of architected cellular materials, coupled with analytical and numerical predictions of steady-state and dynamic behaviour of multiphase interfaces, provide deterministic control of fluidic transport in three dimensions. Cellular fluidics may transform the design space for spatial and temporal control of multiphase transport and reaction processes.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Gravação de Videodisco , Água/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198683

RESUMO

We noted recently that the injection of cells with a needle through a cystoscope in the urethral sphincter muscle of pigs failed to deposit them nearby or at the intended target position in about 50% of all animals investigated (n > 100). Increasing the chance for precise cell injection by shotgun approaches employing several circumferential injections into the sphincter muscle bears the risk of tissue injury. In this study, we developed and tested a novel needle-free technique to precisely inject cells in the urethral sphincter tissue, or other tissues, using a water-jet system. This system was designed to fit in the working channels of endoscopes and cystoscopes, allowing a wide range of minimally invasive applications. We analyze key features, including the physical parameters of the injector design, pressure ranges applicable for tissue penetration and cell injections and biochemical parameters, such as different compositions of injection media. Our results present settings that enable the high viability of cells post-injection. Lastly, the method is suitable to inject cells in the superficial tissue layer and in deeper layers, required when the submucosa or the sphincter muscle of the urethra is targeted.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Endoscopia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Suínos , Água
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201882

RESUMO

Tea is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide, and possesses numerous potential health benefits. Herbal teas are well-known to contain an abundance of polyphenol antioxidants and other ingredients, thereby implicating protection and treatment against various ailments, and maintaining overall health in humans, although their mechanisms of action have not yet been fully identified. Autophagy is a conserved mechanism present in organisms that maintains basal cellular homeostasis and is essential in mediating the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer, type II diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. The increasing prevalence of these diseases, which could be attributed to the imbalance in the level of autophagy, presents a considerable challenge in the healthcare industry. Natural medicine stands as an effective, safe, and economical alternative in balancing autophagy and maintaining homeostasis. Tea is a part of the diet for many people, and it could mediate autophagy as well. Here, we aim to provide an updated overview of popular herbal teas' health-promoting and disease healing properties and in-depth information on their relation to autophagy and its related signaling molecules. The present review sheds more light on the significance of herbal teas in regulating autophagy, thereby improving overall health.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Células/metabolismo , Saúde , Homeostase , Chás de Ervas , Animais , Humanos
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208153

RESUMO

Thiols play vital and irreplaceable roles in the biological system. Abnormality of thiol levels has been linked with various diseases and biological disorders. Thiols are known to distribute unevenly and change dynamically in the biological system. Methods that can determine thiols' concentration and distribution in live cells are in high demand. In the last two decades, fluorescent probes have emerged as a powerful tool for achieving that goal for the simplicity, high sensitivity, and capability of visualizing the analytes in live cells in a non-invasive way. They also enable the determination of intracellular distribution and dynamitic movement of thiols in the intact native environments. This review focuses on some of the major strategies/mechanisms being used for detecting GSH, Cys/Hcy, and other thiols in live cells via fluorescent probes, and how they are applied at the cellular and subcellular levels. The sensing mechanisms (for GSH and Cys/Hcy) and bio-applications of the probes are illustrated followed by a summary of probes for selectively detecting cellular and subcellular thiols.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Células/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(28): 32624-32639, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228435

RESUMO

Organ dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Transplantation is typically the only definitive cure, challenged by the lack of sufficient donor organs. Tissue engineering encompasses the development of biomaterial scaffolds to support cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, leading to tissue regeneration. For efficient clinical translation, the forming technology utilized must be suitable for mass production. Herein, uniaxial polyhydroxyalkanoate scaffolds manufactured by pressurized gyration, a hybrid scalable spinning technique, are successfully used in bone, nerve, and cardiovascular applications. Chorioallantoic membrane and in vivo studies provided evidence of vascularization, collagen deposition, and cellular invasion for bone tissue engineering. Highly efficient axonal outgrowth was observed in dorsal root ganglion-based 3D ex vivo models. Human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes exhibited a mature cardiomyocyte phenotype with optimal calcium handling. This study confirms that engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate-based gyrospun fibers provide an exciting and unique toolbox for the development of scalable scaffolds for both hard and soft tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Módulo de Elasticidade , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Porosidade , Pressão , Ratos , Rotação , Células de Schwann/metabolismo
16.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48236

RESUMO

A Fiocruz recebeu, nesta quarta-feira (2/6), dois bancos, um de células e outro de vírus, para a produção do Ingrediente Farmacêutico Ativo (IFA) nacional da vacina Covid-19 Fiocruz


Assuntos
Vacinas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Células/imunologia
17.
Elife ; 102021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114559

RESUMO

For a more complete understanding of molecular mechanisms, it is important to study macromolecules and their assemblies in the broader context of the cell. This context can be visualized at nanometer resolution in three dimensions (3D) using electron cryo-tomography, which requires tilt series to be recorded and computationally aligned, currently limiting throughput. Additionally, the high-resolution signal preserved in the raw tomograms is currently limited by a number of technical difficulties, leading to an increased false-positive detection rate when using 3D template matching to find molecular complexes in tomograms. We have recently described a 2D template matching approach that addresses these issues by including high-resolution signal preserved in single-tilt images. A current limitation of this approach is the high computational cost that limits throughput. We describe here a GPU-accelerated implementation of 2D template matching in the image processing software cisTEM that allows for easy scaling and improves the accessibility of this approach. We apply 2D template matching to identify ribosomes in images of frozen-hydrated Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells with high precision and sensitivity, demonstrating that this is a versatile tool for in situ visual proteomics and in situ structure determination. We benchmark the results with 3D template matching of tomograms acquired on identical sample locations and identify strengths and weaknesses of both techniques, which offer complementary information about target localization and identity.


Assuntos
Células/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/ultraestrutura , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/química , Proteômica/métodos , Ribossomos/química , Software
18.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125093

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) structured illumination microscopy (SIM) allows imaging of fluorescently labelled cellular structures at higher resolution than conventional fluorescence microscopy. This super-resolution (SR) technique enables visualization of molecular processes in whole cells and has the potential to be used in conjunction with electron microscopy and X-ray tomography to correlate structural and functional information. A SIM microscope for cryogenically preserved samples (cryoSIM) has recently been commissioned at the correlative cryo-imaging beamline B24 at the UK synchrotron. It was designed specifically for 3D imaging of biological samples at cryogenic temperatures in a manner compatible with subsequent imaging of the same samples by X-ray microscopy methods such as cryo-soft X-ray tomography. This video article provides detailed methods and protocols for successful imaging using the cryoSIM. In addition to instructions on the operation of the cryoSIM microscope, recommendations have been included regarding the choice of samples, fluorophores, and parameter settings. The protocol is demonstrated in U2OS cell samples whose mitochondria and tubulin have been fluorescently labelled.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Técnicas Citológicas , Corantes Fluorescentes , Células/ultraestrutura , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Iluminação , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Tubulina (Proteína)
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067696

RESUMO

Nanomaterials are proven to affect the biological activity of mammalian and microbial cells profoundly. Despite this fact, only surface chemistry, charge, and area are often linked to these phenomena. Moreover, most attention in this field is directed exclusively at nanomaterial cytotoxicity. At the same time, there is a large body of studies showing the influence of nanomaterials on cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, reprogramming, gene transfer, and many other processes. Furthermore, it has been revealed that in all these cases, the shape of the nanomaterial plays a crucial role. In this paper, the mechanisms of nanomaterials shape control, approaches toward its synthesis, and the influence of nanomaterial shape on various biological activities of mammalian and microbial cells, such as proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism, as well as the prospects of this emerging field, are reviewed.


Assuntos
Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Físicos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067777

RESUMO

The Special Issue, "Telocytes and Other Interstitial Cells: From Structure to Function" of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, is dedicated to recent progress in research on interstitial cells [...].


Assuntos
Telócitos/metabolismo , Telócitos/fisiologia , Animais , Células , Líquido Extracelular , Humanos
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