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1.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(9): 903-905, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively analyse the number of doctors leaving the paediatric specialty training (ST) programme in the UK, to assist with evidence-based workforce planning. DESIGN: Data were sought on those leaving the UK paediatrics training programme between 2014 and 2019 from Heads of Schools of Paediatrics and Freedom of Information Act requests. SETTING: Retrospective data analysis. OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall attrition rate, attrition rate across level of training, attrition rate across geographical area, recorded reason for leaving. RESULTS: All results must be interpreted with caution due to limitations in record keeping and analysis. The annual attrition rate across all ST levels between 2014 and 2019 is estimated at 3.7%-4.2% (ie, 749-845 trainees may have left the paediatric training programme over 2014-2019). No reason for leaving was recorded for three-quarters of individuals, around 630 doctors. Of those leaving paediatrics, significantly more (χ², p=0.015) did so at ST3 (20.3%) versus the next highest training year, ST2 (13.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This project seems to demonstrate worryingly poor record-keeping of the true attrition rate of paediatric trainees by organisations responsible for workforce planning, including Health Education England, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and individual paediatric schools across the UK. To allow evidence-based workforce planning for the benefit of UK children, it is vital that accurate records on trainees who leave the training programme are kept and shared across the UK.


Assuntos
Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Pediatria/educação , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Escolha da Profissão , Criança , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/provisão & distribuição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
Malar J ; 19(1): 431, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2020, Benin has implemented a digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic. This paper describes the implementation process as well as the challenges and lessons learned from this campaign. METHODS: A descriptive design was used for reporting the planning and implementation process of ITNs campaign. Moreover, the changes and adaptations related to COVID-19 pandemic are described. RESULTS: A total of 3,175,773 households were registered corresponding to a total of 14,423,998 persons (13.55% more from projection). Moreover, 94.16% (13,581,637 people) of enumerated population were protected. A total of 7,652,166 ITNs were distributed countrywide. CONCLUSIONS: High political commitment, engagement and support add to the financial and technical supports from partners were the essential factors that make 2020 ITNs mass campaign success in Benin despite the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential to maintain the prevention activities for malaria and this could substantially reduce the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic for the populations at malaria risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/provisão & distribuição , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Benin/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Atenção à Saúde , Educação , Características da Família , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 16 set. 2020. 1-3 p.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1129294

RESUMO

Muitas alternativas de gestão de unidades públicas de saúde têm sido discutidas com o objetivo de aumentar a eficiência destas e garantir melhorias no atendimento e serviços prestados à população em geral. Dentre os diversos modelos de gerência atualmente em voga, como opção à administração direta tem-se: Fundações Públicas de direito público e as de direito privado, Autarquia, Consórcio Público, Empresa Estatal, vínculos paraestatais e de colaboração, Organização Social (OS), Organização da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Público (OSCIP) e Fundação de Apoio.


Many alternatives for the management of public health units have been discussed with the objective of increasing their efficiency and ensuring improvements in care and services provided to the general population. Among the various management models currently in vogue, as an option for direct administration are: Public Foundations of public law and those of private law, Municipality, Public Consortium, State Company, parastate and collaborative links, Social Organization (OS), Civil Society Organization of Public Interest (OSCIP) and Support Foundation.


Assuntos
Fundações/classificação , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Administração Hospitalar/tendências
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074112

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The decision-making process for malaria control and elimination strategies has become more challenging. Interventions need to be targeted at council level to allow for changing malaria epidemiology and an increase in the number of possible interventions. Models of malaria dynamics can support this process by simulating potential impacts of multiple interventions in different settings and determining appropriate packages of interventions for meeting specific expected targets. METHODS: The OpenMalaria model of malaria dynamics was calibrated for all 184 councils in mainland Tanzania using data from malaria indicator surveys, school parasitaemia surveys, entomological surveillance, and vector control deployment data. The simulations were run for different transmission intensities per region and five interventions, currently or potentially included in the National Malaria Strategic Plan, individually and in combination. The simulated prevalences were fitted to council specific prevalences derived from geostatistical models to obtain council specific predictions of the prevalence and number of cases between 2017 and 2020. The predictions were used to evaluate in silico the feasibility of the national target of reaching a prevalence of below 1% by 2020, and to suggest alternative intervention stratifications for the country. RESULTS: The historical prevalence trend was fitted for each council with an agreement of 87% in 2016 (95%CI: 0.84-0.90) and an agreement of 90% for the historical trend (2003-2016) (95%CI: 0.87-0.93) The current national malaria strategy was expected to reduce the malaria prevalence between 2016 and 2020 on average by 23.8% (95% CI: 19.7%-27.9%) if current case management levels were maintained, and by 52.1% (95% CI: 48.8%-55.3%) if the case management were improved. Insecticide treated nets and case management were the most cost-effective interventions, expected to reduce the prevalence by 25.0% (95% CI: 19.7%-30.2) and to avert 37 million cases between 2017 and 2020. Mass drug administration was included in most councils in the stratification selected for meeting the national target at minimal costs, expected to reduce the prevalence by 77.5% (95%CI: 70.5%-84.5%) and to avert 102 million cases, with almost twice higher costs than those of the current national strategy. In summary, the model suggested that current interventions are not sufficient to reach the national aim of a prevalence of less than 1% by 2020 and a revised strategic plan needs to consider additional, more effective interventions, especially in high transmission areas and that the targets need to be revisited. CONCLUSION: The methodology reported here is based on intensive interactions with the NMCP and provides a helpful tool for assessing the feasibility of country specific targets and for determining which intervention stratifications at sub-national level will have most impact. This country-led application could support strategic planning of malaria control in many other malaria endemic countries.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Simulação por Computador , Malária/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Planejamento Estratégico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/normas , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/economia , Malária/epidemiologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/economia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/normas , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Controle de Mosquitos/normas , Parasitemia/economia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento Estratégico/economia , Planejamento Estratégico/normas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(5): 522-535, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101609

RESUMO

Health systems are faced with a wide variety of challenges. As complex adaptive systems, they respond differently and sometimes in unexpected ways to these challenges. We set out to examine the challenges experienced by the health system at a sub-national level in Kenya, a country that has recently undergone rapid devolution, using an 'everyday resilience' lens. We focussed on chronic stressors, rather than acute shocks in examining the responses and organizational capacities underpinning those responses, with a view to contributing to the understanding of health system resilience. We drew on learning and experiences gained through working with managers using a learning site approach over the years. We also collected in-depth qualitative data through informal observations, reflective meetings and in-depth interviews with middle-level managers (sub-county and hospital) and peripheral facility managers (n = 29). We analysed the data using a framework approach. Health managers reported a wide range of health system stressors related to resource scarcity, lack of clarity in roles and political interference, reduced autonomy and human resource management. The health managers adopted absorptive, adaptive and transformative strategies but with mixed effects on system functioning. Everyday resilience seemed to emerge from strategies enacted by managers drawing on a varying combination of organizational capacities depending on the stressor and context.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribuição , Administração Hospitalar/métodos , Programas Governamentais , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Quênia , Política , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração
11.
Int J Evid Based Healthc ; 18(1): 58-64, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652168

RESUMO

AIM: Clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England are responsible for the health of their populations through the services they provide, yet we know that the use of evidence to inform commissioning decisions is low. A programme of training in seven CCGs in England was instigated in a joint piece of work by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care and Academic Health Science Network in the West of England, to help build an evidence informed culture in commissioning. METHODS: Evidence workshops were delivered in each of the seven CCGs in the West of England by an experienced senior lecturer (the author) and local healthcare librarians. The workshop was developed by the author and an information scientist and included guidance and demonstration of a systematic evidence search covering both traditional and grey literature, and a brief look at quality of evidence including a critical appraisal activity. Participants were asked to evaluate the workshop on the day and to indicate an intended action they would take as a result of the workshop; a short follow-up interview was carried out with a sample of participants between 3 and 6 months later, to identify any longer term impact of the training. RESULTS: A total of 63 staff in a variety of commissioning-related roles attended the workshops between March and September 2016. 95% rated the workshop overall as either 'excellent' or 'good'. Of particular value was the involvement of the local healthcare librarian, helping to promote their expertise and services; and the discussion of grey literature as a valuable source of evidence. A variety of intended actions as a result of the training included initiating a thorough search for evidence for new projects, use of bibliographic databases, and making use of local library services for evidence searching. Follow-up interviews with nine staff revealed a positive impact in the longer-term. This ranged from simply triggering an interest in using evidence, boosting motivation and sharing information with colleagues; to changes in processes such as broadening the responsibility for finding and filtering evidence for business cases; to one clear case of financial savings resulting from a search for evidence by a senior commissioning manager. CONCLUSION: Offering short, interactive training workshops is valued by healthcare commissioners and can make a difference to their approach to and use of evidence in decision-making. There is a need for a flexible approach to the concept of evidence in healthcare commissioning, which includes the use of grey literature, and training can encourage and support the systematic search for an appraisal of this type of evidence. Tools for improving and sustaining this aspect of evidence use by commissioners are included here.


Assuntos
Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Tomada de Decisões , Educação , Inglaterra , Humanos , Ciência da Informação/educação
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e033077, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The International Learning Collaborative (ILC) is an organisation dedicated to understanding why fundamental care, the care required by all patients regardless of clinical condition, fails to be provided in healthcare systems globally. At its 11th annual meeting in 2019, nursing leaders from 11 countries, together with patient representatives, confirmed that patients' fundamental care needs are still being ignored and nurses are still afraid to 'speak up' when these care failures occur. While the ILC's efforts over the past decade have led to increased recognition of the importance of fundamental care, it is not enough. To generate practical, sustainable solutions, we need to substantially rethink fundamental care and its contribution to patient outcomes and experiences, staff well-being, safety and quality, and the economic viability of healthcare systems. KEY ARGUMENTS: We present five propositions for radically transforming fundamental care delivery:Value: fundamental care must be foundational to all caring activities, systems and institutionsTalk: fundamental care must be explicitly articulated in all caring activities, systems and institutions.Do: fundamental care must be explicitly actioned and evaluated in all caring activities, systems and institutions.Own: fundamental care must be owned by each individual who delivers care, works in a system that is responsible for care or works in an institution whose mission is to deliver care. RESEARCH: fundamental care must undergo systematic and high-quality investigations to generate the evidence needed to inform care practices and shape health systems and education curricula. CONCLUSION: For radical transformation within health systems globally, we must move beyond nursing and ensure all members of the healthcare team-educators, students, consumers, clinicians, leaders, researchers, policy-makers and politicians-value, talk, do, own and research fundamental care. It is only through coordinated, collaborative effort that we will, and must, achieve real change.


Assuntos
Enfermagem/normas , Assistência de Saúde Universal , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
15.
Clin Transplant ; 33(11): e13711, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstacles encountered during the organ donation process may result in the loss of organs. A centralized medical advisory service (MAS), providing a 24/7/365 service, was established in 2007 to respond to queries from healthcare professionals regarding organ safety, brain death (BD) determination, and donor management. METHODS: Data collected from 2007 to 2017 included the number and context of the queries and the mean number of organs transplanted/donor. Since 2012, the number of six donor management goals (DMGs) met at the time of consent has been monitored. RESULTS: The number of queries relative to the number of potential donors increased from 12.4% (n = 78 queries) in 2007 to 48.2% (304 queries) in 2009 and has remained widely utilized, with most queries consistently related to organ safety. The context of the queries informed the formulation of protocols relating to donor infections and malignancy and identified difficulties regarding BD determination and subsequent implementation of solutions. A mean of 5.0 ± 0.7 DMGs was achieved, while the number of organs transplanted/donor increased from 3.4 in 2007 to 4.0 in 2017. CONCLUSION: We suggest that this model may provide a valuable resource to improve the safety, standardization, and quality of the donation process.


Assuntos
Consultores/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde , Transplante de Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribuição , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Encefálica , Humanos
16.
Prev Sci ; 20(8): 1147-1168, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444621

RESUMO

A number of programs, policies, and practices have been tested using rigorous scientific methods and shown to prevent behavioral health problems (Catalano et al., Lancet 379:1653-1664, 2012; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2009). Yet these evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are not widely used in public systems, and they have limited reach (Glasgow et al., American Journal of Public Health 102:1274-1281, 2012; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine 2009; Prinz and Sanders, Clinical Psychology Review 27:739-749, 2007). To address this challenge and improve public health and well-being at a population level, the Society for Prevention Research (SPR) formed the Mapping Advances in Prevention Science (MAPS) IV Translation Research Task Force, which considered ways to scale up EBIs in five public systems: behavioral health, child welfare, education, juvenile justice, and public health. After reviewing other efforts to scale up EBIs in public systems, a common set of factors were identified as affecting scale-up in all five systems. The most important factor was the degree to which these systems enacted public policies (i.e., statutes, regulations, and guidance) requiring or recommending EBIs and provided public funds for EBIs. Across systems, other facilitators of scale-up were creating EBIs that are ready for scale-up, public awareness of and support for EBIs, community engagement and capacity to implement EBIs, leadership support for EBIs, a skilled workforce capable of delivering EBIs, and data monitoring and evaluation capacity. It was concluded that the following actions are needed to significantly increase EBI scale-up in public systems: (1) provide more public policies and funding to support the creation, testing, and scaling up of EBIs; (2) develop and evaluate specific frameworks that address systems level barriers impeding EBI scale-up; and (3) promote public support for EBIs, community capacity to implement EBIs at scale, and partnerships between community stakeholders, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists within and across systems.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos
17.
Prev Sci ; 20(8): 1189-1199, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440944

RESUMO

Effective implementation outcomes are necessary preconditions for effective service and positive treatment outcomes for children with behavioral problems. The aim of this study is to assess outcomes of the transfer of the empirically supported intervention GenerationPMTO from the developer in the USA to a nationwide implementation in Norway. Adoption, sustainability, reach, and fidelity are tested across seven generations of therapists in Norway. Participants in the study were 521 therapists who began training in the program. The developer's team trained the first generation (G1) and the Norwegian team trained the next six generations (G2-G7). The mean rate of certification was 94.2% (n = 491). Intervention fidelity was assessed from 1964 video recordings of intervention sessions submitted for certification evaluation using the observation-based measure Fidelity of Implementation Rating System (FIMP). A small but significant drop in fidelity scores was previously observed from G1 to G2; however, fidelity scores recovered at or above G1 scores for G3 Forgatch and DeGarmo (Prevention Science 12, 235-246, 2011). Twenty years since the inception of implementation, 314 certified therapists practice the model today, a retention rate of 64%. The outcomes show sustained fidelity scores across seven generations, increasing heterogeneity among therapists trained, and a shift of focus in the target population from clinical to primary services. The present study contributes to the field with the systematic evaluation of outcomes for the full transfer implementation approach with continuing adoption and sustainability, increasing reach and sustained intervention fidelity across several generations of practitioners.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Noruega , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 23-26, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349256

RESUMO

Nowadays, the great majority of the healthcare organizations has been criticized due to the high costs and low efficiency and are facing a critical situation aggravated by unmet demand and aging population. Availability of medicines is one of the clearest indicators that a healthcare organization is working efficiently. Medicines represent a large portion of the costs in the health services due to the significant value of these products and their storage and control requirements. Shortages of inventory have become a severe problem at the Brazilian healthcare organizations. The purpose of this work is to present the deployment of a Decision Support System which supports real-time inventory control and medicine tracking providing transparency and accessibility of this critical information at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Organizações de Planejamento em Saúde , Neoplasias , Brasil , Custos e Análise de Custo , Neoplasias/terapia , Estados Unidos
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