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1.
Chaos ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572947

RESUMO

Feedback loops between strategies and the environment are commonly observed in socio-ecological, evolution-ecological, and psychology-economic systems. However, the impact of mutations in these feedback processes is often overlooked. This study proposes a novel model that integrates the public goods game with environmental feedback, considering the presence of mutations. In our model, the enhancement factor of the public goods game combines positive and negative incentives from the environment. By employing replicator-mutator (RM) equations, we provide an objective understanding of the system's evolutionary state, focusing on identifying conditions that foster cooperation and prevent the tragedy of the commons. Specifically, mutations play a crucial role in the RM dynamics, leading to the emergence of an oscillatory tragedy of the commons. By verifying the Hopf bifurcation condition, we establish the existence of a stable limit cycle, providing valuable insights into sustained oscillation strategies. Moreover, the feedback mechanism inherent in the public goods game model offers a fresh perspective on effectively addressing the classic dilemma of the tragedy of the commons.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Retroalimentação , Evolução Biológica , Mutação
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7903, 2024 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570552

RESUMO

In Public Goods Games (PGG), the temptation to free-ride on others' contributions poses a significant threat to the sustainability of cooperative societies. Therefore, societies strive to mitigate this through incentive systems, employing rewards and punishments to foster cooperative behavior. Thus, peer punishment, in which cooperators sanction defectors, as well as pool punishment, where a centralized punishment institution executes the punishment, is deeply analyzed in previous works. Although the literature indicates that these methods may enhance cooperation on social dilemmas under particular contexts, there are still open questions, for instance, the structural connection between graduated punishment and the monitoring of public goods games. Our investigation proposes a compulsory PGG framework under Panoptical surveillance. Inspired by Foucault's theories on disciplinary mechanisms and biopower, we present a novel mathematical model that scrutinizes the balance between the severity and scope of punishment to catalyze cooperative behavior. By integrating perspectives from evolutionary game theory and Foucault's theories of power and discipline, this research uncovers the theoretical foundations of mathematical frameworks involved in punishment and discipline structures. We show that well-calibrated punishment and discipline schemes, leveraging the panoptical effect for universal oversight, can effectively mitigate the free-rider dilemma, fostering enhanced cooperation. This interdisciplinary approach not only elucidates the dynamics of cooperation in societal constructs but also underscores the importance of integrating diverse methodologies to address the complexities of fostering cooperative evolution.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Punição , Modelos Teóricos , Teoria do Jogo , Grupo Associado
3.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 170(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577983

RESUMO

The growth and success of many bacteria appear to rely on a stunning range of cooperative behaviours. But what is cooperation and how is it studied?


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Evolução Biológica , Bactérias/genética
4.
Cancer Discov ; 14(4): 563-568, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571417

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Here, we define a future of cancer team science adopting "radical collaboration"-in which six "Hallmarks of Cancer Collaboration" are utilized to propel cancer teams to reach new levels of productivity and impact in the modern era. This commentary establishes a playbook for cancer team science that can be readily adopted by others.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Neoplasias/terapia
5.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 21(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the value created in a learning community - comprised of different professionals and nursing students - at a nursing home. METHODS: A case study approach was used. Data were collected between 2019 and 2021 through self-reports, observations and stories (interviews, diaries). RESULTS: The template analysis revealed nine transcending themes, six associated with preexisting value-creation cycles (expected, immediate, potential, applied, realized and transformative value) and three other relevant themes: contextual, factors and value-creation initiators. CONCLUSIONS: A nursing home learning community comprised of diverse professionals in partnership with nursing students shows a variety of value creation and seems to potentially leverage interprofessional and lifelong learning activities, on top of formal nursing education. It is recommended to integrate the value-creation cycles into the processes of learning communities to promote collective decision-making. Research on both the final level of students involved and having residents participate in the learning community would be worthwhile.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Comportamento Cooperativo
6.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566514

RESUMO

Cooperation and competition are the most common forms of social interaction in various social relationships. Intergroup relationships have been posited to influence individuals' interpersonal interactions significantly. Using electroencephalography hyperscanning, this study aimed to establish whether intergroup relationships influence interpersonal cooperation and competition and the underlying neural mechanisms. According to the results, the in-group Coop-index is better than the out-group, whereas the out-group Comp-index is stronger than the in-group. The in-group functional connectivity between the frontal-central region and the right temporoparietal junction in the ß band was stronger in competition than cooperation. The out-group functional connectivity between the frontal-central region and the left temporoparietal junction in the α band was stronger in cooperation than competition. In both cooperation and competition, the in-group exhibited higher interbrain synchronization between the prefrontal cortex and parietal region in the θ band, as well as between the frontal-central region and frontal-central region in the α band, compared to the out-group. The intrabrain phase-locking value in both the α and ß bands can effectively predict performance in competition tasks. Interbrain phase-locking value in both the α and θ bands can be effectively predicted in a performance cooperation task. This study offers neuroscientific evidence for in-group favoritism and out-group bias at an interpersonal level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Relações Interpessoais , Lobo Parietal , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico
7.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(3): 670-676, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Priority Setting Partnerships (PSP's) using the James Lind Alliance (JLA) methodology, bring together health professionals, patients and parents/carers to identify and prioritise unanswered questions that can be addressed by future research projects. To identify and prioritise the top 10 unanswered research priorities in digital technology for adolescents and young people (AYP) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A steering group (SG) consisting of AYP with IBD, their parents/carers, representatives from two charities (Crohn's & Colitis UK, Crohn's in Childhood Research Association), patient information forum and paediatric and adult and primary care healthcare professionals was established in 2021. The SG agreed the protocol, and scope of the PSP and oversaw all aspects. SG meetings were chaired by a JLA advisor and followed the established JLA methodology. RESULTS: The initial survey generated 414 in-scope questions from 156 respondents, thematically categorised into 10 themes and consolidated into 92 summary questions by the SG. A comprehensive literature review followed by SG deliberation narrowed the unanswered summary questions to 45, for the interim prioritising survey. One hundred and two respondents ranked their top 10 research questions. Outputs generated top 18 research priorities presented at a final virtual prioritisation workshop, facilitated by JLA advisors and attended by key stakeholders, ranked into top 10 research priorities. DISCUSSION: The top 10 research priorities will encourage researchers to undertake research that addresses these areas of unmet need for AYP living with IBD, their parents/carers and their healthcare professionals, thereby facilitating improved patient care.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Tecnologia Digital , Prioridades em Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5989, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503778

RESUMO

This study aims to demonstrate that Large Language Models (LLMs) can empower research on the evolution of human behavior, based on evolutionary game theory, by using an evolutionary model positing that instructing LLMs with high-level psychological and cognitive character descriptions enables the simulation of human behavior choices in game-theoretical scenarios. As a first step towards this objective, this paper proposes an evolutionary model of personality traits related to cooperative behavior using a large language model. In the model, linguistic descriptions of personality traits related to cooperative behavior are used as genes. The deterministic strategies extracted from LLM that make behavioral decisions based on these personality traits are used as behavioral traits. The population is evolved according to selection based on average payoff and mutation of genes by asking LLM to slightly modify the parent gene toward cooperative or selfish. Through experiments and analyses, we clarify that such a model can indeed exhibit evolution of cooperative behavior based on the diverse and higher-order representation of personality traits. We also observed repeated intrusion of cooperative and selfish personality traits through changes in the expression of personality traits. The words that emerged in the evolved genes reflected the behavioral tendencies of their associated personalities in terms of semantics, thereby influencing individual behavior and, consequently, the evolutionary dynamics.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Teoria do Jogo , Idioma , Personalidade
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 334, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of increasingly intricate healthcare systems, professionals are compelled to collaborate within dynamically changing interprofessional teams. Moreover, they must adapt these collaborative processes to effectively and efficiently manage the evolving complexity of care needs. It remains unclear how professionals determine care complexity and relate this complexity to their preferences for interprofessional collaboration (IPC). This study investigated the relationships between care complexity, professionals' perceived complexity and IPC preferences, and examined the variation in individual and team characteristics of IPC-practices across different levels of complexity in paediatric care. METHODS: In an online questionnaire, 123 healthcare professionals working at an academic tertiary children's hospital scored their perceptions of complexity and preferences for IPC. They also selected family and various professions as members of the interprofessional (IP-) team based on thirteen patient cases. We employed conjoint analysis to systematically model the complexity of case descriptions across the five domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Additionally, we applied social network analysis to identify important professions, crucial connectors and influential professions in the IP-team, and to describe the cohesiveness of IP-teams. RESULTS: Modelled case complexity, professionals' perceived complexity and IPC preferences were positively associated. We found large inter-individual variations in the degree of these associations. Social network analysis revealed that the importance and influence of professions was more equally distributed when case complexity increased. Depending on the context and complexity of the case, different professions (e.g. medical doctors, social professionals, extramural professionals) were considered to be more crucial connectors within the IP-team. Furthermore, team cohesion was positively associated with modelled and perceived care complexity. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study contributes to the existing knowledge by integrating task-specific insights and broadening the use of conjoint and social network analysis in the context of IPC. The findings substantiate the contingency theory that relates characteristics of IPC to care complexity, offering quantified insights into how IP-teams adapt to situational needs. This understanding of relationships and variations within IPC holds crucial implications for designing targeted interventions in both clinical and health profession education contexts. Consequently, it contributes to advancements in healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Humanos , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Rede Social
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(11): e2317736121, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451941

RESUMO

Empiricists often struggle to apply game theory models to real-life cases of animal cooperation. One reason is that many examples of cooperation occur in stable groups, where individuals form social bonds that influence exchanges of help in ways that are not well described by previous models, including the extent of reciprocity and how relationships are initiated. We present a game theory model exploring the conditions under which social bonds between group members promote cooperation. In the model, bonds build up from exchanges of help in a similar way as the strength of association increases in learning, as in the Rescorla-Wagner rule. The bonds in turn affect partner choice and influence helping amounts. The model has a mechanism of reciprocity for bonded pairs, which can evolve toward either loose or strict reciprocation. Several aspects of the model are inspired by observations of food sharing in vampire bats. We find that small social neighborhoods are required for the evolutionary stability of helping, either as small group sizes, or if bonded members of larger groups can form temporary (daily) smaller groupings. The costs of helping need to be fairly low, while the benefits can be substantial. The form of reciprocity that evolves is neither immediate nor very strict. Individuals in need request help based on bond strength, but there is also an evolved preference for initiating bonds with new group members. In contrast, if different groups come into temporary contact, the evolved tendency is to avoid forming bonds between groups.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Comportamento Cooperativo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Alimentos , Teoria do Jogo , Características de Residência
12.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2335453, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555490

RESUMO

Harsh, unpredictable environments are known to favor cooperative groups in animals. Whether plants exhibit similar relationships is unknown. Staghorn ferns (Platycerium bifurcatum, Polypodiaceae) are epiphytes that form cooperative groups which build communal water and nutrient 'nests' at the tops of trees, a habitat characterized by water and nutrient stress. We conducted field observations to test whether staghorn ferns continue to live in large, reproductively active groups after they become dislodged from the canopy and fall to the forest floor, where they are less limited by water and nutrient deprivation. To rule out the potentially confounding effects of light limitation on the forest floor, we also conducted a multi-year glasshouse experiment where we transplanted individual plants into soil and onto vertically oriented boards under standardized light conditions. Results from field observations showed that dislodged colonies formed smaller groups that reproduced less than epiphytic colonies. Results from the glasshouse experiment showed that even when growing in full sun, terrestrial individuals tended to remain solitary, while epiphytic individuals tended to recruit new individuals into colonies. Results also showed that plants growing in potting soil and exposed to full sunlight sporulated more heavily than plants growing epiphytically. However, localities that are characterized by both elevated soil and light resources are generally not available to staghorn ferns in the wild, perhaps with the exception of large, epiphytic colonies with well-developed nests at the top of tree canopies. Overall results indicate that the harsh environmental conditions at the tops of trees trigger the formation of colonies in staghorn ferns, similarly to group living animals.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Polypodiaceae , Humanos , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Ecossistema , Árvores , Solo , Água
13.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(212): 20230698, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471530

RESUMO

Theoretical models prescribe how institutions can promote cooperation in a population by imposing appropriate punishments or rewards on individuals. However, many real-world institutions are not sophisticated or responsive enough to ensure cooperation by calibrating their policies. Or, worse yet, an institution might selfishly exploit the population it governs for its own benefit. Here, we study the evolution of cooperation in the presence of an institution that is autonomous, in the sense that it has its own interests that may or may not align with those of the population. The institution imposes a tax on the population and redistributes a portion of the tax revenue to cooperators, withholding the remaining revenue for itself. The institution adjusts its rates of taxation and redistribution to optimize its own long-term, discounted utility. We consider three types of institutions with different goals, embodied in their utility functions. We show that a prosocial institution, whose goal is to maximize the average payoff of the population, can indeed promote cooperation-but only if it is sufficiently forward-looking. On the other hand, an institution that seeks to maximize welfare among cooperators alone will successfully promote collective cooperation even if it is myopic. Remarkably, even a selfish institution, which seeks to maximize the revenue it withholds for itself, can nonetheless promote cooperation. The average payoff of the population increases when a selfish institution is more forward-looking, so that a population under a selfish regime can sometimes fare better than under anarchy. Our analysis highlights the potential benefits of institutional wealth redistribution, even when an institution does not share the interests of the population it governs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Evolução Biológica
14.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(212): 20240019, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471533

RESUMO

Prosocial punishment, an important factor to stabilize cooperation in social dilemma games, often faces challenges like second-order free-riders-who cooperate but avoid punishing to save costs-and antisocial punishers, who defect and retaliate against cooperators. Addressing these challenges, our study introduces prosocial punishment bots that consistently cooperate and punish free-riders. Our findings reveal that these bots significantly promote the emergence of prosocial punishment among normal players due to their 'sticky effect'-an unwavering commitment to cooperation and punishment that magnetically attracts their opponents to emulate this strategy. Additionally, we observe that the prevalence of prosocial punishment is greatly enhanced when normal players exhibit a tendency to follow a 'copying the majority' strategy, or when bots are strategically placed in high-degree nodes within scale-free networks. Conversely, bots designed for defection or antisocial punishment diminish overall cooperation levels. This stark contrast underscores the critical role of strategic bot design in enhancing cooperative behaviours in human/AI interactions. Our findings open new avenues in evolutionary game theory, demonstrating the potential of human-machine collaboration in solving the conundrum of punishment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Punição , Humanos , Teoria do Jogo , Evolução Biológica
15.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(212): 20230723, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471536

RESUMO

Direct reciprocity promotes the evolution of cooperation when players are sufficiently equal, such that they have similar influence on each other. In the light of ubiquitous inequality, this raises the question of how reciprocity evolves among unequal players. Existing studies on inequality mainly focus on payoff-driven learning rules, which rely on the knowledge of others' strategies. However, inferring one's strategy is a difficult task even if the whole interaction history is known. Here, we consider aspiration-driven learning rules, where players seek strategies that satisfy their aspirations based on their own information. Under aspiration-driven learning rules, we explore the evolutionary dynamics among players with inequality in endowments and productivity. We model the interactions among unequal players with asymmetric games and characterize the condition where cooperation is feasible. Remarkably, we find that aspiration-driven learning rules lead to a higher level of cooperation than payoff-driven ones over a wide range of inequality. Moreover, our results show that high aspiration levels are conducive to the evolution of cooperation when more productive players are equipped with higher endowments. Our work highlights the advantages of aspiration-driven learning for promoting cooperation among unequal players and suggests that aspiration-based decision-making may be more beneficial for the collective.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Aprendizagem , Evolução Biológica
16.
J Vasc Nurs ; 42(1): 18-25, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with Marfan syndrome, who present with a variety of symptoms and complex psychosocial problems, require interprofessional collaboration in their care. However, it is unclear how health care providers contribute to interprofessional collaboration for these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of interprofessional collaboration for patients with Marfan syndrome in the cardiovascular field. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care specialists (5 physicians, 2 nurses, and 3 certified genetic counselors) were analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: Based on the medical collaboration for the management of cardiovascular complications in patients and their relatives, interprofessional collaboration was identified, such as collaboration and cooperation between physicians and certified genetic counselors, and nursing practice to facilitate interprofessional collaboration. In addition, issues such as difficulties in dealing with and coordinating medical care for noncardiovascular complications, lack of specialist physicians, and lack of opportunities to collaborate with nurses were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Effective interprofessional collaboration requires the acquisition of Marfan syndrome and genetic knowledge by healthcare providers and the development of a healthcare delivery system based on departments that can provide leadership. In addition, the assignment of nurses to work across organizational boundaries and effective collaboration between genetic counselors and nurses should be considered.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Marfan , Médicos , Humanos , Síndrome de Marfan/terapia , Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(3): e1011862, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427626

RESUMO

Social reputations provide a powerful mechanism to stimulate human cooperation, but observing individual reputations can be cognitively costly. To ease this burden, people may rely on proxies such as stereotypes, or generalized reputations assigned to groups. Such stereotypes are less accurate than individual reputations, and so they could disrupt the positive feedback between altruistic behavior and social standing, undermining cooperation. How do stereotypes impact cooperation by indirect reciprocity? We develop a theoretical model of group-structured populations in which individuals are assigned either individual reputations based on their own actions or stereotyped reputations based on their groups' behavior. We find that using stereotypes can produce either more or less cooperation than using individual reputations, depending on how widely reputations are shared. Deleterious outcomes can arise when individuals adapt their propensity to stereotype. Stereotyping behavior can spread and can be difficult to displace, even when it compromises collective cooperation and even though it makes a population vulnerable to invasion by defectors. We discuss the implications of our results for the prevalence of stereotyping and for reputation-based cooperation in structured populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Modelos Psicológicos , Humanos , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Massa
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2019): 20232730, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531404

RESUMO

Cooperation is widespread and arguably a pivotal evolutionary force in maintaining animal societies. Yet, proximately, what underlying motivators drive individuals to cooperate remains relatively unclear. Since 'free-riders' can exploit the benefits by cheating, selecting the right partner is paramount. Such decision rules need not be based on complex calculations and can be driven by cognitively less-demanding mechanisms, like social relationships (e.g. kinship, non-kin friendships, dyadic tolerance), social status (e.g. dominance hierarchies) and personalities (social and non-social traits); however, holistic evidence related to those mechanisms is scarce. Using the classical 'loose-string paradigm', we tested cooperative tendencies of a hierarchical primate, the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). We studied three groups (n = 21) in their social settings, allowing partner choice. We supplemented cooperation with observational and experimental data on social relationships, dominance hierarchies and personality. Friendship and dissimilarities in non-social 'exploration' and 'activity-sociability' personality traits predicted the likelihood of cooperative dyad formation. Furthermore, the magnitude of cooperative success was positively associated with friendship, low rank-distance and dissimilarity in the activity-sociability trait. Kinship did not affect cooperation. While some findings align with prior studies, the evidence of (non-social) personality heterophily promoting cooperation may deepen our understanding of the proximate mechanisms and, broadly, the evolution of cooperation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Cooperativo , Animais , Humanos , Amigos , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Primatas
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