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1.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(9): 2455-2463, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145908

RESUMO

Geriatricians and others must embrace the emerging field of geroscience. Until recently geroscience research was pursued in laboratory animals, but now this field requires specialized expertise in the care of vulnerable older patients with multiple chronic diseases and geriatric syndromes, the population likely to benefit the most from emerging therapies. While chronological aging measures the inevitable passage of clock time that occurs equally for everyone, biological aging varies among individuals, and importantly, it is modifiable. Advances in our understanding of biological aging, the discovery of strategies for modifying its rate, and an appreciation of aging as a shared risk factor for chronic diseases have jointly led to the Geroscience Hypothesis. This hypothesis states that interventions modifying aging biology can slow its progression-resulting in the delay or prevention of the onset of multiple diseases and disorders. Here we wish to report on the Third Geroscience Summit held at National Institutes of Health on November 4-5, 2019, which highlighted the importance of engaging other disciplines including clinicians. Involvement by scientists with expertise in clinical trials, health outcomes research, behavioral and social sciences, health policy, and economics is urgently needed to translate geroscience discoveries from the bench to clinical care and health policy. Adding to the urgency of broadening this geroscience coalition is the emergence of biological aging as one the most important modifiable factors of COVID-19, combined with the inability of our society to once again recognize and confront aging as a priority and opportunity when facing these types of public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Disciplina de Cronobiologia , Geriatria , Política de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(1): 84-96, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428509

RESUMO

The circadian field has come a long way since I started as a postdoctoral fellow ~30 years ago. At the time, the only known animal clock gene was period, so I had the privilege of witnessing, and participating in, the molecular revolution that took us from the discovery of the circadian clock mechanism to the identification of pathways that link clocks to behavior and physiology. This lecture highlights my role and perspective in these developments, and also demonstrates how the successful use of Drosophila for studies of circadian rhythms inspired us to develop a fly model for sleep. I also touch upon my experiences as a non-white immigrant woman navigating my way through the US science and education system, and hope my story will be of interest to some.


Assuntos
Disciplina de Cronobiologia/história , Ritmo Circadiano , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Sono/genética , Estados Unidos
5.
J Biol Rhythms ; 35(5): 439-451, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613882

RESUMO

The circadian rhythm drives the oscillatory expression of thousands of genes across all tissues, coordinating physiological processes. The effect of this rhythm on health has generated increasing interest in discovering genes under circadian control by searching for periodic patterns in transcriptomic time-series experiments. While algorithms for detecting cycling transcripts have advanced, there remains little guidance quantifying the effect of experimental design and analysis choices on cycling detection accuracy. We present TimeTrial, a user-friendly benchmarking framework using both real and synthetic data to investigate cycle detection algorithms' performance and improve circadian experimental design. Results show that the optimal choice of analysis method depends on the sampling scheme, noise level, and shape of the waveform of interest and provides guidance on the impact of sampling frequency and duration on cycling detection accuracy. The TimeTrial software is freely available for download and may also be accessed through a web interface. By supplying a tool to vary and optimize experimental design considerations, TimeTrial will enhance circadian transcriptomics studies.


Assuntos
Disciplina de Cronobiologia/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Software , Transcriptoma , Algoritmos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1419, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996761

RESUMO

Abandoning daylight saving time in Europe raises the topical issue of proper setting of yearlong social time, which needs mapping of various socio-demographic factors, including chronotype, in specific geographic regions. This study represents the first detailed large scale chronotyping in the Czech Republic based on data collected in the complex panel socio-demographic survey in households (total 8760 respondents) and the socio-physiological survey, in which chronotyped participants also provided blood samples (n = 1107). Chronotype assessment based on sleep phase (MCTQ questions and/or time-use diary) correlated with a self-assessed interval of best alertness. The mean chronotype of the Czech population defined as mid sleep phase (MSFsc) was 3.13 ± 0.02 h. Chronotype exhibited significant east-to-westward, north-to-southward, and settlement size-dependent gradients and was associated with age, sex, partnership, and time spent outdoors as previously demonstrated. Moreover, for subjects younger than 40 years, childcare was highly associated with earlier chronotype, while dog care was associated with later chronotype. Body mass index correlated with later chronotype in women whose extreme chronotype was also associated with lower plasma levels of protective HDL cholesterol. Based on the chronotype prevalence the results favour yearlong Standard Time as the best choice for this geographic region.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Sono/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Disciplina de Cronobiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , República Tcheca , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(3): 34022, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147695

RESUMO

A tipologia circadiana é uma dimensão comportamental associada a preferências de hábitos diários. Contudo, este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade de sono e a sonolência excessiva de acadêmicos de Psicologia. Participaram deste estudo quase-experimental 56 estudantes com idade entre 17 e 34 anos. Utilizaram-se como instrumentos o Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh (PSQI), o Questionário de Matutinidade e Vespertinidade, a Escala de Sonolência de Karolinska e a Escala de Ritmo Social Breve. Após avaliar o PSQI, todos os participantes responderam os instrumentos por um período de 14 dias consecutivos. A MANOVA mostrou diferença significativa para sonolência diária durante os dias úteis [λ=0.81; F(4;47)=451,53; p<0,05], especificamente para o horário das 21h [F(2;5)=3,03; p<0,05]. Conclui-se que os estudantes possuem qualidade de sono ruim e, geralmente, tentam compensar as faltas de noites de sono durante a semana nos finais de semana.


The circadian typology is a behavioral dimension associated with preferences of daily habits. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of sleep and excessive sleepiness of undergraduates in psychology. Fifty-five students aged between 17 and 34 years participated in this quasi-experimental study. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, and the Brief Social Rhythm Scale were used as instruments. After assessing the PSQI, all participants answered the instruments for a period of 14 consecutive days. MANOVA showed significant difference for daily sleepiness during the working days [λλ=.81; F(4.47)=451.53; p<.05], specifically for business hours of 21h [F(2;5)=3.03; p<.05]. It is concluded that students have poor sleep quality and generally try to compensate for the lack of nights of sleep during the week on weekends.


La tipología circadiana es una dimensión comportamental asociada a preferencias de hábitos diarios. Sin embargo, este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la calidad del sueño y la somnolencia excesiva de académicos de psicología. Participaron de este estúdio quase-experimental 56 estudiantes con edad entre 17 y 34 años. Se utilizaron como instrumentos o Índice de Calidad de Sono de Pittsburgh (PSQI), o Cuestionario de Matutinidad-Vespertinidad, la Escala de Somnolencia de Karolinska y Escala de Ritmo Social Breve. Aprobar la PSQI, todos los participantes respondan os instrumentos por un período de 14 días consecutivos. A MANOVA mostró una diferencia para somnolencia durante los días laborables [λ=0,81; F(4; 47)=451,53; p<0.05], específicamente para el horario de las 21h [F(2; 5)=3,03; p<0.05]. Las conclusiones de estos estudios tienen la cualidad de su ruina y de manera general como compensar las faltas de la noche durante la semana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudantes/psicologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Sono , Disciplina de Cronobiologia , Sonolência
10.
Early Hum Dev ; 126: 1-5, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206009

RESUMO

Time of day is a critical factor for most biological functions, but concepts from the field of chronobiology have yet to be fully translated to clinical practice. Circadian rhythms, generated internally and synchronised to the external environment, promote function and support survival in almost every living species. Fetal circadian rhythms can be observed in utero from 30weeks gestation, coupled to the maternal rhythm, but synchronise to the external environment only after birth. Important cues for synchronisation include the light/dark cycle, the timing of feeding, and exposure to melatonin in breast milk. Disruption to these cues may occur during admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. This can impair the development of circadian rhythms, and influence survival and function in the neonatal period, with a potential to impact health and well-being throughout adult life. Here we outline the rationale and evidence to support a chronobiological approach to neonatal care.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Melatonina/fisiologia , Animais , Disciplina de Cronobiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Melatonina/deficiência , Leite Humano/química , Fotoperíodo , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Yi Chuan ; 40(1): 1-11, 2018 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367188

RESUMO

Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines the generation of biological rhythms in various creatures and in many parts of body, and their adaptive fitness to solar- and lunar-related periodic phenomena. The synchronization of internal circadian clocks with external timing signals confers accurate phase response and tissue homeostasis. Herein we state a series of studies on circadian rhythms and introduce the brief history of chronobiology. We also present a detailed timeline of the discoveries on molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in Drosophila, which was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The latest findings and new perspectives are further summarized to indicate the significance of circadian research.


Assuntos
Disciplina de Cronobiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Prêmio Nobel , Animais , Drosophila , Humanos , Medicina , Fisiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038118

RESUMO

A diverse range of species, from cyanobacteria to humans, evolved endogenous biological clocks that allow for the anticipation of daily variations in light and temperature. The ability to anticipate regular environmental rhythms promotes optimal performance and survival. Herein we present a brief historical timeline of how circadian concepts and terminology have emerged since the early observation of daily leaf movement in plants made by an astronomer in the 1700s.


Assuntos
Disciplina de Cronobiologia/história , Disciplina de Cronobiologia/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Temperatura , Terminologia como Assunto
15.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 136(6): 531-533, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069527
16.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 372(1734)2017 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993491

RESUMO

Chronobiological research has seen a continuous development of novel approaches and techniques to measure rhythmicity at different levels of biological organization from locomotor activity (e.g. migratory restlessness) to physiology (e.g. temperature and hormone rhythms, and relatively recently also in genes, proteins and metabolites). However, the methodological advancements in this field have been mostly and sometimes exclusively used only in indoor laboratory settings. In parallel, there has been an unprecedented and rapid improvement in our ability to track animals and their behaviour in the wild. However, while the spatial analysis of tracking data is widespread, its temporal aspect is largely unexplored. Here, we review the tools that are available or have potential to record rhythms in the wild animals with emphasis on currently overlooked approaches and monitoring systems. We then demonstrate, in three question-driven case studies, how the integration of traditional and newer approaches can help answer novel chronobiological questions in free-living animals. Finally, we highlight unresolved issues in field chronobiology that may benefit from technological development in the future. As most of the studies in the field are descriptive, the future challenge lies in applying the diverse technologies to experimental set-ups in the wild.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wild clocks: integrating chronobiology and ecology to understand timekeeping in free-living animals'.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Disciplina de Cronobiologia/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Aptidão Genética , Movimento , Comportamento de Nidação
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 372(1734)2017 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993495

RESUMO

Despite being a prominent aspect of animal life, sleep and its functions remain poorly understood. As with any biological process, the functions of sleep can only be fully understood when examined in the ecological context in which they evolved. Owing to technological constraints, until recently, sleep has primarily been examined in the artificial laboratory environment. However, new tools are enabling researchers to study sleep behaviour and neurophysiology in the wild. Here, we summarize the various methods that have enabled sleep researchers to go wild, their strengths and weaknesses, and the discoveries resulting from these first steps outside the laboratory. The initial studies to 'go wild' have revealed a wealth of interindividual variation in sleep, and shown that sleep duration is not even fixed within an individual, but instead varies in response to an assortment of ecological demands. Determining the costs and benefits of this inter- and intraindividual variation in sleep may reveal clues to the functions of sleep. Perhaps the greatest surprise from these initial studies is that the reduction in neurobehavioural performance resulting from sleep loss demonstrated in the laboratory is not an obligatory outcome of reduced sleep in the wild.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wild clocks: integrating chronobiology and ecology to understand timekeeping in free-living animals'.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Disciplina de Cronobiologia/métodos , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica
19.
Rev. esp. pediatr. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(4): 251-254, jul.-ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167741

RESUMO

El ser humano desarrolló los ritmos circadianos para anticiparse a los cambios ambientales periódicos y repetidos. El núcleo supraquiasmático (NSQ) es el director de este complejo mecanismo adaptativo que necesita los cambios ambientales de luz/oscuridad y la alimentación para sincronizarse con el ambiente. El ritmo de alimentación/ayuno colabora con los relojes periféricos en su sincronización con el NSQ optimizando de esa manera el sistema metabólico. La nutrición en horarios anárquicos o irregulares favorece la alteración del sistema circadiano (cronodisrupción) y contribuye a consecuencias metabólicas adversas v al desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas: ratones de laboratorio (de costumbres nocturnas) alimentados de manera exclusiva durante el periodo de luz son más propensos a diabetes, síndrome metabólico, obesidad y alteraciones cognitivas. Desde el punto de vista cualitativo muchos componentes de la nutrición tienen importantes efectos sobre el ritmo circadiano y a la inversa: dietas con alto contenido graso producen un especial grado de cronodisrupción en animales de experimentación anulando los ciclos de alimentación/ayuno. Entender le compleias relaciones entre la nutrición y el ritmo circadiano tiene implicaciones nutricionales y mejora el manejo de procesos crónicos, como la diabetes o la obesidad (AU)


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Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Nutrição do Lactente , Disciplina de Cronobiologia/tendências , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente
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