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1.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 783, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951619

RESUMO

Transport of macromolecules through the nuclear envelope (NE) is mediated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) consisting of nucleoporins (Nups). Elys/Mel-28 is the Nup that binds and connects the decondensing chromatin with the reassembled NPCs at the end of mitosis. Whether Elys links chromatin with the NE during interphase is unknown. Here, using DamID-seq, we identified Elys binding sites in Drosophila late embryos and divided them into those associated with nucleoplasmic or with NPC-linked Elys. These Elys binding sites are located within active or inactive chromatin, respectively. Strikingly, Elys knockdown in S2 cells results in peripheral chromatin displacement from the NE, in decondensation of NE-attached chromatin, and in derepression of genes within. It also leads to slightly more compact active chromatin regions. Our findings indicate that NPC-linked Elys, together with the nuclear lamina, anchors peripheral chromatin to the NE, whereas nucleoplasmic Elys decompacts active chromatin.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Proteínas de Drosophila , Interfase , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares , Poro Nuclear , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/embriologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5727, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977669

RESUMO

DNA replication and transcription generate DNA supercoiling, which can cause topological stress and intertwining of daughter chromatin fibers, posing challenges to the completion of DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Type II topoisomerases (Top2s) are enzymes that relieve DNA supercoiling and decatenate braided sister chromatids. How Top2 complexes deal with the topological challenges in different chromatin contexts, and whether all chromosomal contexts are subjected equally to torsional stress and require Top2 activity is unknown. Here we show that catalytic inhibition of the Top2 complex in interphase has a profound effect on the stability of heterochromatin and repetitive DNA elements. Mechanistically, we find that catalytically inactive Top2 is trapped around heterochromatin leading to DNA breaks and unresolved catenates, which necessitate the recruitment of the structure specific endonuclease, Ercc1-XPF, in an SLX4- and SUMO-dependent manner. Our data are consistent with a model in which Top2 complex resolves not only catenates between sister chromatids but also inter-chromosomal catenates between clustered repetitive elements.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II , Heterocromatina , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Replicação do DNA , DNA Super-Helicoidal/metabolismo , DNA Super-Helicoidal/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA/química , Interfase
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5776, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982062

RESUMO

The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) regulates the dephosphorylation of many phosphoproteins. Substrate recognition are mediated by B regulatory subunits. Here, we report the identification of a substrate conserved motif [RK]-V-x-x-[VI]-R in FAM122A, an inhibitor of B55α/PP2A. This motif is necessary for FAM122A binding to B55α, and computational structure prediction suggests the motif, which is helical, blocks substrate docking to the same site. In this model, FAM122A also spatially constrains substrate access by occluding the catalytic subunit. Consistently, FAM122A functions as a competitive inhibitor as it prevents substrate binding and dephosphorylation of CDK substrates by B55α/PP2A in cell lysates. FAM122A deficiency in human cell lines reduces the proliferation rate, cell cycle progression, and hinders G1/S and intra-S phase cell cycle checkpoints. FAM122A-KO in HEK293 cells attenuates CHK1 and CHK2 activation in response to replication stress. Overall, these data strongly suggest that FAM122A is a short helical motif (SHeM)-dependent, substrate-competitive inhibitor of B55α/PP2A that suppresses multiple functions of B55α in the DNA damage response and in timely progression through the cell cycle interphase.


Assuntos
Motivos de Aminoácidos , Interfase , Proteína Fosfatase 2 , Humanos , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Células HEK293 , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/metabolismo , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/genética , Fosforilação , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Ligação Proteica
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2825: 213-237, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38913312

RESUMO

Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization on three-dimensional preserved cells (3D-FISH) have proven to be robust and efficient methodologies for analyzing nuclear architecture and profiling the genome's topological features. These methods have allowed the simultaneous visualization and evaluation of several target structures at super-resolution. In this chapter, we focus on the application of 3D-SIM for the visualization of 3D-FISH preparations of chromosomes in interphase, known as Chromosome Territories (CTs). We provide a workflow and detailed guidelines for sample preparation, image acquisition, and image analysis to obtain quantitative measurements for profiling chromosome topological features. In parallel, we address a practical example of these protocols in the profiling of CTs 9 and 22 involved in the translocation t(9;22) in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The profiling of chromosome topological features described in this chapter allowed us to characterize a large-scale topological disruption of CTs 9 and 22 that correlates directly with patients' response to treatment and as a possible potential change in the inheritance systems. These findings open new insights into how the genome structure is associated with the response to cancer treatments, highlighting the importance of microscopy in analyzing the topological features of the genome.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Translocação Genética , Cromossomos/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Interfase/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
5.
Cells ; 13(12)2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38920634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying cells engaged in fundamental cellular processes, such as proliferation or living/death statuses, is pivotal across numerous research fields. However, prevailing methods relying on molecular biomarkers are constrained by high costs, limited specificity, protracted sample preparation, and reliance on fluorescence imaging. METHODS: Based on cellular morphology in phase contrast images, we developed a deep-learning model named Detector of Mitosis, Apoptosis, Interphase, Necrosis, and Senescence (D-MAINS). RESULTS: D-MAINS utilizes machine learning and image processing techniques, enabling swift and label-free categorization of cell death, division, and senescence at a single-cell resolution. Impressively, D-MAINS achieved an accuracy of 96.4 ± 0.5% and was validated with established molecular biomarkers. D-MAINS underwent rigorous testing under varied conditions not initially present in the training dataset. It demonstrated proficiency across diverse scenarios, encompassing additional cell lines, drug treatments, and distinct microscopes with different objective lenses and magnifications, affirming the robustness and adaptability of D-MAINS across multiple experimental setups. CONCLUSIONS: D-MAINS is an example showcasing the feasibility of a low-cost, rapid, and label-free methodology for distinguishing various cellular states. Its versatility makes it a promising tool applicable across a broad spectrum of biomedical research contexts, particularly in cell death and oncology studies.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Senescência Celular , Aprendizado Profundo , Interfase , Mitose , Necrose , Humanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
6.
Pathology ; 56(5): 671-680, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852040

RESUMO

Flow cytometry can be applied in the detection of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) signals to efficiently analyse chromosomal aberrations. However, such interphase chromosome (IC) Flow-FISH protocols are currently limited to detecting a single colour. Furthermore, combining IC Flow-FISH with conventional multicolour flow cytometry is difficult because the DNA-denaturation step in FISH assay also disrupts cellular integrity and protein structures, precluding subsequent antigen-antibody binding and hindering concurrent labeling of surface antigens and FISH signals. We developed a working protocol for concurrent multicolour flow cytometry detection of nuclear IC FISH signals and cell surface markers. The protocol was validated by assaying sex chromosome content of blood cells, which was indicative of chimerism status in patients who had received sex-mismatched allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). The method was also adapted to detect trisomy 12 in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) subjects. We first demonstrated the feasibility of this protocol in detecting multiple colours and concurrent nuclear and surface signals with high agreement. In clinical validation experiments, chimerism status was identified in clinical samples (n=56) using the optimised IC Flow-FISH method; the results tightly corresponded to those of conventional slide-based FISH (R2=0.9649 for XX cells and 0.9786 for XY cells). In samples from patients who received sex-mismatched allo-HSCT, individual chimeric statuses in different lineages could be clearly distinguished with high flexibility in gating strategies. Furthermore, in CLL samples with trisomy 12, this method could demonstrate that enriched trisomy 12 FISH signal was present in B cells rather than in T cells. Finally, by performing combined labelling of chromosome 12, X chromosome, and surface markers, we could detect rare residual recipient CLL cells with trisomy 12 after allo-HSCT. This adaptable protocol for multicolour and lineage-specific IC Flow-FISH advances the technique to allow for its potential application in various clinical contexts where conventional FISH assays are currently being utilised.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Interfase , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Trissomia/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética
7.
EMBO Rep ; 25(7): 3137-3159, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877171

RESUMO

Junctions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope (NE) physically connect both organelles. These ER-NE junctions are essential for supplying the NE with lipids and proteins synthesized in the ER. However, little is known about the structure of these ER-NE junctions. Here, we systematically study the ultrastructure of ER-NE junctions in cryo-fixed mammalian cells staged in anaphase, telophase, and interphase by correlating live cell imaging with three-dimensional electron microscopy. Our results show that ER-NE junctions in interphase cells have a pronounced hourglass shape with a constricted neck of 7-20 nm width. This morphology is significantly distinct from that of junctions within the ER network, and their morphology emerges as early as telophase. The highly constricted ER-NE junctions are seen in several mammalian cell types, but not in budding yeast. We speculate that the unique and highly constricted ER-NE junctions are regulated via novel mechanisms that contribute to ER-to-NE lipid and protein traffic in higher eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático , Mitose , Membrana Nuclear , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Interfase , Telófase
8.
Cells ; 13(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727272

RESUMO

Microtubules are an indispensable component of all eukaryotic cells due to their role in mitotic spindle formation, yet their organization and number can vary greatly in the interphase. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes already had microtubules and microtubule motor proteins moving along them. Sponges are traditionally regarded as the oldest animal phylum. Their body does not have a clear differentiation into tissues, but it contains several distinguishable cell types. The choanocytes stand out among them and are responsible for creating a flow of water with their flagella and increasing the filtering and feeding efficiency of the sponge. Choanocyte flagella contain microtubules, but thus far, observing a developed system of cytoplasmic microtubules in non-flagellated interphase sponge cells has been mostly unsuccessful. In this work, we combine transcriptomic analysis, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy with time-lapse recording to demonstrate that microtubules appear in the cytoplasm of sponge cells only when transdifferentiation processes are activated. We conclude that dynamic cytoplasmic microtubules in the cells of sponges are not a persistent but rather a transient structure, associated with cellular plasticity.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Interfase , Microtúbulos , Poríferos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Animais , Poríferos/citologia
9.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 441, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730481

RESUMO

Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) are commonly prescribed to treat cancers and predominantly kill cancer cells in mitosis. Significantly, some MTA-treated cancer cells escape death in mitosis, exit mitosis and become malignant polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCC). Considering the low number of cancer cells undergoing mitosis in tumor tissues, killing them in interphase may represent a favored antitumor approach. We discovered that ST-401, a mild inhibitor of microtubule (MT) assembly, preferentially kills cancer cells in interphase as opposed to mitosis, a cell death mechanism that avoids the development of PGCC. Single cell RNA sequencing identified mRNA transcripts regulated by ST-401, including mRNAs involved in ribosome and mitochondrial functions. Accordingly, ST-401 induces a transient integrated stress response, reduces energy metabolism, and promotes mitochondria fission. This cell response may underly death in interphase and avoid the development of PGCC. Considering that ST-401 is a brain-penetrant MTA, we validated these results in glioblastoma cell lines and found that ST-401 also reduces energy metabolism and promotes mitochondria fission in GBM sensitive lines. Thus, brain-penetrant mild inhibitors of MT assembly, such as ST-401, that induce death in interphase through a previously unanticipated antitumor mechanism represent a potentially transformative new class of therapeutics for the treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Morte Celular , Células Gigantes , Interfase , Microtúbulos , Poliploidia , Humanos , Interfase/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Gigantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Gigantes/metabolismo , Células Gigantes/patologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3793, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714822

RESUMO

Across the cell cycle, mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by a cycling wave of actin polymerization/depolymerization. In metaphase, this wave induces actin comet tails on mitochondria that propel these organelles to drive spatial mixing, resulting in their equitable inheritance by daughter cells. In contrast, during interphase the cycling actin wave promotes localized mitochondrial fission. Here, we identify the F-actin nucleator/elongator FMNL1 as a positive regulator of the wave. FMNL1-depleted cells exhibit decreased mitochondrial polarization, decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and increased production of reactive oxygen species. Accompanying these changes is a loss of hetero-fusion of wave-fragmented mitochondria. Thus, we propose that the interphase actin wave maintains mitochondrial homeostasis by promoting mitochondrial content mixing. Finally, we investigate the mechanistic basis for the observation that the wave drives mitochondrial motility in metaphase but mitochondrial fission in interphase. Our data indicate that when the force of actin polymerization is resisted by mitochondrial tethering to microtubules, as in interphase, fission results.


Assuntos
Actinas , Homeostase , Interfase , Mitocôndrias , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Actinas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Humanos , Forminas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Animais
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4338, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773126

RESUMO

In interphase nuclei, chromatin forms dense domains of characteristic sizes, but the influence of transcription and histone modifications on domain size is not understood. We present a theoretical model exploring this relationship, considering chromatin-chromatin interactions, histone modifications, and chromatin extrusion. We predict that the size of heterochromatic domains is governed by a balance among the diffusive flux of methylated histones sustaining them and the acetylation reactions in the domains and the process of loop extrusion via supercoiling by RNAPII at their periphery, which contributes to size reduction. Super-resolution and nano-imaging of five distinct cell lines confirm the predictions indicating that the absence of transcription leads to larger heterochromatin domains. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the findings regarding how transcription-mediated supercoiling loss can mitigate the impacts of excessive cohesin loading. Our findings shed light on the role of transcription in genome organization, offering insights into chromatin dynamics and potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Epigênese Genética , Heterocromatina , Histonas , Transcrição Gênica , Humanos , Histonas/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Coesinas , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Código das Histonas , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Acetilação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Interfase
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2401494121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753513

RESUMO

In mammalian cells, the cohesin protein complex is believed to translocate along chromatin during interphase to form dynamic loops through a process called active loop extrusion. Chromosome conformation capture and imaging experiments have suggested that chromatin adopts a compact structure with limited interpenetration between chromosomes and between chromosomal sections. We developed a theory demonstrating that active loop extrusion causes the apparent fractal dimension of chromatin to cross-over between two and four at contour lengths on the order of 30 kilo-base pairs. The anomalously high fractal dimension [Formula: see text] is due to the inability of extruded loops to fully relax during active extrusion. Compaction on longer contour length scales extends within topologically associated domains (TADs), facilitating gene regulation by distal elements. Extrusion-induced compaction segregates TADs such that overlaps between TADs are reduced to less than 35% and increases the entanglement strand of chromatin by up to a factor of 50 to several Mega-base pairs. Furthermore, active loop extrusion couples cohesin motion to chromatin conformations formed by previously extruding cohesins and causes the mean square displacement of chromatin loci during lag times ([Formula: see text]) longer than tens of minutes to be proportional to [Formula: see text]. We validate our results with hybrid molecular dynamics-Monte Carlo simulations and show that our theory is consistent with experimental data. This work provides a theoretical basis for the compact organization of interphase chromatin, explaining the physical reason for TAD segregation and suppression of chromatin entanglements which contribute to efficient gene regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Coesinas , Interfase , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatina/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Humanos , Animais , Segregação de Cromossomos/fisiologia
13.
Nat Genet ; 56(6): 1213-1224, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802567

RESUMO

During mitosis, condensin activity is thought to interfere with interphase chromatin structures. To investigate genome folding principles in the absence of chromatin loop extrusion, we codepleted condensin I and condensin II, which triggered mitotic chromosome compartmentalization in ways similar to that in interphase. However, two distinct euchromatic compartments, indistinguishable in interphase, emerged upon condensin loss with different interaction preferences and dependencies on H3K27ac. Constitutive heterochromatin gradually self-aggregated and cocompartmentalized with facultative heterochromatin, contrasting with their separation during interphase. Notably, some cis-regulatory element contacts became apparent even in the absence of CTCF/cohesin-mediated structures. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins, which are thought to partition constitutive heterochromatin, were absent from mitotic chromosomes, suggesting, surprisingly, that constitutive heterochromatin can self-aggregate without HP1. Indeed, in cells traversing from M to G1 phase in the combined absence of HP1α, HP1ß and HP1γ, constitutive heterochromatin compartments are normally re-established. In sum, condensin-deficient mitotic chromosomes illuminate forces of genome compartmentalization not identified in interphase cells.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Heterocromatina , Mitose , Complexos Multiproteicos , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mitose/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/genética , Interfase/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Homólogo 5 da Proteína Cromobox , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(12): e2307309121, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489381

RESUMO

The organization of interphase chromosomes in a number of species is starting to emerge thanks to advances in a variety of experimental techniques. However, much less is known about the dynamics, especially in the functional states of chromatin. Some experiments have shown that the motility of individual loci in human interphase chromosome decreases during transcription and increases upon inhibiting transcription. This is a counterintuitive finding because it is thought that the active mechanical force (F) on the order of ten piconewtons, generated by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) that is presumably transmitted to the gene-rich region of the chromatin, would render it more open, thus enhancing the mobility. We developed a minimal active copolymer model for interphase chromosomes to investigate how F affects the dynamical properties of chromatin. The movements of the loci in the gene-rich region are suppressed in an intermediate range of F and are enhanced at small F values, which has also been observed in experiments. In the intermediate F, the bond length between consecutive loci increases, becoming commensurate with the distance at the minimum of the attractive interaction between nonbonded loci. This results in a transient disorder-to-order transition, leading to a decreased mobility during transcription. Strikingly, the F-dependent change in the locus dynamics preserves the organization of the chromosome at [Formula: see text]. Transient ordering of the loci, which is not found in the polymers with random epigenetic profiles, in the gene-rich region might be a plausible mechanism for nucleating a dynamic network involving transcription factors, RNAPII, and chromatin.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Cromossomos Humanos , Humanos , Cromatina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Interfase/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética
15.
Mol Cell ; 84(7): 1224-1242.e13, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458201

RESUMO

Although mismatch repair (MMR) is essential for correcting DNA replication errors, it can also recognize other lesions, such as oxidized bases. In G0 and G1, MMR is kept in check through unknown mechanisms as it is error-prone during these cell cycle phases. We show that in mammalian cells, D-type cyclins are recruited to sites of oxidative DNA damage in a PCNA- and p21-dependent manner. D-type cyclins inhibit the proteasomal degradation of p21, which competes with MMR proteins for binding to PCNA, thereby inhibiting MMR. The ability of D-type cyclins to limit MMR is CDK4- and CDK6-independent and is conserved in G0 and G1. At the G1/S transition, the timely, cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL)-dependent degradation of D-type cyclins and p21 enables MMR activity to efficiently repair DNA replication errors. Persistent expression of D-type cyclins during S-phase inhibits the binding of MMR proteins to PCNA, increases the mutational burden, and promotes microsatellite instability.


Assuntos
Ciclinas , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Animais , Ciclinas/genética , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Interfase , Mamíferos/metabolismo
16.
Mol Cell ; 84(8): 1422-1441.e14, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521067

RESUMO

The topological state of chromosomes determines their mechanical properties, dynamics, and function. Recent work indicated that interphase chromosomes are largely free of entanglements. Here, we use Hi-C, polymer simulations, and multi-contact 3C and find that, by contrast, mitotic chromosomes are self-entangled. We explore how a mitotic self-entangled state is converted into an unentangled interphase state during mitotic exit. Most mitotic entanglements are removed during anaphase/telophase, with remaining ones removed during early G1, in a topoisomerase-II-dependent process. Polymer models suggest a two-stage disentanglement pathway: first, decondensation of mitotic chromosomes with remaining condensin loops produces entropic forces that bias topoisomerase II activity toward decatenation. At the second stage, the loops are released, and the formation of new entanglements is prevented by lower topoisomerase II activity, allowing the establishment of unentangled and territorial G1 chromosomes. When mitotic entanglements are not removed in experiments and models, a normal interphase state cannot be acquired.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Mitose/genética , Interfase/genética , Polímeros
17.
Cells ; 13(5)2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474363

RESUMO

Lamins, the nuclear intermediate filaments, are important regulators of nuclear structural integrity as well as nuclear functional processes such as DNA transcription, replication and repair, and epigenetic regulations. A portion of phosphorylated lamin A/C localizes to the nuclear interior in interphase, forming a lamin A/C pool with specific properties and distinct functions. Nucleoplasmic lamin A/C molecular functions are mainly dependent on its binding partners; therefore, revealing new interactions could give us new clues on the lamin A/C mechanism of action. In the present study, we show that lamin A/C interacts with nuclear phosphoinositides (PIPs), and with nuclear myosin I (NM1). Both NM1 and nuclear PIPs have been previously reported as important regulators of gene expression and DNA damage/repair. Furthermore, phosphorylated lamin A/C forms a complex with NM1 in a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-dependent manner in the nuclear interior. Taken together, our study reveals a previously unidentified interaction between phosphorylated lamin A/C, NM1, and PI(4,5)P2 and suggests new possible ways of nucleoplasmic lamin A/C regulation, function, and importance for the formation of functional nuclear microdomains.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Lamina Tipo A , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Interfase , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Humanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
18.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502563

RESUMO

Compartment formation in interphase chromosomes is a result of spatial segregation between euchromatin and heterochromatin on a few megabase pairs (Mbp) scale. On the sub-Mbp scales, topologically associating domains (TADs) appear as interacting domains along the diagonal in the ensemble averaged Hi-C contact map. Hi-C experiments showed that most of the TADs vanish upon deleting cohesin, while the compartment structure is maintained, and perhaps even enhanced. However, closer inspection of the data reveals that a non-negligible fraction of TADs is preserved (P-TADs) after cohesin loss. Imaging experiments show that, at the single-cell level, TAD-like structures are present even without cohesin. To provide a structural basis for these findings, we first used polymer simulations to show that certain TADs with epigenetic switches across their boundaries survive after depletion of loops. More importantly, the three-dimensional structures show that many of the P-TADs have sharp physical boundaries. Informed by the simulations, we analyzed the Hi-C maps (with and without cohesin) in mouse liver and human colorectal carcinoma cell lines, which affirmed that epigenetic switches and physical boundaries (calculated using the predicted 3D structures using the data-driven HIPPS method that uses Hi-C as the input) explain the origin of the P-TADs. Single-cell structures display TAD-like features in the absence of cohesin that are remarkably similar to the findings in imaging experiments. Some P-TADs, with physical boundaries, are relevant to the retention of enhancer-promoter/promoter-promoter interactions. Overall, our study shows that preservation of a subset of TADs upon removing cohesin is a robust phenomenon that is valid across multiple cell lines.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Coesinas , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Cromossomos , Heterocromatina , Interfase
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2749: 109-121, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38133779

RESUMO

The ectocervix acts as a multilayered defense barrier, protecting the female reproductive system from external pathogens and supporting fertility and pregnancy. To understand the complex cellular and molecular mechanisms of cervical biology and disease, reliable in vitro models are vital. We present an efficient method to isolate and cultivate epithelial stem cells from ectocervical tissue biopsies. This method combines enzymatic digestion, mechanical dissociation, and selective culturing to obtain pure ectocervical epithelial cells for further investigation. The protocol accommodates both 2D stem cell monolayer and advanced 3D culture systems, such as air-liquid interface and Matrigel scaffolds, using a defined media cocktail, making it highly versatile. The primary ectocervical epithelial cells retain their native characteristics, enabling the exploration of ectocervical epithelial tissue behavior and pathology. This chapter provides step-by-step guidelines for setting up 2D and 3D cultures, facilitating adoption across different laboratories, and advancing cervical biology and disease research.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células Epiteliais , Células-Tronco , Interfase
20.
Curr Opin Cell Biol ; 85: 102253, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37801797

RESUMO

The eukaryotic nucleus exhibits remarkable plasticity in size, adjusting dynamically to changes in cellular conditions such as during development and differentiation, and across species. Traditionally, the supply of structural constituents to the nuclear envelope has been proposed as the principal determinant of nuclear size. However, recent experimental and theoretical analyses have provided an alternative perspective, which emphasizes the crucial role of physical forces such as osmotic pressure and chromatin repulsion forces in regulating nuclear size. These forces can be modulated by the molecular profiles that traverse the nuclear envelope and assemble in the macromolecular complex. This leads to a new paradigm wherein multiple nuclear macromolecules that are not limited to only the structural constituents of the nuclear envelope, are involved in the control of nuclear size and related functions.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Membrana Nuclear , Cromatina , Interfase , Substâncias Macromoleculares
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