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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8389-8400, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568986

RESUMO

A global demand for tea tree oil (TTO) has resulted in increased adulteration in commercial products. In this study, we use a novel enantiomeric gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for chiral analysis of key terpenes ((±)-terpinen-4-ol, (±)-α-terpineol, and (±)-limonene) and quantification of components present at >0.01% to test different methods of identifying adulterated TTO. Data from authentic Australian (n = 88) and oxidized (n = 12) TTO samples of known provenance were consistent with recommended ranges in ISO 4730:2017 and previously published enantiomeric ratios, with p-cymene identified as the major marker of TTO oxidation. The 15 ISO 4730:2017 constituents comprised between 84.5 and 89.8% of the total ion chromatogram (TIC) peak area. An additional 53 peaks were detected in all samples (7.3-11.0% of TIC peak area), while an additional 43 peaks were detected in between 0 and 99% (0.15-2.0% of the TIC peak area). Analysis of nine commercial samples demonstrated that comparison to the ISO 4730:2017 standard does not always identify adulterated TTO samples. While statistical analysis of minor components in TTO did identify two commercial samples that differed from authentic TTO, the (+)-enantiomer percentages for limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol provided clearer evidence that these samples were adulterated. Thus, straightforward identification of unadulterated and unoxidized TTO could be based on analysis of appropriate enantiomeric ratios and quantitation of the p-cymene percentage.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cimenos , Melaleuca , Óleo de Melaleuca , Limoneno , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Árvores , Austrália , Terpenos/química , Chá , Melaleuca/química
2.
Phytomedicine ; 127: 155471, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is notorious for the aggressive behaviors and easily results in chemo-resistance. Studies have shown that the use of herbal medicines as treatments for GBM as limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glioma stem cells. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between GBM suppression and α-terpineol, the monoterpenoid alcohol derived from Eucalyptus glubulus and Pinus merkusii. STUDY DESIGN: Using serial in-vitro and in-vivo studies to confirm the mechanism of α-terpineol on down-regulating GBM development. METHODS: The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate IC50 of α-terpineol to inhibit GBM cell survival. In order to evaluate the impact of GBM aggressive behaviors by α-terpineol, the analysis of cell migration, invasion and colony formation were implemented. In addition, the ability of tumor spheres and WB of CD44 and OCT3/4 were evaluated under the impression of α-terpineol decreased GBM stemness. The regulation of neoangiogenesis by α-terpineol via the WB of angiogenic factors and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) tube assay. To survey the decided factors of α-terpineol downregulating GBM chemoresistance depended on the impact of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and autophagy-related factors activation. Additionally, WB and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT/PCR) of KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) containing 2 (KDELC2), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3k), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade signaling factors were examined to explore the mechanism of α-terpineol inhibiting GBM viability. Finally, the orthotopic GBM mouse model was applied to prove the efficacy and toxicity of α-terpineol on regulating GBM survival. RESULTS: α-terpineol significantly suppressed GBM growth, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and temozolomide (TMZ) resistance. Furthermore, α-terpineol specifically targeted KDELC2 to downregulate Notch and PI3k/mTOR/MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, we also demonstrated that α-terpineol could penetrate the BBB to inhibit GBM proliferation, which resulted in reduced cytotoxicity to vital organs. CONCLUSION: Compared to published literatures, we firstly proved α-terpineol possessed the capability to inhibit GBM through various mechanisms and potentially decreased the occurrence of chemoresistance, making it a promising alternative therapeutic option for GBM in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Glioblastoma , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Mamíferos
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 2): 131017, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513909

RESUMO

Water dropwort is favored by consumers for its unique flavor and medicinal value. Terpenoids were identified as the main volatile compounds related to its flavor. In this study, water dropwort was treated with different concentrations of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The contents of volatile terpenoids were determined under various MeJA treatments. The results indicated that 0.1 mM of MeJA most effectively promoted the biosynthesis of flavor-related terpenoids in water dropwort. Terpinolene accounted the highest proportion among terpene compounds in water dropwort. The contents of jasmonates in water dropwort were also increased after exogenous MeJA treatments. Transcriptome analysis indicated that DEGs involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway were upregulated. The TPS family was identified from water dropwort, and the expression levels of Oj0473630, Oj0287510 and Oj0240400 genes in TPS-b subfamily were consistent with the changes of terpene contents under MeJA treatments. Oj0473630 was cloned from the water dropwort and designated as OjTPS3, which is predicted to be related to the biosynthesis of terpinolene in water dropwort. Subcellular localization indicated that OjTPS3 protein was localized in chloroplast. Protein purification and enzyme activity of OjTPS3 protein were conducted. The results showed that the purified OjTPS3 protein catalyzed the biosynthesis of terpinolene by using geranyl diphosphate (GPP) as substrate in vitro. This study will facilitate to further understand the molecular mechanism of terpenoid biosynthesis and provide a strategy to improve the flavor of water dropwort.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Oenanthe , Oxilipinas , Terpenos , Terpenos/metabolismo , Oenanthe/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Acetatos/farmacologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5608, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454146

RESUMO

Essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. has valuable therapeutic potential that is highly desired in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Considering these advantages and the rising market demand, induced polyploids were obtained using oryzalin to enhance essential oil yield. However, their therapeutic values were unexplored. So, this study aims to assess the phytochemical content, and antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of tetraploid and diploid thyme essential oils. Induced tetraploids had 41.11% higher essential oil yield with enhanced thymol and γ-terpinene content than diploid. Tetraploids exhibited higher antibacterial activity against all tested microorganisms. Similarly, in DPPH radical scavenging assay tetraploid essential oil was more potent with half-maximal inhibitory doses (IC50) of 180.03 µg/mL (40.05 µg TE/mg) than diploid with IC50 > 512 µg/mL (12.68 µg TE/mg). Tetraploids exhibited more effective inhibition of in vitro catalytic activity of pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) than diploids at 50 µg/mL concentration. Furthermore, molecular docking revealed higher binding affinity of thymol and γ-terpinene towards tested protein receptors, which explained enhanced bioactivity of tetraploid essential oil. In conclusion, these results suggest that synthetic polyploidization using oryzalin could effectively enhance the quality and quantity of secondary metabolites and can develop more efficient essential oil-based commercial products using this induced genotype.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Dinitrobenzenos , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos de Plantas , Sulfanilamidas , Thymus (Planta) , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Timol/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Tetraploidia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7342, 2024 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538682

RESUMO

The present work aimed to investigate the effect of salinity in natural habitats in Egypt on the main secondary metabolites of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Artemisia monosperma L. plants compared to plants grown at normal conditions. Plants grown under salinity were collected from Egyptian Western Coastal region habitats irrigated with underground water. Results showed that salinity increased the essential oil percentage of R. officinalis L. by 52.7% and A. monosperma L by 0.29% in addition to the total phenolics and flavonoids content in dry leaves compared to control plants. GC/MS analysis of rosemary essential oils revealed that salinity decreased the amount of some major oil monoterpenes component as verbenone, with a slight effect on 1,8 cineole and increased Camphor, endo- Boreneol, and linalool in addition to the appearance of new specific components such as Chrysanthenone monoterpene ketone and Caryophyllene sesquiterpene, while, in the case of Artemisia, the GC/MS showed that Artemisia ketone, Camphor, ß -phellandrene monoterpenes andα-Bisabolol sesquiterpenewere the major oil components; salinity decreased Camphor and ß -phellandrene content and increased artemisia ketone and α-Bisabolol oil content. About 11 new oil constituents were detected such as ( +)-2-Bornanone and Sesquisabinene hydrate. Mineral ions (N, K+, Ca+2, P, and Mg+2) uptake by R. officinalis and A. monosperma decreased in plants grown under salinity, while Na content increased compared to corresponding controls. Results demonstrated that both plants could tolerate the high salinity level in natural Western Coastal region soil which promoted more production of valuable secondary metabolites. The antimicrobial effect of R. officinalis L. and A. monosperma L. leaf methanolic extracts, results showed that R. officinalis extracts had an inhibitory response against all tested gram-positive and negative bacteria, in addition to the yeast (Candida albicans), whereas there was no any inhibitory effect concerning A. monosperma L extract on the tested species.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Artemisia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , Cânfora/farmacologia , Egito , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
6.
Oncol Rep ; 51(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456489

RESUMO

α­Phellandrene (α­PA), a natural constituent of herbs, inhibits cancer cell viability and proliferation. 5­Fluorouracil (5­FU) is a frequently utilized chemotherapeutic medicine for the treatment of colon cancer, which works by triggering cancer cell apoptosis. The present study examined how the combination of α­PA and 5­FU affects the suppression of human colon cancer cells by promoting apoptosis. The impact of this treatment on cell viability, apoptosis, and the expression levels of Bcl­2 family members, caspase family members and mitochondria­related molecules in HT­29 cells was assessed by the MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, western blotting and quantitative PCR. The combination of 5­FU and α­PA had a synergistic inhibitory effect on cell viability, as determined by assessing the combination index value. Bax protein expression levels were higher in the 50, 100 or 250 µM α­PA combined with 5­FU groups compared with those in the 5­FU alone group (P<0.05). By contrast, Bcl­2 protein expression levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) were lower in the 100 or 250 µM α­PA combined with 5­FU groups than those in the 5­FU alone group (P<0.05). In addition, hexokinase­2 (HK­2) protein expression levels were lower in the 50, 100 or 250 µM α­PA combined with 5­FU groups than those in the 5­FU alone group (P<0.05). Compared with 5­FU alone, after HT­29 cells were treated with 50, 100 or 250 µM α­PA combined with 5­FU, the mRNA expression levels of extrinsic­induced apoptotic molecules, including caspase­8 and Bid, were higher (P<0.05). Treatment with 50, 100 or 250 µM α­PA combined with 5­FU also increased the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome c, caspase­9 and caspase­3, regulating intrinsic apoptosis (P<0.05). These results showed that α­PA and 5­FU had a synergistic effect on reducing the viability of human colon cancer HT­29 cells by inducing extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. The mechanism by which apoptosis is induced may involve the intrinsic apoptosis pathway that activates the mitochondria­dependent pathway, including regulating the expression levels of Bcl­2 family members, including Bax, Bcl­2 and Bid, regulating MMP and HK­2 expression levels, and increasing the expression of caspase cascade molecules, including caspase­9 and caspase­3. In addition, it may involve the extrinsic apoptosis pathway that activates caspase­8 and caspase­3 leading to apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Caspase 8 , Células HT29 , Apoptose , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Caspases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , RNA Mensageiro
7.
Food Chem ; 443: 138616, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306907

RESUMO

Guangchenpi (GCP), which is the peel of Citrus reticulata 'Chachiensis', is widely used as an herbal medicine, tea and food ingredient in southeast Asia. Prolonging its aging process results in a more pleasant flavor and increases its profitability. Through the integration of sensory evaluation with flavoromic analysis approaches, we evaluated the correlation between the flavor attributes and the profiles of the volatiles and flavonoids of GCP with various aging years. Notably, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, dimethyl anthranilate and α-phellandrene were the characteristic aroma compounds of GCP. Besides, α-phellandrene and nonanal were decisive for consumers' perception of GCP aging time due to changes of their odor activity values (OAVs). The flavor attributes of GCP tea liquid enhanced with the extension of aging time, and limonene-1,2-diol was identified as an important flavor enhancer. Combined with machine learning models, key flavor-related metabolites could be developed as efficient biomarkers for aging years to prevent GCP adulteration.


Assuntos
Citrus , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Limoneno , Chá
8.
Food Chem ; 443: 138502, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306909

RESUMO

The present investigation explored the antifungal effectiveness of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil (TAEO) against Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination, and its mechanism of action using biochemical and computational approaches. The GC-MS result revealed the chemical diversity of TAEO with the highest percentage of γ-terpinene (39 %). The TAEO exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration against A. flavus growth (0.5 µL/mL) and AFB1 (0.4 µL/mL) with radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.13 µL/mL). The mechanism of action of TAEO was associated with the alteration in plasma membrane functioning, antioxidative defense, and carbon source catabolism. The molecular dynamic result shows the multi-regime binding of γ-terpinene with the target proteins (Nor1, Omt1, and Vbs) of AFB1 biosynthesis. Furthermore, TAEO exhibited remarkable in-situ protection of Sorghum bicolor seed samples against A. flavus and AFB1 contamination and protected the nutritional deterioration. Hence, the study recommends TAEO as a natural antifungal agent for food protection against A. flavus mediated biodeterioration.


Assuntos
Ammi , Apiaceae , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Óleos Voláteis , Sorghum , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Ammi/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Apiaceae/metabolismo
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 76, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genus Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) comprises dozens of essential oil (EO)-rich species that are appreciated worldwide for their various medicinal values. Additionally, they are renowned in traditional medicine for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and other skin-related activities. The current study investigated the chemical profile and skin-related activities of volatile constituents derived from M. subulata (Cheel) Craven (Synonym Callistemon subulatus) leaves cultivated in Egypt for the first time. METHODS: The volatile components were extracted using hydrodistillation (HD), headspace (HS), and supercritical fluid (SF). GC/MS and Kovat's retention indices were implemented to identify the volatile compounds, while the variations among the components were assessed using Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The radical scavenging activity was assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ß-carotene assays. Moreover, the anti-aging effect was evaluated using anti-elastase, and anti-collagenase, while the antimicrobial potential was deduced from the agar diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Lastly, the molecular docking study was executed using C-docker protocol in Discovery Studio 4.5 to rationalize the binding affinity with targeted enzymes. RESULTS: The SF extraction approach offered the highest EO yield, being 0.75%. According to the GC/MS analysis, monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most abundant volatile class in the HD oil sample (54.95%), with α-pinene being the most copious component (35.17%). On the contrary, the HS and SF volatile constituents were pioneered with oxygenated monoterpenes (72.01 and 36.41%) with eucalyptol and isopulegone being the most recognized components, representing 67.75 and 23.46%, respectively. The chemometric analysis showed segregate clustering of the three extraction methods with α-pinene, eucalyptol, and isopulegone serving as the main discriminating phytomarkers. Concerning the bioactivity context, both SF and HD-EOs exhibited antioxidant effects in terms of ORAC and ß-carotene bleaching. The HD-EO displayed potent anti-tyrosinase activity, whereas the SF-EO exhibited significant anti-elastase properties. Moreover, SF-EO shows selective activity against gram-positive skin pathogens, especially S. aureus. Ultimately, molecular docking revealed binding scores for the volatile constituents; analogous to those of the docked reference drugs. CONCLUSIONS: M. subulata leaves constitute bioactive volatile components that may be indorsed as bioactive hits for managing skin aging and infection, though further in vivo studies are recommended.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Melaleuca , Myrtaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Melaleuca/química , Eucaliptol , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , beta Caroteno , Quimiometria , Staphylococcus aureus , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(1): 62-69, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403339

RESUMO

The volatile oils are the effective components of Agastache rugosa, which are stored in the glandular scale. The leaves of pulegone-type A. rugosa were used as materials to observe the leaf morphology of A. rugosa at different growth stages, and the components of volatile oils in gland scales were detected by GC-MS. At the same time, qRT-PCR was used to determine the relative expression of key enzyme genes in the biosynthesis pathway of monoterpenes in volatile oils. The results showed that the density of A. rugosa glandular scale decreased first and then tended to be stable. With the growth of leaves, the relative content of pulegone decreased from 79.26% to 3.94%(89.97%-41.44%), while that of isomenthone increased from 2.43% to 77.87%(0.74%-51.01%), and the changes of other components were relatively insignificant. The correlation analysis between the relative content of monoterpenes and the relative expression levels of their key enzyme genes showed that there was a significant correlation between the relative content of menthone and isomenthone and the relative expression levels of pulegone reductase(PR)(r>0.6, P<0.01). To sum up, this study revealed the accumulation rules of the main components of the contents of the glandular scale of A. rugosa and the expression rules of the key enzyme genes for biosynthesis, which provided a scientific basis and data support for determining the appropriate harvesting period and quality control of the medicinal herbs. This study also initially revealed the biosynthesis mechanism of the monoterpenes mainly composed of pulegone and isomenthone in A. rugosa, laying a foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of synthesis and accumulation of monoterpenes in A. rugosa.


Assuntos
Agastache , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Agastache/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396868

RESUMO

Monoterpenes are secondary plant metabolites, and such volatile compounds have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and enzyme inhibitory properties. These compounds are also able to reduce the potentially pro-neurodegenerative trace metal ions that can be sources of free radicals. One basic method used to evaluate the ability of chemical compounds to reduce Fe(III) is FRAP. To date, most studies based on a FRAP assay were performed within several dozen minutes. However, taking into account the diversity of compounds, it is justified to observe their activity over a much longer period of time. The present study aimed to observe the activity of isopulegol, γ-terpinene, α-terpinene, linalool, carvone, citral, and α-phellandrene over a 48 h period. Our study indicates that the lengthened reaction period enhanced activity from several dozen to several hundred percent. The obtained results also revealed an explicit high correlation of the increase in the activity of compounds with the increase in monoterpene concentration. Due to the hydrophobic character of monoterpenes, the FRAP method was modified by the addition of Tween 20. The highest activity was obtained for α-terpinene and γ-terpinene.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Compostos Férricos , Monoterpenos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antibacterianos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298448, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394306

RESUMO

Monoterpenes are a large class of naturally occurring fragrant molecules. These chemicals are commonly used in olfactory studies to survey neural activity and probe the behavioral limits of odor discrimination. Monoterpenes (typically in the form of essential oils) have been used for centuries for therapeutic purposes and have pivotal roles in various biological and medical applications. Despite their importance for multiple lines of research using rodent models and the role of the olfactory system in detecting these volatile chemicals, the murine sensitivity to monoterpenes remains mostly unexplored. We assayed the ability of C57BL/6J mice to detect nine different monoterpenes (the acyclic monoterpenes: geraniol, citral, and linalool; the monocyclic monoterpenes: r-limonene, s-limonene, and γ-terpinene; and the bicyclic monoterpenes: eucalyptol, α-pinene, and ß-pinene) using a head-fixed Go / No-Go operant conditioning assay. We found that mice can reliably detect monoterpene concentrations in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. Specifically, mice were most sensitive to geraniol (threshold: 0.7 ppb) and least sensitive to γ-terpinene (threshold: 18.1 ppb). These estimations of sensitivity serve to set the lower limit of relevant monoterpene concentrations for functional experiments in mice. To define an upper limit, we estimated the maximum concentrations that a mouse may experience in nature by collating published headspace analyses of monoterpene concentrations emitted from natural sources. We found that natural monoterpenes concentrations typically ranged from ~1 to 1000 ppb. It is our hope that this dataset will help researchers use appropriate monoterpene concentrations for functional studies and provide context for the vapor-phase delivery of these chemicals in studies investigating their biological activity in mice.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Monoterpenos , Camundongos , Animais , Limoneno , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 198: 105721, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225076

RESUMO

Developing new pesticides poses a significant challenge in designing next-generation natural insecticides that selectively target specific pharmacological sites while ensuring environmental friendliness. In this study, we aimed to address this challenge by formulating novel natural pesticides derived from secondary plant metabolites, which exhibited potent insecticide activity. Additionally, we tested their effect on mitochondrial enzyme activity and the proteomic profile of Ae. aegypti, a mosquito species responsible for transmitting diseases. Initially, 110 key compounds from essential oils were selected that have been reported with insecticidal properties; then, to ensure safety for mammals were performed in silico analyses for toxicity properties, identifying non-toxic candidates for further investigation. Subsequently, in vivo tests were conducted using these non-toxic compounds, focusing on the mosquito's larval stage. Based on the lethal concentration (LC), the most promising compounds as insecticidal were identified as S-limonene (LC50 = 6.4 ppm, LC95 = 17.2 ppm), R-limonene (LC50 = 9.86 ppm, LC95 = 27.7 ppm), citronellal (LC50 = 40.5 ppm, LC95 = 68.6 ppm), R-carvone (LC50 = 61.4 ppm, LC95 = 121 ppm), and S-carvone (LC50 = 62.5 ppm, LC95 = 114 ppm). Furthermore, we formulated a mixture of R-limonene, S-carvone, and citronellal with equal proportions of each compound based on their LC50. This mixture specifically targeted mitochondrial proteins and demonstrated a higher effect that showed by each compound separately, enhancing the insecticidal activity of each compound. Besides, the proteomic profile revealed the alteration in proteins involved in proliferation processes and detoxification mechanisms in Ae. aegypti. In summary, our study presents a formulation strategy for developing next-generation natural insecticides using secondary plant metabolites with the potential for reducing the adverse effects on humans and the development of chemical resistance in insects. Our findings also highlight the proteomic alteration induced by the formulated insecticide, showing insight into the mechanisms of action and potential targets for further exploration in vector control strategies.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Aedes , Aldeídos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Limoneno/farmacologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/farmacologia , Proteômica , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mamíferos
15.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(3): 562-569, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38247219

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes a devastating bacterial leaf blight in rice. Here, the antimicrobial effects of D-limonene, L-limonene, and its oxidative derivative carveol against Xoo were investigated. We revealed that carveol treatment at ≥ 0.1 mM in liquid culture resulted in significant decrease in Xoo growth rate (> 40%) in a concentration-dependent manner, and over 1 mM, no growth was observed. The treatment with D-limonene and L-limonene also inhibited the Xoo growth but to a lesser extent compared to carveol. These results were further elaborated with the assays of motility, biofilm formation and xanthomonadin production. The carveol treatment over 1 mM caused no motilities, basal level of biofilm formation (< 10%), and significantly reduced xanthomonadin production. The biofilm formation after the treatment with two limonene isomers was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, but the degree of the effect was not comparable to carveol. In addition, there was negligible effect on the xanthomonadin production mediated by the treatment of two limonene isomers. Field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) unveiled that all three compounds used in this study cause severe ultrastructural morphological changes in Xoo cells, showing shrinking, shriveling, and holes on their surface. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR revealed that carveol and D-limonene treatment significantly down-regulated the expression levels of genes involved in virulence and biofilm formation of Xoo, but not with L-limonene. Together, we suggest that limonenes and carveol will be the candidates of interest in the development of biological pesticides.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Oryza , Xanthomonas , Limoneno/farmacologia , Limoneno/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(3): e202301527, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253787

RESUMO

Dysphania ambrosioides has been reported to have many medicinal properties, due to its possession of a multitude of biologically active molecules contained in its leaves. However, very few studies have been reported to evaluate their pharmacological properties. Consequently, in the present study, many computational tools have been performed to predict drug similarity and ADMET properties. Besides, the inhibitory potential of D.ambrosioides major compounds against Bacterial, Fungal and cardiovascular main receptor targets has been investigated. This study suggests that Carvone oxide, 5-Isopropenyl-2-Methylenecyclohexanol, and Caryophyllene oxide were the most active molecules belonging to D. ambrosioides Leaves, possessing drug-likeness with satisfactory bioactivity scores, having good pharmacokinetic values. Metabolism and toxicities were further studied using FAME3, GLORY, and pred-hERG. Slight cardiotoxicity and cytotoxicity were predicted, respectively, for Caryophyllene oxide and Carvone oxide, 5-Isopropenyl-2-Methylenecyclohexanol. Good inhibitory activities of the three compounds against Bacterial, Fungal, and Cardiovascular receptor targets. Hence, this is a comprehensive in silico approach to evaluate D.ambrosioides Leaves main phytocompounds in the background of its potential in future drug development.


Assuntos
Chenopodium ambrosioides , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Bactérias , Óxidos
17.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 203: 108067, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278342

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) use the chemical cues emitted by insects and insect-damaged plants to locate their hosts. Steinernema carpocapsae, a species of EPN, is an established biocontrol agent used against insect pests. Despite its promising potential, the molecular mechanisms underlying its ability to detect plant volatiles remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the response of S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs) to 8 different plant volatiles. Among these, carvone was found to be the most attractive volatile compound. To understand the molecular basis of the response of IJs to carvone, we used RNA-Seq technology to identify gene expression changes in response to carvone treatment. Transcriptome analysis revealed 721 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between carvone-treated and control groups, with 403 genes being significantly upregulated and 318 genes downregulated. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that the responsive DEGs to carvone attraction were mainly involved in locomotion, localization, behavior, response to stimulus, and olfactory transduction. We also identified four upregulated genes of chemoreceptor and response to stimulus that were involved in the response of IJs to carvone attraction. Our results provide insights into the potential transcriptional mechanisms underlying the response of S. carpocapsae to carvone, which can be utilized to develop environmentally friendly strategies for attracting EPNs.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Insetos , Rabditídios , Animais , Rabditídios/fisiologia
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(7): 3982-3991, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many diseases may be caused by pathogens and oxidative stress resulting from carcinogens. Earlier studies have highlighted the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of plant essential oils (EO). It is crucial to effectively utilize agricultural waste to achieve a sustainable agricultural economy and protect the environment. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of EO extracted from the discarded peels of Citrus depressa Hayata (CD) and Citrus microcarpa Bunge (CM), synonyms of Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus japonica Thunb, respectively. RESULTS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the main compounds in CD-EO were (R)-(+)-limonene (38.97%), γ-terpinene (24.39%) and linalool (6.22%), whereas, in CM-EO, the main compounds were (R)-(+)-limonene (48.00%), ß-pinene (13.60%) and γ-terpinene (12.07%). CD-EO exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of common microorganisms, including Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. However, CM-EO showed only inhibitory effects on E. coli. Furthermore, CD-EO exhibited superior antioxidant potential, as demonstrated by its ability to eliminate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate free radicals. Furthermore, CD-EO at a concentration of 100 µg mL-1 significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced cancer transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells (P < 0.05), possibly by up-regulating protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase-1 and UGT1A. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CD-EO exhibits inhibitory effects on pathogenic microorganisms, possesses antioxidant properties and has cancer chemopreventive potential. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Citrus , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Neoplasias , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Limoneno/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Óleos de Plantas/química
19.
Chemistry ; 30(10): e202302936, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38012074

RESUMO

Protein engineering of cytochrome P450s has enabled these biocatalysts to promote a variety of abiotic reactions beyond nature's repertoire. Integrating such non-natural transformations with microbial biosynthetic pathways could allow sustainable enzymatic production of modified natural product derivatives. In particular, trifluoromethylation is a highly desirable modification in pharmaceutical research due to the positive effects of the trifluoromethyl group on drug potency, bioavailability, and metabolic stability. This study demonstrates the biosynthesis of non-natural trifluoromethyl-substituted cyclopropane derivatives of natural monoterpene scaffolds using an engineered cytochrome P450 variant, P411-PFA. P411-PFA successfully catalyzed the transfer of a trifluoromethyl carbene from 2-diazo-1,1,1-trifluoroethane to the terminal alkenes of several monoterpenes, including L-carveol, carvone, perilla alcohol, and perillartine, to generate the corresponding trifluoromethylated cyclopropane products. Furthermore, integration of this abiotic cyclopropanation reaction with a reconstructed metabolic pathway for L-carveol production in Escherichia coli enabled one-step biosynthesis of a trifluoromethylated L-carveol derivative from limonene precursor. Overall, amalgamating synthetic enzymatic chemistry with established metabolic pathways represents a promising approach to sustainably produce bioactive natural product analogs.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ciclopropanos/química , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo
20.
Neurotoxicology ; 100: 16-24, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) can efficiently synthesize of over 200 terpenes, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and triterpenes that may contribute to the known biological activities of phytocannabinoids of relevance for the burgeoning access to medicinal cannabis formulations globally; however, to date have been uncharacterized. We assessed twelve predominant terpenes in C. sativa for neuroprotective and anti-aggregative properties in semi-differentiated PC12 neuronal cell line that is robust and validated as a cell model responsive to amyloid ß (Aß1-42) protein exposure and oxidative stress. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed biochemically using the MTT assay in the presence of myrcene, ß-caryophyllene, terpinolene, limonene, linalool, humulene, α-pinene, nerolidol, ß-pinene, terpineol, citronellol and friedelin (1-200 µM) for 24 hr. Sub-toxic threshold test concentrations of each terpene were then applied to cells, alone or with concomitant incubation with the lipid peroxidant tert-butyl hyrdroperoxide (t-BHP; 0-250 µM) or amyloid ß (Aß1-42; 0-1 µM) to assess neuroprotective effects. Direct effects of each terpene on Aß fibril formation and aggregation were also evaluated using the Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorometric kinetic assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize fibril and aggregate morphology. RESULTS: Terpenes were intrinsically benign to PC12 cells up to 50 µM, with higher concentrations of ß-caryophyllene, humulene and nerolidol inducing some loss of PC12 cell viability. No significant protective effects of terpenes were observed following t-BHP (0-200 µM) administration, with some enhanced toxicity instead demonstrated from both ß-caryophyllene and humulene treatment (each at 50 µM). α-pinene and ß-pinene demonstrated a significant neuroprotective effect against amyloid ß exposure. α-pinene, ß-pinene, terpineol, terpinolene and friedelin were associated with a variable inhibition of Aß1-42 fibril and aggregate density. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of this study underline a neuroprotective role of α-pinene and ß-pinene against Aß-mediated neurotoxicity associated with an inhibition of Aß1-42 fibrilization and density. This demonstrates the bioactive potential of selected terpenes for consideration in the development of medicinal cannabis formulations targeting neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Cannabis , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Alucinógenos , Lupanos , Maconha Medicinal , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos , Animais , Ratos , Terpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Maconha Medicinal/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química
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