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1.
J Health Soc Behav ; 65(1): 75-93, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37688490

RESUMO

In early 2020, when COVID-19 began to spread in the United States, many Twitter users called it the "Chinese virus," blaming racial outgroups for the pandemic. I collected tweets containing the "Chinese virus" derivatives posted from March to August 2020 by users within the United States and created a data set with 141,290 tweets published by 50,695 users. I calculated the ratio of users who supported the racist naming of COVID-19 per county and merged Twitter data with the county-level census. Multilevel regression models show that counties with higher COVID-19 mortality or infection rates have more support for the racist naming. Second, the mortality and infection rates effects are stronger in counties with faster minority growth. Moreover, it is mainly in poor counties that minority growth enlarges the effects of infection and mortality rates. These findings relate to the theories on disease-induced xenophobia and the debate between conflict and contact theories.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Racismo , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Bode Expiatório , Meio Social
2.
J Relig Health ; 62(4): 2638-2655, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37170016

RESUMO

To understand physical violence in the family, it is important to define the role of the victim. The term "scapegoat" is a universal anthropological concept, often used in sociological theories, where a certain group of people and/or minorities are often victimized or blamed (e.g., social ills). We may note that the phenomenon of scapegoating is most clearly expressed in the Bible. Therefore, we will use relevant biblical texts that refer to parental use of corporal punishment in which a child is scapegoated and/or victimized by parental violence. In this sense, the Bible is the most profound explanation and manifestation of the cultural, social, and especially religious development of humanity. At the same time, the concept of scapegoating is also demonstrated in psychology and therapy, where it also serves as a basis for understanding, for example, physical violence in the family, and where it is also crucial to define the role of the victim. In this article, therefore, we will explain the biblical background of this concept and highlight two basic dynamics of violence against children in the family: when the child is the "scapegoat" for unresolved tensions in the family and when the child becomes the "sacrifice" or victim of the dysregulated emotional response of his or her parents.


Assuntos
Abuso Físico , Bode Expiatório , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Bíblia , Violência/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Punição/psicologia
3.
J Psychol ; 157(2): 121-141, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595560

RESUMO

The clinical literature on narcissistic families has often described the presence of a family scapegoat. To date, however, no research has empirically explored this phenomenon. This study investigated the relationship between perceived parental vulnerable and grandiose narcissism and scapegoating, and the impact of these on the symptoms of anxiety and depression in emerging adults, in a sample of 504 Australian adults (Mage = 22.38, SDage = 3.63; 59.72% female, 38.09% male). A path model was tested, with perceived parental vulnerable and grandiose narcissism as predictors, scapegoating as a mediator, and participants' anxiety and depression as outcomes, controlling for demographic variables and participants' vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. Results indicated that higher perceived paternal grandiose narcissism had a direct effect on anxiety and depression, whereas perceived maternal vulnerable narcissism, perceived paternal vulnerable narcissism, and perceived maternal grandiose narcissism had indirect effects on anxiety and depression via scapegoating. Effect sizes were generally small to medium. These findings show that scapegoating is an important variable linking parental narcissism with negative psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression in emerging adults.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Bode Expiatório , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Pré-Escolar , Depressão , Austrália , Ansiedade/psicologia , Pais
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246660, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1422419

RESUMO

Objetivamos reconstruir, por meio das vozes de mães de jovens negros mortos em ações policiais, a subtração da vida de seus filhos em contínuas políticas que precarizavam suas existências ao negar-lhes direitos básicos e cidadania. Participaram desta pesquisa seis mães. As conversas com elas, após cuidadosa aproximação, se iniciaram com a pergunta disparadora: "Como você gostaria de contar a história do seu filho?". Para subsidiar nossas análises, tomamos como centrais a articulação teórica e política das noções de genocídio negro e de necropolítica. Este artigo evidencia que, entre o nascimento e a interrupção da vida por balas que atravessam o corpo como um alvo predestinado, o racismo constrói trilhos de precarização da vida que a torna cada vez mais abjeta, vulnerável e descartável, conduzindo à morte precoce, ainda que preveníveis, de jovens negros, principalmente, residentes em periferias e favelas. Nesta discussão, fomentamos uma visão menos compartimentalizada das múltiplas políticas genocidas, trazendo para o diálogo outras políticas públicas, para além da segurança pública. Abordamos um continuum de produção e legitimação de mortes de jovens negros, centrando nossas análises nas formas de apagamento social e institucional desses jovens, que ocorreram anteriormente à morte física, de modo a desqualificar suas vidas. Esses processos contribuem para que a política de segurança pública extermine vidas de jovens negros sem causar ampla comoção social, a devida investigação criminal e, portanto, a responsabilização do Estado, pois já eram vidas mutiladas e desumanizadas em suas existências.(AU)


We aim to reconstruct, with the voices of mothers of young black people killed in police actions, the subtraction of their children's lives in continuous policies that undermined their existence by denying them basic rights and citizenship. Six mothers participated in this research. The conversations with them, after a careful approach, began with the triggering question: "How would you like to tell your child's story?". To support our analyses, we take as central the theoretical and political articulation of the notions of black genocide and necropolitics. This article shows that, between the birth and the interruption of life by bullets that pass through the body as a predestined target, racism builds trails of precariousness of life that makes it increasingly more abject, vulnerable, and disposable, leading to premature death, even if preventable, of young black people, mainly, living in suburbs and slums. In this discussion, we foster a less compartmentalized view of multiple genocidal policies, bringing to the dialogue other public policies, in addition to public safety. We approach a continuum of production and legitimization of deaths of young black people, centering our analysis on the forms of social and institutional erasure of these young people, which occurred before physical death, to disqualify their lives. These processes contribute to the public security policy to exterminate the lives of young black people without causing widespread social upheaval, due criminal investigation, and, thus, the accountability of the State, since they were already mutilated and dehumanized lives in their existence.(AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es reconstruir, a través de las voces de las madres de jóvenes negros asesinados en acciones policiales, la sustracción de la vida de sus hijos en políticas continuas que socavaron su existencia al negarles derechos básicos y ciudadanía. Seis madres participaron en esta investigación. Las conversaciones con estas madres, después de un enfoque cuidadoso, comenzaron con la pregunta desencadenante: "¿Cómo le gustaría contar la historia de su hijo?". Para apoyar el análisis, se tomó como eje central la articulación teórica y política de las nociones de genocidio negro y necropolítica. Este artículo muestra que, entre el nacimiento y la interrupción de la vida por balas que atraviesan el cuerpo como fin predestinado, el racismo construye senderos de precariedad de la vida que la hace cada vez más abyecta, vulnerable y desechable, conduciendo a una muerte prematura, incluso prevenible, de jóvenes negros, principalmente, residentes en la periferia y favelas. Esta discusión fomenta una visión menos compartimentada de múltiples políticas genocidas, llevando al diálogo otras políticas públicas, además de la seguridad pública. Se acerca a un continuo de producción y legitimación de muertes de jóvenes negros, centrando el análisis en las formas de borrado social e institucional de estos jóvenes, ocurridas antes de la muerte física, para descalificar sus vidas. Tales procesos contribuyen a la política de seguridad pública para exterminar la vida de los jóvenes negros sin provocar un gran revuelo social, la debida investigación criminal y, en consecuencia, la rendición de cuentas del Estado, pues ya eran vidas cuya existencia era mutilada y deshumanizada.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Política Pública , Mulheres , Adolescente , Racismo , Genocídio , Preconceito , Psicologia , Bode Expiatório , Justiça Social , Problemas Sociais , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sociologia , Violência , Trabalho Infantil , Alimentação de Emergência , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Luto , Drogas Ilícitas , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Política Nutricional , Colonialismo , Estatística , Direito Penal , Ameaças , Saúde do Adolescente , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Desumanização , Desastres , Escolaridade , Emprego , Ética , Medo , Estigma Social , Discriminação Social , Escravização , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Ativismo Político , Fracasso Acadêmico , Liberdade , Asco , Respeito , Empoderamento , Vulnerabilidade Social , Cidadania , Homicídio , Direitos Humanos , Renda , Ira , Solidão , Mães
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255496, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529211

RESUMO

O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a construção metodológica desenvolvida em uma pesquisa de mestrado, na qual sustentamos a escrita de cenas como método de pesquisa da escuta clínica. As cenas do trabalho em questão foram recolhidas ao longo do tempo, no contorno da experiência de um projeto de extensão universitária de atenção à infância e adolescência em situação de vulnerabilidade social, situado em uma comunidade periférica. Apresentamos, neste texto, as interrogações que se elaboraram em torno da escolha pelo trabalho com cenas, e compartilhamos o resgate histórico dessas como um método de escrever a clínica, bem como a retomada de sua análise a partir da tradição psicanalítica. Amparadas nesta teoria e em leituras e contribuições do filósofo francês Jacques Derrida, embasamos a noção de que a cena se constitui como um lugar de produção, ao engendrar a configuração particular de elementos significantes nos processos de subjetivação e de construção social. A cena não é, então, compreendida aqui como uma representação do que acontece na clínica, mas como um modo de produzir a escuta e os seus processos de investigação.(AU)


This article aims to present the methodological construction developed in a master's research, in which the writing of scenes as a method of clinical listening research was endorsed. The scenes from the study in question were collected over time, from the experience gained in a project conducted within a university extension program on care in childhood and adolescence in social vulnerability, in a peripheral community. In this study, we present some questions that were elaborated surrounding the choices of working with scenes; and we share the historical rescue of this work as a method of writing on clinic practices and resuming their analysis from the psychoanalytic tradition. Based on the psychoanalytic theory and on the readings and contributions of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, we corroborate the notion that the scene is constituted as a place of production, engendering the particular configuration of significant elements in the processes of subjectivation and social construction. Here, the scene is not a representation of clinical practice but one mode of producing listening and its research processes.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la construcción metodológica desarrollada en una investigación de maestría, en la que sostenemos la escritura de escenas como método de investigación de la escucha clínica. Las escenas del trabajo en cuestión se recogieron a lo largo del tiempo desde la experiencia en un proyecto de extensión universitario de atención a la niñez y adolescencia en situación de vulnerabilidad social aplicado en una comunidad periférica. En este texto, presentamos los interrogantes que se elaboraron en torno a la elección por el trabajo con escenas y compartimos el rescate histórico de las mismas como un método de escribir la clínica y la reanudación del análisis a partir de la tradición psicoanalítica. Amparadas en el psicoanálisis y en lecturas y contribuciones del filósofo francés Jacques Derrida, nos basaremos en la noción de que la escena se constituye como un lugar de producción, engendrando la configuración particular de elementos significantes en los procesos de subjetivación y de construcción social. La escena no es aquí una representación de lo que pasa en la clínica, sino un modo de producir escucha y sus procesos de investigación.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Psicanálise , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Equipamentos e Provisões , Metodologia como Assunto , Refeições , Vulnerabilidade Social , Parapsicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Paternidade , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ludoterapia , Pobreza , Fenômenos Psicológicos , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Terapia da Realidade , Bode Expiatório , Instituições Acadêmicas , Relações entre Irmãos , Classe Social , Isolamento Social , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social , Apoio Social , Serviço Social , Fala , Superego , Inconsciente Psicológico , Comportamento , Áreas de Pobreza , Uso de Resíduos Sólidos , Criança Abandonada , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Cuidado da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Características de Residência , Higiene , Saúde da Criança , Responsabilidade Legal , Adolescente , Poder Familiar , Estágio Clínico , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Estado de Consciência , Vida , Crime , Intervenção na Crise , Afeto , Cultura , Narração , Fraldas Infantis , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Agressão , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Sonhos , Educação , Ego , Emprego , Mercado de Trabalho , Ética , Nutrição da Criança , Bullying , Marginalização Social , Criança Acolhida , Privilégio Social , Liberdade , Teoria Freudiana , Status Econômico , Respeito , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Inclusão Social , Instabilidade Habitacional , Baixo Nível Socioeconômico , História , Direitos Humanos , Id , Lateralidade Funcional , Amor , Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo , Moral , Nomes
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e249440, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1431134

RESUMO

Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar traços da mentalidade potencialmente autoritária a partir do discurso de usuários do Facebook vinculados a páginas de cunho político autodeclarado de direita e de esquerda no Brasil. A Netnografia é utilizada como aporte metodológico para imersão on-line nas páginas "Eu era Direita e não sabia" e "Jovens de Esquerda", selecionadas por meio do Facebook Audience Insights, ferramenta disponibilizada pelo Facebook. Delas, foram extraídas oito postagens com maior engajamento (número de comentários, curtidas e compartilhamentos), identificadas pelo Netvizz. Foram coletados 3.489 comentários, os quais foram organizados em um corpus textual submetido ao software IRAMUTEQ e analisados sob a perspectiva da análise crítica imanente da teoria crítica. Como resultado, apresenta-se a forma como o pensamento autoritário se manifesta na racionalização da sociedade contemporânea e nas práticas discursivas em redes sociais on-line, enraizada no âmbito sociopolítico brasileiro, ameaçando o processo democrático e a construção de uma sociedade plural e liberta.(AU)


This study aims to analyze traits of the potentially authoritarian mentality from the speech of Facebook users linked to political pages self-declared as rightist and leftist in Brazil. Netnography is used as a methodological contribution for online immersion in the pages "Eu era Direita e não sabia" and "Jovens de Esquerda" selected via Facebook Audience Insights, a tool provided by Facebook. From these, eight posts with greater engagement (number of comments, likes and shares), identified by Netvizz, were extracted. We collected 3,489 comments, which were organized in a textual corpus submitted to IRAMUTEQ software and analyzed from the perspective of immanent critical analysis of Critical Theory. As a result, we present the way in which authoritarian thinking manifests itself in the rationalization of contemporary society and in discursive practices in online social networks, rooted in the Brazilian socio-political sphere, threatening the democratic process and the construction of a plural and free society.(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las huellas de la mentalidad potencialmente autoritaria a partir de los discursos de usuarios en Facebook vinculados a páginas políticas autodeclaradas de derecha y de izquierda en Brasil. La netnografía se utiliza como marco metodológico para la inmersión en línea en las páginas "Eu era Direita e não sabia" y "Jovens de Esquerda", seleccionadas por Facebook Audience Insights, herramienta proporcionada por Facebook. Se extrajeron las ocho publicaciones con mayor compromiso (número de comentarios, gustos y compartidas), identificadas por Netvizz. Se recogieron 3.489 comentarios, los cuales fueron organizados en un corpus textual sometido al software IRAMUTEQ y analizado bajo la perspectiva del análisis crítico inmanente de la teoría crítica. Los resultados presentan la forma en que el pensamiento autoritario se manifiesta en la racionalización de la sociedad contemporánea y en prácticas discursivas en redes sociales en línea, arraigada en el ámbito sociopolítico brasileño, que amenazan el proceso democrático y la construcción de una sociedad plural y liberada.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Política , Autoritarismo , Rede Social , Permissividade , Comunicação Persuasiva , Formulação de Políticas , Preconceito , Psicologia , Bode Expiatório , Comportamento Social , Mudança Social , Conformidade Social , Desejabilidade Social , Distância Psicológica , Predomínio Social , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Justiça Social , Problemas Sociais , Apoio Social , Seguridade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sociologia , Estereotipagem , Desemprego , Políticas de Controle Social , Atitude , Caráter , Conflito de Interesses , Congresso , Direitos Civis , Civilização , Segurança Computacional , Comportamento Competitivo , Participação da Comunidade , Diversidade Cultural , Feminismo , Internet , Jornalismo , Modernização do Setor Público , Crime , Cibernética , Poder Legislativo , Democracia , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Desumanização , Dissidências e Disputas , Agressão , Grupos Raciais , Economia , Avaliação de Políticas de Pesquisa , Indicadores de Sociedade da Informação , Ética , Altruísmo , Mídias Sociais , Sexismo , Discriminação Social , Dívida Externa , Habilidades Sociais , Autocontrole , Diplomacia , Difamação , Censura Científica , Governança em Saúde , Assédio não Sexual , Incivilidade , Ativismo Político , Direitos Culturais , Liberdade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cyberbullying , Egocentrismo , Corrupção , Sociedade Civil , Empoderamento , Evolução Social , Derrota Social , Representação Social , Desinformação , Enquadramento Interseccional , Coesão Social , Cidadania , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Governo , Ódio , Direitos Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Manobras Políticas , Enganação , Comportamento de Massa , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Anônimos e Pseudônimos , Negativismo
7.
Rev. med. cine ; 18(3): 225-236, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-211531

RESUMO

Background: During epidemic disease outbreaks, people’s daily lives are restricted by quarantine and social distancing measures that can affect not only their physical and mental health but also other aspects of their lives, including education. The quality of medical education has suffered amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, with on-site classes and conferences canceled or postponed. To address the resultant gaps in learning and supplement the rigors of formal medical teaching, recent research has suggested the use of nonfictional films. However, research on the educational and therapeutic value of fictional films is currently lacking. Methods: This study explored fiction films featuring medical practices, diseases, and treatments. The researcher conducted multiple searches using the largest internet movie databases (Internet Movie Database (IMDb), the American Film Institute Catalog, and the British Film Institute’s Collections Search) and literature research focusing on studies related to the value of films as visual learning and educational tools and their therapeutic effects on viewers in times of pandemics. Results: The researcher chose a representative selection of 20 films from over 100 years of cinematic history to educate and intellectually challenge practitioners under lockdown and use as a therapeutic tool. This study identified many ways films could be a potent instrument for medical education and a wide range of educational and therapeutic possibilities for use during public health crises. Medical fiction offers a highly entertaining and effective way to expand and improve medical knowledge and practices while respecting pandemic restrictions. The findings expand our knowledge on the value of medical fiction as an educational and therapeutic tool. (AU)


Antecedentes: durante los brotes de enfermedades epidémicas, la vida cotidiana de las personas se ve restringida por medidas de cuarentena y distanciamiento social que pueden afectar no solo su salud física y mental, sino también otros aspectos de sus vidas, incluida la educación. La calidad de la educación médica ha sufrido en medio de la pandemia de COVID 19 en curso, con clases y conferencias en el lugar canceladas o pospuestas. Para abordar las brechas resultantes en el aprendizaje y complementar los rigores de la enseñanza médica formal, investigaciones recientes han sugerido el uso de películas de no ficción. Sin embargo, actualmente se carece de investigación sobre el valor educativo y terapéutico de las películas de ficción. Métodos: Este estudio exploró películas de ficción que presentan prácticas médicas, enfermedades y tratamientos. El investigador realizó múltiples búsquedas utilizando las bases de datos de películas más grandes de Internet (Internet Movie Database (IMDb), el Catálogo del American Film Institute y la Búsqueda de Colecciones del British Film Institute) e investigación de literatura centrada en estudios relacionados con el valor de las películas como aprendizaje visual. herramientas de formación y educación y sus efectos terapéuticos en los espectadores en tiempos de pandemia. Resultados: El investigador eligió una selección representativa de 20 películas de más de 100 años de historia cinematográfica para educar y desafiar intelectualmente a los practicantes encerrados y usarlos como herramienta terapéutica. Este estudio identificó muchas formas en que las películas podrían ser un potente instrumento para la educación médica y una amplia gama de posibilidades educativas y terapéuticas para su uso durante las crisis de salud pública. La ficción médica ofrece una forma muy entretenida y eficaz de ampliar y mejorar el conocimiento y las prácticas médicas respetando las restricciones pandémicas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Medicina nas Artes , Bode Expiatório , Educação Médica , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Quarentena
8.
J Community Psychol ; 50(1): 385-408, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115390

RESUMO

Stigma is a fundamental driver of adverse health outcomes. Although stigma is often studied at the individual level to focus on how stigma influences the mental and physical health of the stigmatized, considerable research has shown that stigma is multilevel and structural. This paper proposes a theoretical approach that synthesizes the literature on stigma with the literature on scapegoating and divide-and-rule as strategies that the wealthy and powerful use to maintain their power and wealth; the literatures on racial, gender, and other subordination; the literature on ideology and organization in sociopolitical systems; and the literature on resistance and rebellion against stigma, oppression and other forms of subordination. we develop a model of the "stigma system" as a dialectic of interacting and conflicting structures and processes. Understanding this system can help public health reorient stigma interventions to address the sources of stigma as well as the individual problems that stigma creates. On a broader level, this model can help those opposing stigma and its effects to develop alliances and strategies with which to oppose stigma and the processes that create it.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Bode Expiatório , Estigma Social
9.
Med Anthropol ; 40(7): 653-666, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348553

RESUMO

The stigmatization of Senegalese return migrants as COVID-19 vectors by fellow Senegalese during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic troubles the self/other distinction that underpins the scholarly focus on epidemics and xenophobia and encourages the broader task of exploring epidemics and phobia. The casting of return migrants as COVID-19 vectors was influenced by longstanding ambivalence toward these migrants that had encouraged some Senegalese to seek to "confine" them to Europe long before the pandemic. Old preoccupations help us understand how Senegalese interpreted and deployed COVID-19 control and prevention measures like "confinement," lockdowns, and border closures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Antropologia Médica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Bode Expiatório
11.
Int J Drug Policy ; 87: 102667, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The drug supply model termed 'County Lines' has generated extensive attention over recent years in the UK. Associated street violence, the involvement of young people and exploitation have been the source of intense concern. However, little discussion has sought to situate this drug market 'phenomenon' in relation to recent austerity policies and intensifying social exclusion. Drawing on Douglas' (1995) conceptualisation of scapegoating as a process of blame transfer, this paper provides a critical analysis of the ways that attention has been diverted from the social conditions that are arguably fundamental to driving involvement in this supply model and its associated harms. METHODS: A critical discourse analysis was undertaken on publicly available content on the subject of County Lines. Sources included newspaper articles, other media outputs, official publications and parliamentary debates. These were analysed to identify scapegoating discourses. Once established, these were theoretically developed by drawing on a range of extant perspectives. RESULTS: Three forms of scapegoating related to County Lines were identified. A familiar process was found in the form of 'gang talk', with County Lines reduced as a product of these 'evil' groups. A notably less familiar outlet of blame was identified in the form of middle class cocaine users, with a range of powerful actors attempting to denounce this 'imagined' population as fuelling the market. A final form was identified in relation to drug legalisation campaigns, with an unwavering focus on prohibition also arguably serving to obfuscate underlying structural drivers. DISCUSSION: Scapegoating for the issue of County Lines has taken multiple forms. The role of these discourses in diverting attention away from the social conditions that drive these market harms should be recognised and challenged. In their place, political economy and addressing social exclusion should be at the fore of policy discussions.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Bode Expiatório , Adolescente , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Violência
12.
Med Confl Surviv ; 36(4): 315-332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911978

RESUMO

This essay challenges generalizations since the late enlightenment about the effects of epidemics and pandemics on collective mentalities: that from antiquity to the present, epidemics, regardless of the disease, have sparked distrust, social violence, and the blaming of others. By contrast, the pandemic that killed the greatest numbers in world history-the Influenza of 1918-20 - was a pandemic of compassion. No one has yet to uncover this pandemic sparking collective violence or blaming any minorities for spreading the disease anywhere in the globe. The essay then explores the variety of charitable reactions and abnegation that cut across social divisions in communities from theatres of war in Europe to nations thousands of miles from the direct military encounters. Most remarkable, however, was the overflowing volunteerism of women, especially in the US, Canada, and Australia. To explain this widespread charitable reaction, the essay investigates the milieu of the First World War, showing how that context in domestic war settings was not conducive to risking life to aid total strangers, especially when those strangers came from different foreign countries classes, races, or religious faiths. I end with a reflection on the unfolding socio-psychological reactions to Covid-19 from the perspective of 1918-20.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Empatia , Influenza Humana/história , Pandemias/história , COVID-19/psicologia , Instituições de Caridade , Participação da Comunidade/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/psicologia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Bode Expiatório , Voluntários , I Guerra Mundial
13.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 59-65, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195040

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on everyday functioning, considerable measures being taken to reduce the spread of the virus. Schools and social avenues have been placed on prolonged lockdowns, with people continuing to maintain physical distance. Adolescents and young people have had to endure significant stress alongside dealing with developmental characteristics. Amidst all of this, studies report an increase in gaming addiction and internet use with detrimental impact on psychosocial well-being. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of lockdown on internet use in adolescents, comparing their habits from before the pandemic. Furthermore, this research aimed to investigate the relationship between gaming addiction, internet use and COVID-19 worries. Adolescents from several countries (e.g., India, Malaysia, Mexico and the UK) completed online questionnaires, shared via social media and youth networks. These measures included questions on internet, social media, gaming, depression, loneliness, escapism and COVID-19. Results show that adolescents generally have increased their use of social media sites and streaming services. Further, those who scored highly on gaming addiction, compulsive internet use and social media use also reported high scores of depression, loneliness, escapism, poor sleep quality and anxiety related to the pandemic. Our findings indicate that, regardless of country of residence, the COVID-19 outbreak has had a significant effect on adolescent internet use and psychosocial well-being. The need to address pandemic related distress to reduce the effect of maladaptive coping strategies is highlighted


La pandemia del COVID-19 ha tenido un impacto significativo en el funcionamiento diario, tomándose medidas importantes para reducir la propagación del virus. Las escuelas y los espacios públicos se han cerrado durante largos periodos, y la distancia física se ha impuesto. Los adolescentes y jóvenes han tenido que soportar un estrés significativo al tiempo que lidiar con las situaciones propias de su desarrollo. Los estudios informan de un aumento en la adicción al juego y al uso de Internet con un impacto perjudicial en el bienestar psicosocial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar el impacto del confinamiento en el uso de Internet en los adolescentes, comparando sus hábitos con antes de la pandemia. Además, se estudia la relación entre la adicción al juego, el uso de Internet y las preocupaciones por el COVID-19. Adolescentes de varios países (India, Malasia, México y Reino Unido) completaron los cuestionarios online, que se distribuyeron a través de redes sociales y redes de jóvenes. Se incluyeron preguntas sobre Internet, redes sociales, juego, depresión, soledad, aversión y COVID-19. Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes en general han aumentado el uso de redes sociales y de servicios de transmisión. Además, los que obtuvieron puntuaciones altas en adicción al juego, uso compulsivo de Internet y uso de redes sociales también informaron de puntuaciones altas en depresión, soledad, aversión, mala calidad del sueño y ansiedad relacionada con la pandemia. Nuestros hallazgos indican que, independientemente del país de residencia, el confinamiento por COVID-19 ha tenido un efecto significativo en el uso de Internet y en el bienestar psicosocial de los adolescentes. Se destaca la necesidad de abordar el distrés relacionado con la pandemia para reducir el efecto de las estrategias de afrontamiento desadaptativas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Bode Expiatório , Acesso à Internet/tendências , Tempo de Tela , Quarentena/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12280, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441197

RESUMO

Serious mental illness (SMI) has long posed a dilemma to society. The use of community treatment orders (CTOs), a legal means by which to deliver mandated psychiatric treatment to individuals while they live in the community, is a contemporary technique for managing SMI. CTOs (or a similar legal mechanism) are used in every province in Canada and in many jurisdictions around the world in the care and management of clients with severe and persistent mental illness (most frequently schizophrenia) who have a history of treatment non-compliance and subsequent relapse. Although there is ongoing controversy around CTOs, their use continues to be on the rise. René Girard's mimetic theory, in which he posits the social utility of the scapegoat mechanism, may shed some light on how established cultural patterns contribute to contemporary responses to SMI: how culture depends on the reproduction of certain narratives, and how these act to shape the identity of those involved. The CTO specifically can be seen to act as a scapegoating mechanism, wherein, by singling out and controlling individuals who appear to threaten social order, social order is restored. This paper reviews Girard's theory, looks at how it has been applied to SMI, and then considers how it may illuminate the social role of the CTO. This examination may provide mental health nurses with insight into the constructed identities of their patients, as well as the role of mental health care within broader cultural narratives.


Assuntos
Programas Obrigatórios/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Canadá/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Bode Expiatório
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 34(21-22): 4661-4686, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27821642

RESUMO

Mothers are blamed for a variety of negative experiences and outcomes of their children, including child sexual abuse (CSA). According to just world hypothesis (JWH), people have a need to view the world as one where there is no such thing as an innocent victim; that is, the world is fair and just. These beliefs predict victim blaming in situations such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and robbery. However, JWH has not been applied to the examination of mother blame, a situation in which the blame target did not directly experience the traumatic event. We examined this application in two studies: (a) a thematic analysis of focus group discussions and (b) a correlational study. Across both studies, participants identified personal characteristics of the mother that either increased or decreased blame, consistent with JWH. However, when directly asked, most participants denied holding just world beliefs, particularly as related to child sexual abuse. Our results indicate that methodological choices might affect results, and that socially constructed views of "ideal mothers" influence mother blame. We discuss implications for validity of just world theory (JWT), methodological choices, and reduction of mother blame.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Bode Expiatório , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino
19.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 115(1): 31-53, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911881

RESUMO

When observing an ostracism episode, observers may wish to know whether ostracism is justified or not. If ostracism appears unjustified, observers will likely blame the sources and sympathize with the target; if it appears justified, observers will likely blame and devalue the target. Here we introduce the "social dissimilarity rule," which holds that observers base their moral judgments on dissimilarities between the members of the observed group. In five studies, participants either recalled observed ostracism episodes or observed group interactions in which one group member was ostracized (e.g., in a chat or a group-working task). Results show that if similar persons exclude a dissimilar target (target is an "odd-one-out"), observers attribute ostracism to malicious motives of the ostracizers, such as ingroup favoritism, and devalue the ostracizers. However, if ostracism cannot be explained by social dissimilarity between the sources and the target, observers assume that the target is being punished for a norm deviation (punitive motive) and devalue the target. Use of the social dissimilarity rule was neither moderated by cognitive load (Study 3) nor by the perceived essentiality of the group distinction (Study 4). But if participants knew that the target previously deviated from a norm, knowledge about the situation had a stronger effect on moral judgments (Study 5) than social dissimilarity. These findings further our understanding of how observers make moral judgments about ostracism, which is important given that an observer's moral judgment can strongly impact bystander behavior and thus target recovery and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Rejeição em Psicologia , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Bode Expiatório , Conformidade Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 117: 304-317, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753219

RESUMO

Motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Despite car drivers being solely responsible for many road crashes involving a motorcycle, previous research has mostly focussed on understanding motorcyclists' attitudes towards their own safety. We compared car drivers' (n = 102) and motorcyclists' (n = 579) opinions about junction crashes using a web-based questionnaire. Motorcyclists and car drivers were recruited in similar ways so that responses could be directly compared, accessing respondents through driver/rider forums and on social media. Car drivers' and motorcyclists' opinions were compared in relation to who they believe to be blameworthy in situations which varied in specificity, ranging from what road user they believe is most likely to cause a motorcyclist to have a road crash, to what road user is at fault in four specific scenarios involving a car and motorcycle at a junction. Two of these scenarios represented typical 'Right of way' (ROW) crashes with a motorcycle approaching from the left and right, and two scenarios involved a motorcycle overtaking another vehicle at the junction, known as 'Motorcycle Manoeuvrability Accidents' (MMA). Qualitative responses were analysed using LIWC software to detect objective differences in car drivers' and motorcyclists' language. Car drivers' and motorcyclists' opinions about the blameworthiness of accidents changed depending on how specific the situation was that was being presented. When respondents were asked about the cause of motorcycle crashes in a general abstract sense, car drivers' and motorcyclists' responses significantly differed, with motorcyclists more likely to blame car drivers, demonstrating an in-group bias. However, this in-group favouritism was reduced when asked about specific scenarios, especially in MMA situations which involve motorcyclists manoeuvring their motorcycles around cars at a junction. In the four specific scenarios, car drivers were more likely to blame the car driver, and motorcyclists were more likely to blame the motorcyclist. In the typical ROW scenarios, the responses given by both road users, as analysed by the LIWC, show that the law is taken into account, as well as a large emphasis on the lack of observation given around junctions, especially from car drivers. It is concluded that the perception of blameworthiness in crashes is very much dependent on the details of the crash, with a more specific situation eliciting a fairer evaluation by both car drivers and motorcyclists.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Automóveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Bode Expiatório , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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